Jalandhar

Last updated

Jalandhar
Devi Talab Mandir.jpg
St. Mary's Cathedral, Jalandhar.jpg
VIP PAVILION-1.jpg
Wonderland boating.JPG
Haveli - Punjabi Restaurant.jpg
Gurudwara sri guru singh sabha, jalandhar.jpg
Clockwise from top:
Devi Talab Mandir, St. Mary's Cathedral, Jalandhar, Guru Gobind Singh Stadium, Haveli Restaurant, Wonderland, Gurudwara Shri Guru Singh Sabha
India Punjab location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Jalandhar
India location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Jalandhar
Coordinates: 31°15′25″N75°26′36″E / 31.2569°N 75.4432°E / 31.2569; 75.4432 Coordinates: 31°15′25″N75°26′36″E / 31.2569°N 75.4432°E / 31.2569; 75.4432
CountryIndia
State Punjab
District Jalandhar
Named for In Water
Government
  Divisional CommissionerSh Raj Kamal Chaudhuri, IAS [1]
  Deputy CommissionerSh Ghanshyam Thori, IAS [2]
   Member of Parliament Santokh Singh Chaudhary, Congress
  MayorSh. Jagdish Raja [3]
Area
[4]
  Total110 km2 (40 sq mi)
Elevation
228 m (748 ft)
Population
 (2012)
  Total962,196
Demonym(s) Jalandhariye
Time zone UTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
144 001
Area code(s) 0181
Vehicle registration PB08,PB90,PB37 PB67,PB33
Literacy82.3%
Website jalandhar.nic.in

Jalandhar is the third most-populous city in the Indian state of Punjab and the largest city in Doaba Region. Jalandhar lies alongside the Grand Trunk Road and is a well-connected rail and road junction. Jalandhar is 146 km [5] northwest of Chandigarh, the state capital of Punjab and Haryana and 82.5 km (51.2 mi) South-East of Amritsar.

Contents

History

Kos Minar along Grand Trunk Road in Dakhini near Jalandhar, from Sher Shah Suri period Mughal Kos Minar.jpg
Kos Minar along Grand Trunk Road in Dakhini near Jalandhar, from Sher Shah Suri period

The history of Jalandhar District comprises three periods — ancient, medieval and modern.

The city may be named after Jalandhara, a demon king, who is named in the Puranas and Mahabharata [ citation needed ]. The city was founded by Devasya Verma as mentioned in Vedas. Other possibilities include that it was the capital of the kingdom of Lava, son of Rama or that the name derives from the vernacular term Jalandhar, meaning area inside the water, i.e., tract lying between the two rivers Satluj and Beas. [6] The whole of Punjab and the area of present Jalandhar District was part of the Indus Valley Civilization. Harappa and Mohenjo-daro are the sites where remains of the Indus Valley Civilization have been found extensively. The archaeological explorations made during recent years have pushed the ancient times of Jalandhar District of Harappa period.

Jalandhar was conquered by the Ghaznavids during the reign of Ibrahim of Ghazni between 1058 and 1089. [7] It later formed part of the province of Lahore during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire. The 18th century saw upheaval in Jalandhar amidst an anarchy caused by the disintegration of the Mughals and power struggles involving Persians, Afghans and Sikhs. It was captured by the Faizullahpuria Misl in 1766, and in 1811 Maharaja Ranjit Singh incorporated it within the Sikh Empire. [8]

In 1849, following the annexation of the Punjab by the East India Company, the city of Jalandhar, written in English as Jullundur by Company officials, became the headquarters of the Division and District of the same name. In 1858 Company rule in India ended and the city became part of the British Raj. In the mid to late 19th century, the Punjab administration regarded Jullundur as too densely populated and farmed to capacity. This led to the district being a chief recruitment area for settlers to colonise the newly irrigated Punjab Canal Colonies in western Punjab. [9]

The Khilafat Movement started in the district in early 1920 to bring pressure on the government to change their policy towards Turkey. Mahatma Gandhi extended sympathy and support to this movement however in response the District was declared a 'Proclaimed Area' under the Seditious Meetings Act. In 1924, Pakistani general and military dictator Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq was born in the city.

