Jalandhar

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Jalandhar
Devi Talab Mandir.jpg
Gurudwara sri guru singh sabha, jalandhar.jpg
St. Mary's Cathedral, Jalandhar.jpg
VIP PAVILION-1.jpg
Wonderland boating.JPG
Haveli - Punjabi Restaurant.jpg
29 Mar 2008 Go Karting Jalandhar Cantt by gopal1035 017.jpg
Gandhi stadium.jpg
Clockwise from top:
Devi Talab Mandir, Gurdwara Sri Singh Sahba, St. Mary's Cathedral, Jalandhar, Guru Gobind Singh Stadium, Haveli, Wonderland, Jalandhar Cantonment, Gandhi Stadium.
India Punjab location map.svg
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Jalandhar
India location map.svg
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Jalandhar
Coordinates: 31°15′25″N75°26′36″E / 31.2569°N 75.4432°E / 31.2569; 75.4432 Coordinates: 31°15′25″N75°26′36″E / 31.2569°N 75.4432°E / 31.2569; 75.4432
CountryFlag of India.svg  India
State Punjab
District Jalandhar
Named for In Water
Government
  Divisional CommissionerVeerendra Kumar Meena, IAS [1]
  Deputy CommissionerJaspreet Singh, IAS [2]
   Member of Parliament Santokh Singh Chaudhary, Congress
  MayorJagdish Raja [3]
Area
[4]
  Total120 km2 (50 sq mi)
  Rank 3rd in Punjab
Elevation
228 m (748 ft)
Population
 (2022 [5] )
  Total1,096,000
Demonym Jalandhariye
Time zone UTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
144 001
Area code 0181
Vehicle registration PB08,PB90,PB37 PB67,PB33
Literacy82.3%
Website jalandhar.nic.in

Jalandhar is the third most-populous city in the Indian state of Punjab and the largest city in Doaba region. Jalandhar lies alongside the Grand Trunk Road and is a well-connected rail and road junction. Jalandhar is 146 km (91 mi) northwest of the state capital Chandigarh, 83.5 km (51.9 mi) south-east of Amritsar and 61.3 km (38.1 mi) north of Ludhiana. Jalandhar is about 381 km (230 miles) from national capital Delhi. The famous road NH1 crosses from Jalandhar.

Contents

History

Kos Minar along Grand Trunk Road in Dakhini near Jalandhar, from Sher Shah Suri period Mughal Kos Minar.jpg
Kos Minar along Grand Trunk Road in Dakhini near Jalandhar, from Sher Shah Suri period

The history of Jalandhar District comprises three periods — ancient, medieval and modern.

The city may be named after Jalandhara, a Nath Guru, who was from here. [ citation needed ]. The city was founded by Devasya Verma as mentioned in Vedas. Other possibilities include that it was the capital of the kingdom of Lava, son of Rama or that the name derives from the vernacular term Jalandhar, meaning area inside the water, i.e., tract lying between the two rivers Satluj and Beas. [6] The whole of Punjab and the area of present Jalandhar District was part of the Indus Valley Civilization. Harappa and Mohenjo-daro are the sites where remains of the Indus Valley civilization have been found extensively. The archaeological explorations made during recent years have pushed the ancient times of Jalandhar District of Harappa period.

Jalandhar and the Doaba was conquered by the Ghaznavids during the reign of Ibrahim of Ghazni between 1058 and 1089. [7] It later formed part of the province of Lahore during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire. The 18th century saw upheaval in Jalandhar amidst an anarchy caused by the disintegration of the Mughals and power struggles involving Persians, Afghans and Sikhs. It was captured by the Faizullahpuria Misl in 1766, and in 1811 Maharaja Ranjit Singh incorporated it within the Sikh Empire. [8]

In 1849, following the annexation of the Punjab by the East India Company, the city of Jalandhar, written in English as Jullundur by Company officials, became the headquarters of the Division and District of the same name. In 1858 Company rule in India ended and the city became part of the British Raj. In the mid to late 19th century, the Punjab administration regarded Jullundur as too densely populated and farmed to capacity. This led to the district being a chief recruitment area for settlers to colonise the newly irrigated Punjab Canal Colonies in western Punjab. [9]

The Khilafat Movement started in the district in early 1920 to bring pressure on the government to change their policy towards Turkey. Mahatma Gandhi extended sympathy and support to this movement however in response the District was declared a 'Proclaimed Area' under the Seditious Meetings Act. In 1924, Pakistani general and military dictator Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq was born in the city.

Prior to the partition of India, Muslims were in plurality in Jalandhar. According to 1941 census, Muslims made up 45.2% of the population, compared to Hindus and Sikhs being 27.6% and 26.5% respectively. [10] Within a period of 10 years, from 1941 to 1951, Muslim population in Jalandhar reduced from 45.2% to 0.2%. [10]

Climate

The city has a humid subtropical climate with cool winters and long, hot summers. Summers last from April to June and winters from November to February. Temperatures in the summer vary from average highs of around 48 °C (118 °F) to average lows of around 25 °C (77 °F). Winter temperatures have highs of 19 °C (66 °F) to lows of −7 °C (19 °F). The climate is dry on the whole, except during the brief southwest monsoon season during July and August. The average annual rainfall is about 70 cm. In 2018, Jalandhar witnessed Heavy rainfall, with over 20% increase from average rainfall. [11] Since it is in the northern plains, it feels really cold during winters and very hot during summers.