Prior to the partition of India, Muslims were in plurality in Jalandhar. According to 1941 census, Muslims made up 45.2% of the population, compared to Hindus and Sikhs being 27.6% and 26.5% respectively. [10] Within a period of 10 years, from 1941 to 1951, Muslim population in Jalandhar reduced from 45.2% to 0.2%. [10]

Climate

The city has a humid subtropical climate with cool winters and long, hot summers. Summers last from April to June and winters from November to February. Temperatures in the summer vary from average highs of around 48 °C (118 °F) to average lows of around 25 °C (77 °F). Winter temperatures have highs of 19 °C (66 °F) to lows of −7 °C (19 °F). The climate is dry on the whole, except during the brief southwest monsoon season during July and August. The average annual rainfall is about 70 cm. In 2018, Jalandhar witnessed Heavy rainfall, with over 20% increase from average rainfall. [11] Since it is in the northern plains, it feels really cold during winters and very hot during summers.

Climate data for Jalandhar
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)19.4
(66.9)
21.6
(70.9)
26.0
(78.8)
34.5
(94.1)
39.4
(102.9)
40.6
(105.1)
34.1
(93.4)
33.1
(91.6)
32.6
(90.7)
31.5
(88.7)
27.2
(81.0)
22.3
(72.1)
30.2
(86.4)
Average low °C (°F)6.2
(43.2)
8.6
(47.5)
13.2
(55.8)
19.0
(66.2)
23.8
(74.8)
25.6
(78.1)
24.7
(76.5)
25.8
(78.4)
21.8
(71.2)
18.3
(64.9)
12.1
(53.8)
7.2
(45.0)
17.2
(63.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches)10.7
(0.42)
16.7
(0.66)
32.8
(1.29)
15.2
(0.60)
20.4
(0.80)
69.7
(2.74)
155.2
(6.11)
183.6
(7.23)
60.0
(2.36)
1.5
(0.06)
6
(0.2)
15
(0.6)
586.8
(23.07)
Source: [12]

Demographics

Population

As per provisional data of 2011 census Jalandhar had a population of 873,725, of which 463,975 were male and 409,750 female.

Literacy

The literacy rate was 86.22 per cent. [13] For males and females respectively the literacy rate was 88.82% and 83.30%

Religion

Religion in Jalandhar city [14]
ReligionPercent
Hinduism
74.90%
Sikhism
21.39%
Islam
1.47%
Christianity
1.02%
Others
1.22%

As per the census of 2011, Hinduism and Sikhism are the religions of the vast majority of people in Jalandhar.

Economy

Jalandhar has been selected in the second phase of the smart city project and 200 crores have been allocated to the municipal corporation for initializing the project.

Jalandhar exports goods like furniture and glass to neighboring cities, and is a global hub for the manufacture of sporting equipment. Jalandhar is famous for its sports industry and equipment manufactured in Jalandhar has been used in many international sporting games including Olympics, Commonwealth Games, Asian Games, among others. It is also a hub for manufacturing of hand tools. Jalandhar is also famous for its leather industry, leather for footwear, leather goods, furniture being sold to export houses located at Delhi, Agra, Kanpur and other Indian cities. Together with hand tools it is a major production centre of industrial tool bags being used by workmen in America and Europe.

Many new malls and shopping complexes are being established at a very rapid pace and as such is also a hub of the NRI's many of whom are from the Jalandhar region.

Transport

By air

The nearest airport is Adampur Airport, northwest of Jalandhar which currently handles only scheduled operation on maiden flights of private carrier Spicejet to Delhi, Mumbai and Jaipur. The nearest fully-fledged International Airport is Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport in Amritsar. It is second busiest airport in North India, and is connected to other parts of the country by regular flights. Several airlines operate flights from abroad, including London Stansted, Birmingham, Dubai, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur and Doha. The airport handles as many as 48 flights every week up from the occasional, intermittent ones some years ago.

Jalandhar Railway Station.jpeg

By rail

Direct train service is available for other major cities like Mumbai, Calcutta, Chennai, Patna, Guwahati, Pune, Haridwar, Varanasi, Jaipur, Jhansi, Gwalior, Bhopal and Jammu Tawi. Some prestigious trains that halt in Jalandhar City railway station are Howrah Mail, Golden Temple Mail (Frontier Mail), New-Delhi Amritsar Shatabdi Express, Paschim Express. Now many trains of Jammu route are extended up to Mata Vaishno Devi-Katra.

Jalandhar City Railway Station is well-connected to other parts of the country, Jalandhar City is a major stop between the Amritsar-Delhi rail link which is serviced by Shatabdi Express, Intercity Express, and others

Direct Service to major cities such as Mumbai, Calcutta, Chennai, Patna, Guwahati, Pune, Haridwar, Varanasi, Jaipur and Jammu Tawi are available. There are prestigious services such as the Howrah Mail, Golden Temple Mail (Frontier Mail), New-Delhi Amritsar Shatabdi Express, Paschim Express.

By road

Sheed-e-Azam Sardar Bhagat Singh Intersatate Bus Stand, Jalandhar Bus Stand of city12.jpg
Sheed-e-Azam Sardar Bhagat Singh Intersatate Bus Stand, Jalandhar

There is one of the largest networks of bus services of Punjab at Shaheed-e-Azam Sardar Bhagat Singh ISBT (Jalandhar), Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, Haryana, Pepsu, Chandigarh, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttrakhand, Rajasthan State Roadways, apart from private operators.

Religious places

Leisure

Interior of Viva Collage Mall, Jalandhar Viva Collage Jalandhar Mall.jpg
Interior of Viva Collage Mall, Jalandhar
View Of WonderLand's Water Park in the Evening View Of WonderLand's Water Park In the Evening.jpg
View Of WonderLand's Water Park in the Evening

Media

Punjab Kesari header with the photos of its founders, Lala Jagat Narain and Romesh Chander. PKD2.jpg
Punjab Kesari header with the photos of its founders, Lala Jagat Narain and Romesh Chander.
Jag Bani Jag Bani, Jalandhar (Oct. 03, 2013).jpg
Jag Bani

Doordarshan Kendra, Jalandhar is an Indian television station in Jalandhar, owned and operated by state-owned Doordarshan, the television network of Prasar Bharati (Broadcasting Corporation of India). [17] It was established in 1979 and produces and broadcasts the 24-hour Punjabi language TV channel, DD Punjabi, which was launched in 1998 and covers most of the state of Punjab, India.

The city is the region's headquarters for newspapers, national television and radio stations. These include Daily Ajit, Jagbani, Punjab Kesari, Dainik Bhaskar, Dainik Jagran, Hindustan Times, The Tribune, Hind Samachar , etc. [18] [19] [20] [21]

State-owned All India Radio has a local station in Jalandhar that transmits programs of mass interest. FM local radio stations include:

Healthcare

The Municipal Corporation of Jalandhar claims that the city has over 800 hospitals, [22] that makes it the city with the highest number of hospitals in Asia. Three new Health Centres were set up in Jalandhar on 9 September 2020. [23]

Sports

Dog Show held at Guru Gobind Singh Stadium Dog Show at-crop.jpg
Dog Show held at Guru Gobind Singh Stadium

Cricket

Cricket is very popular in grounds and streets of the city. There is an international-standard stadium at Gandhi Stadium formerly known as Burlton Park. The Indian cricket team played a Test Match against the Pakistan cricket team on this ground on 24 September 1983. [24]

Kabaddi

Major Kabaddi matches are usually held at Guru Gobind Singh Stadium.

Guru Gobind Singh Stadium

Guru Gobind Singh Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Jalandhar. It is usually used mostly for football matches and is the home stadium of JCT Mills Football Club. People can be seen jogging, playing soccer, weight-lifting, etc. in the stadium most of the time. The Punjab government has started new projects at the stadium.

Surjit Hockey Stadium

Surjeet Hockey Stadium is a field hockey stadium in Jalandhar, Punjab, India. It is named after Jalandhar-born Olympian Surjit Singh. This stadium is home of the franchise Sher-e-Punjab of the World Series Hockey.

Sports college

There is a Government Sports College in the city and it is a focus for many of the National Sports Councils. In this college, many sports are played like cricket, hockey, swimming, volleyball and basketball.

Education

Higher education institutions include

Universities

Schools

Jalandhar Cantonment

Notable people

Diljit Dosanjh Diljit Dosanjh during Soorma promotion 05.jpg
Diljit Dosanjh
I. K. Gujral Inder Kumar Gujral 071.jpg
I. K. Gujral
Karan Kundra Karan Kundra at the launch of Zara Nachke Dikha.jpg
Karan Kundra
Sugandha Mishra Sugandha mishra.jpg
Sugandha Mishra
Amrish Puri Amrish Puri.jpg
Amrish Puri
Harbhajan Singh Harbhajan Singh bowling.jpg
Harbhajan Singh
Rannvijay Singh Rannvijay Singh (2).jpg
Rannvijay Singh
Dharam Singh Uppal Fzdfs.jpg
Dharam Singh Uppal
NameOccupation
Avneet Kaur Actor
Yash Chopra Producer/Director [33]
Anurag Singh (director) Director, Producer, Writer
Diljit Dosanjh Actor, Singer
Karambir Singh 24th Chief of Naval Staff of Indian Navy
Dr. Ranbir Singh Kanwar Sugarcane Researcher, Director of Research (Agriculture) PAU, Director of Research Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University [34]
Vanya Mishra Winner of Miss India Femina 2012
Lawrence Durrell Expatriate British novelist, poet, dramatist, and travel writer [35]
Sunil Dutt Actor [36]
Kundan Lal Saigal Actor/Singer [37]
Amrish Puri Actor [38]
Jazzy B Singer
Sukhwinder Panchhi Singer
Apache Indian Singer
Sarbjit Cheema Singer
Kanth Kaler Singer
Nooran Sisters Singers
Master Saleem Singer
Hans Raj Hans Singer
Jagjit Singh Singer
Bahadur Singh Indian former shot putter who won gold medal
General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq Chief of Army Staff, 4th Chief Martial Law Administrator and the sixth President of Pakistan
Diwan Bhai Abdul Hamid Revenue and Chief Minister of Kapurthala State
Hafeez Jullundhri Writer and poet
Baba Kashmira Singh Head of Sidhant Sant Samaj or Gurbani
Paul Nischal NRI President, first Indian candidate for the British Political Party
Col. Balbir Singh Kular Hockey Player
Varinder Singh Ghuman Bodybuilder, Wrestler and Punjabi Film Actor
Ajit Pal Singh Hockey Player
Surjit Singh Hockey Player
Pargat Singh Hockey Player
Shammi Jalandhari Punjabi Poet and Bollywood Lyricist
Inder Kumar Gujral Former Prime Minister of India
Harbhajan Singh Cricketer
Wasim Sajjad Two-time Acting President of Pakistan, Ex-Chairman of Senate
Sheikh Anwarul Haq Former Chief Justice
Mian Mohammed Sharif Surveyor General
Lala Amarnath Cricketer
Sushil Kohli Swimmer
Lala Jagat Narain Freedom fighter and founder of Punjab Kesri
Basheer Hussain Najafi One of the six Grand Ayatollahs
Taruwar Kohli Cricketer
Sardar Swaran Singh Politician
Udham Singh (field hockey) Hockey Player
Darshan Singh (field hockey) Hockey Player
Salma Mumtaz Actress
Ashwini Kumar Chopra Journalist, Politician (MP-Karnal)
Kartar Singh Duggal Writer
Kulwant Singh Virk Writer
Ishar Singh (poet) Poet
Sadhu Singh Hamdard Freedom fighter and Writer
Prem Parkash Writer
Ajit Saini Writer and Army General
Hasrat Writer
Gurbachan Singh Talib Writer
Gurdial Singh Writer and novelist
Lal Singh Thind Military officer and farmer
Chaudhry Muhammad Ali Former Prime Minister of Pakistan
Swami Shraddhanand Indian educationist and an Arya Samaj missionary
Wazir Ali Cricketer
R. Paul Dhillon Indo-Canadian journalist
Arun Shourie Politician, author, and journalist
Amanjot Singh Social Worker
Agha Sadiq Writer and poet
Fateh Ali Khan Singer. Father of Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan
Dharam Singh Uppal Athlete
Balbir Singh Sr. Hockey Player
Mandeep Singh Cricketer
Vimi Actress
Ranvir Shorey Actor
Sugandha Mishra Singer, Anchor, Comedian
Nalini Priyadarshni Poet, Writer
Vijay Sampla State Minister in Union Govt
Bhagat Chunni Lal Minister in Punjab Govt
Ram Kapoor Indian Actor
Sardar Buta Singh Ex-Home Minister of India
Sukhbir Singh Punjabi Musician, Singer
Amarjit Kaypee Former highest run scorer in Ranji Trophy (Cricket)
Akshaye Khanna Indian Actor
Surbhi Jyoti Indian Actress
Jyotica Tangri Playback singer, appeared in several reality TV shows
Lord Wilberforce British Judge
Jass Manak Singer
Garry Sandhu Singer

Related Research Articles

Patiala City in Punjab, India

Patiala is a city in southeastern Punjab, northwestern India. It is the fourth largest city in the state and is the administrative capital of Patiala district. Patiala is located around the Qila Mubarak constructed by the Sidhu Jat chieftain Ala Singh, who founded the royal dynasty of Patiala State in 1763, and after whom the city is named.

Ludhiana Metropolis in Punjab, India

Ludhiana(Punjabi pronunciation: [lʊdiˈɑːnə] ) is the most populous and the largest city in the Indian state of Punjab. The city has an estimated population of 1,618,879 as of the 2011 census And distributed over Land area of just 159 square kilometres, making Ludhiana the most densely populated major city in the Malwa Region. It is a Major Industrial center of northern India, often referred to as Indian Manchester by BBC.

Mohali City in Punjab, India

Mohali, officially known as Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar, is a planned city in the Mohali district in Punjab, India, which is a commercial hub lying south-west of Chandigarh. It is the administrative headquarters of the Mohali district. It is also one of the six Municipal Corporations of the State. It was officially named after Sahibzada Ajit Singh, the eldest son of Guru Gobind Singh.

Tarn Taran Sahib City in Punjab, India

Tarn Taran Sahib is a city in the Majha region of the state of Punjab, in northern India. It is the district headquarters and hosts the municipal council of Tarn Taran district. Gurdwara Sri Tarn Taran Sahib, a prominent Sikh shrine is located in the central part of the city.

Hoshiarpur City in Punjab, India

Hoshiarpur is a city and a municipal corporation in Hoshiarpur district in the Doaba region of the Indian state of Punjab. It was founded, according to tradition, during the early part of the fourteenth century. In 1809 it was occupied by the forces of Maharaja Karanvir Singh and was united into the greater state of Punjab in 1849.

Sujanpur City in Punjab, India

Sujanpur is a city and municipal council in the Pathankot district of the Indian state of Punjab. It is 06 km from Pathankot towards Jammu on Jalandhar-Jammu-Amritsar National Highway (NH-1A). It is situated near the banks of Ravi River and surrounded by two canals: UBDC and Bias Link. Sujanpur Municipal Council area is divided into 15 wards.

Banga, India Town in Punjab, India

Banga is a town and Municipal council in the Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar district of Punjab, India. Banga is also one of the sub-division (tehsil) headquarters of the district. Banga located on Phagwara-Rupnagar section of National Highway 344A. It is currently estimated to have a population of about 23,000 and is classified as a class 2 Municipality. The town also incorporates the former village of Jindowal apart from Banga town.

Education in Punjab, India

Punjab has a long history of education.

Rurka Kalan Village in Punjab, India

Rurka Kalan is a village in the Tehsil Phillaur, Jalandhar, Punjab, India. Khurd and Kalan Persian language word which means small and Big respectively when two villages have same name then it is distinguished as Kalan means Big and Khurd means Small with Village Name.

Bundala Village in Punjab, India

Bundala, also spelt as Bandala, is a large village in Jalandhar zillah situated in Tehsil Phillaur within the Indian state of Punjab and is located in the centre of the Doaba region of Punjab.

Amb, India Town in Himachal Pradesh, India

Amb is a town situated in the district of Una in Himachal Pradesh state of India. It is situated in the Punjab region of Indian subcontinent. It is a sub-division and tehsil of Una district. The town was named Amb after the name of the goddess Amba, deity situated in nearby Chintpurni.

Punjab, India State in northern India

Punjab is a state in northern India. Forming part of the larger Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, the state is bordered by the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh to the north and northeast, Haryana to the south and southeast, and Rajasthan to the southwest, by the Indian union territory of Chandigarh to the east, and by Jammu and Kashmir to the north. It is bordered by Punjab, a province of Pakistan to the west. The state covers an area of 50,362 square kilometres, 1.53% of India's total geographical area. It is the 20th-largest Indian state by area. With over 27 million inhabitants, Punjab is the 16th-largest state by population, comprising 23 districts. Punjabi, written in the Gurmukhi script, is the most widely spoken and official language of the state. The main ethnic group are the Punjabis, with Sikhs and Hindus as the dominant religious groups. The state capital is Chandigarh, a union territory and also the capital of the neighbouring state of Haryana. The five tributary rivers of the Indus River from which the region took its name are the Sutlej, Ravi, Beas, Chenab and Jhelum rivers; the Sutlej, Ravi and Beas rivers flow through the Indian Punjab.

Panjab Digital Library

The Panjab Digital Library is a voluntary organization digitizing and preserving the cultural heritage of Panjab since 2003. With over 38 million digitized pages, it is the biggest resource of digital material on Panjab. There are many historically significant documents stored and made available online. Its scope covers Sikh and Punjabi culture. The library funded by The Nanakshahi Trust was launched online in August 2009. Its base office is located at Chandigarh, India.

Vijay Kumar Chopra

Vijay Kumar Chopra is the chief executive officer and editor in chief of the Punjab Kesari print news organisation. He is involved in social welfare work and has received a Padma Shri award. In August 2009, he was elected by the Chairman of the Press Trust of India.

Odhra Village in Punjab, India

Odhra also spelled as Odrah is a village in the Dasuya (Dasua) subdivision of the Hoshiarpur district in Punjab, India. Other names for Odhra are Ond, Odhran and Odrysian.

Kurukshetra Junction railway station

Kurukshetra Junction railway station is a junction station at the junction of Delhi–Kalka line and Kurukshetra–Jind branch line. It is located in the Indian state of Haryana. It serves Kurukshetra and Thanesar city.

The 2014 World Kabaddi Cup is the fifth edition of the circle style World Kabaddi Cup, held from 7 December to 20 December 2014 with the Opening Ceremony on 6 December 2014 at the Guru Gobind Singh Stadium in Jalandhar. The tournament took place in Punjab, India.

Delhi–Amritsar–Katra Expressway is a 670 km (420 mi) long, 4-lane wide controlled-access expressway under-construction, which will connect Bahadurgarh border in Delhi with Katra in Jammu and Kashmir via Nakodar and Gurdaspur in Punjab. It will also have a spur section which will connect Nakodar with Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport located in Raja Sansi, Amritsar. The 397.7 km (247.1 mi) long Delhi–Nakodar–Gurdaspur section is National Expressway 5 (NE-5) and 99 km (62 mi) long Amritsar–Nakodar section is National Expressway 5A (NE-5A). This expressway will reduce the Delhi-Katra distance from 727 km (452 mi) to 588 km (365 mi) and from 14 hours to 6 hours, and Delhi-Amritsar distance to 405 km (252 mi) and from 8 hours to 4 hours.

References

  1. "Welcome to Official Website of Jalandhar Divisional Commissioner, Punjab". commissionerjalandhar.gov.in.
  2. "List of Deputy Commissioner | Jalandhar Web Portal | India".
  3. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 October 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. Service, Tribune News. "People's patience being tested in Punjab civic polls". Tribuneindia News Service.
  5. "Jalandhar to Chandigarh". Jalandhar to Chandigarh. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  6. "Welcome to Official Website of Jalandhar District, Punjab". Archived from the original on 9 July 2015. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
  7. John Hutchison, Jean Philippe Vogel, History of the Panjab Hill States, Asian Educational Services, 1994 - Punjab Hill States (India), p.122
  8. Parminder Singh Grover Moga, Davinderjit Singh, Discover Punjab: Attractions of Punjab, Parminder Singh Grover, 20 May 2011
  9. Tom G. Kessinger, University of California, Berkeley. Center for South and Southeast Asia Studies, Vilyatpur, 1848-1968: Social and Economic Change in a North Indian Village, University of California Press, 1 Jan 1974, p.16
  10. 1 2 "1941 Punjab Census and its Interpretation". 18 November 2018.
  11. "Heavy Rainfall". Archived from the original on 25 July 2018.
  12. http://www.weather.com/weather/monthly/INXX0060?from=dayDetails_bottomnav_business%7C title = Average Weather for Jalandhar — Temperature and Precipitation | access-date = 4 November 2012|publisher = The Weather Channel
  13. "Jalandhar City Population Census 2011-2019 | Punjab". Archived from the original on 28 December 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
  14. "Jalandhar City Population Census 2011". Census2011. Archived from the original on 28 December 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
  15. "Gurudwara Nauvin Patshahi, Dukh Nivaran Sahib | ਗੁਰਦੁਆਰਾ ਨੌਵੀਂ ਪਾਤਸ਼ਾਹੀ, ਦੂਖ ਨਿਵਾਰਨ ਸਾਹਿਬ". www.gurudwaragtbjal.org. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
  16. "Wonderland". Wonderlandthemepark. Archived from the original on 27 April 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
  17. "DOORDARSHAN KENDRA, BHAGWAN MAHAVIR MARG, JALANDHAR CITY". Archived from the original on 29 April 2018. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
  18. "हिन्दी समाचार | ताज़ा खबरें | विश्व समाचार - Punjab Kesari". Punjabkesari.in. Archived from the original on 5 November 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
  19. "Jalandhar — Punjab — Page 1". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 22 December 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
  20. "Jalandhar News, Jalandhar Hindi News, Jalandhar News Headlines, Daily News Paper, Local News". Bhaskar.com. Archived from the original on 4 November 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
  21. "The Tribune, Chandigarh, India". Tribuneindia.com. Archived from the original on 4 November 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
  22. "Jalandhar City Hospitals | Asia".
  23. Service, Tribune News. "Jalandhar District gets three new health centres". Tribuneindia News Service.
  24. "Gandhi Stadium | India | Cricket Grounds | ESPNcricinfo.com". Cricinfo. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  25. "Apeejay School Jalandhar - Best CBSE Schools in Jalandhar". Apeejay School Jalandhar - Mahavir Marg Branch.
  26. "Welcome to Apeejay School Rama Mandi - Best School in Jalandhar".
  27. "WELCOME TO DAYANAND MODEL SR. SEC. SCHOOL". dmsdayanandnagar.org. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  28. "MGN Public School, Adarsh Nagar, Jalandhar". MGN Public School, Adarsh Nagar, Jalandhar. Retrieved 26 November 2021.
  29. "Montgomery Guru Nanak Public School, Urban Estate Phase-II, Jalandhar". Montgomery Guru Nanak Public School, Urban Estate Phase-II, Jalandhar. Retrieved 26 November 2021.
  30. "SD MODEL SCHOOL | An English Medium Co-Educational Institution" . Retrieved 25 October 2019.
  31. "Home". Shiv Jyoti Public School.
  32. "Swami Sant Dass Public School – Service to Humanity".
  33. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 July 2015. Retrieved 4 July 2015.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  34. Ranbir Singh Kanwar
  35. "The Modern Novel". Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
  36. "village khurd in jalandhar". Archived from the original on 5 July 2015. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
  37. "imdb". Archived from the original on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  38. "veethi". Archived from the original on 5 July 2015. Retrieved 4 July 2015.