Climate data for Jalandhar
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)19.4
(66.9)
21.6
(70.9)
26.0
(78.8)
34.5
(94.1)
39.4
(102.9)
40.6
(105.1)
34.1
(93.4)
33.1
(91.6)
32.6
(90.7)
31.5
(88.7)
27.2
(81.0)
22.3
(72.1)
30.2
(86.4)
Average low °C (°F)6.2
(43.2)
8.6
(47.5)
13.2
(55.8)
19.0
(66.2)
23.8
(74.8)
25.6
(78.1)
24.7
(76.5)
25.8
(78.4)
21.8
(71.2)
18.3
(64.9)
12.1
(53.8)
7.2
(45.0)
17.2
(63.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches)10.7
(0.42)
16.7
(0.66)
32.8
(1.29)
15.2
(0.60)
20.4
(0.80)
69.7
(2.74)
155.2
(6.11)
183.6
(7.23)
60.0
(2.36)
1.5
(0.06)
6
(0.2)
15
(0.6)
586.8
(23.07)
Source: [12]

Demographics

Population

As per provisional data of 2011 census Jalandhar had a population of 873,725, of which 463,975 were male and 409,750 female.

Literacy

The literacy rate was 86.22 per cent. [13] For males and females respectively the literacy rate was 88.82% and 83.30%

Religion

Religion in Jalandhar city [14]
ReligionPercent
Hinduism
74.90%
Sikhism
21.39%
Islam
1.47%
Christianity
1.02%
Others
1.22%

As per the census of 2011, Hinduism and Sikhism are the religions of the vast majority of people in Jalandhar.

Religious groups in Jalandhar City (1891−2011) [lower-alpha 1]
Religious
group
1891 [16] :681901 [17] :441911 [18] :201921 [19] :231931 [20] :261941 [15] :322011
Pop. %Pop.%Pop.%Pop.%Pop.%Pop.%Pop.%
Islam Star and Crescent.svg 38,99440,08140,90342,26152,57780,24212,744
Hinduism Om.svg 23,08524,71523,38324,25330,833 [lower-alpha 2] 48,375 [lower-alpha 2] 650,863
Sikhism Khanda.svg 2,2749013,6362,6863,0034,676185,869
Christianity Christian cross.svg 1,5691,5431,4401,3221,5339778,889
Jainism Jain Prateek Chihna.svg 3474714384771,0147683,203
Zoroastrianism Faravahar.svg 32218970N/AN/AN/AN/A
Buddhism Dharma Wheel (2).svg 00000N/AN/A1,407
Others020002455,954
Total population66,20267,73569,81871,00889,030135,283868,929

Economy

Jalandhar has been selected in the second phase of the smart city project and 200 crores have been allocated to the municipal corporation for initializing the project.

Jalandhar exports goods like furniture and glass to neighboring cities, and is a global hub for the manufacture of sporting equipment. Jalandhar is famous for its sports industry and equipment manufactured in Jalandhar has been used in many international sporting games including Olympics, Commonwealth Games, Asian Games, among others. It is also a hub for manufacturing of hand tools. Jalandhar is also famous for its leather industry, leather for footwear, leather goods, furniture being sold to export houses located at Delhi, Agra, Kanpur and other Indian cities. Together with hand tools it is a major production centre of industrial tool bags being used by workmen in America and Europe.

Many new malls and shopping complexes are being established at a very rapid pace and as such is also a hub of the NRI's many of whom are from the Jalandhar region.

Transport

By air

The nearest airport is Adampur Airport, northwest of Jalandhar which currently handles only scheduled operation on maiden flights of private carrier Spicejet to Delhi, Mumbai and Jaipur. The nearest fully-fledged International Airport is Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport in Amritsar. It is second busiest airport in North India, and is connected to other parts of the country by regular flights. Several airlines operate flights from abroad, including London Stansted, Birmingham, Dubai, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur and Doha. The airport handles as many as 48 flights every week up from the occasional, intermittent ones some years ago.

Jalandhar Railway Station.jpeg

By rail

Direct train service is available for other major cities like Mumbai, Calcutta, Chennai, Patna, Guwahati, Pune, Haridwar, Varanasi, Jaipur, Jhansi, Gwalior, Bhopal and Jammu Tawi. Some prestigious trains that halt in Jalandhar City railway station are Howrah Mail, Golden Temple Mail (Frontier Mail), New-Delhi Amritsar Shatabdi Express, Paschim Express. Now many trains of Jammu route are extended up to Mata Vaishno Devi-Katra.

Jalandhar City Railway Station is well-connected to other parts of the country, Jalandhar City is a major stop between the Amritsar-Delhi rail link which is serviced by Shatabdi Express, Intercity Express, and others

Direct Service to major cities such as Mumbai, Calcutta, Chennai, Patna, Guwahati, Pune, Haridwar, Varanasi, Jaipur and Jammu Tawi are available. There are prestigious services such as the Howrah Mail, Golden Temple Mail (Frontier Mail), New-Delhi Amritsar Shatabdi Express, Paschim Express.

By road


There is one of the largest networks of bus services of Punjab at Shaheed-e-Azam Sardar Bhagat Singh ISBT (Jalandhar), Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, Haryana, Pepsu, Chandigarh, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttrakhand, Rajasthan State Roadways, apart from private operators.

Religious places

Leisure

Interior of Viva Collage Mall, Jalandhar Viva Collage Jalandhar Mall.jpg
Interior of Viva Collage Mall, Jalandhar
View Of WonderLand's Water Park in the Evening View Of WonderLand's Water Park In the Evening.jpg
View Of WonderLand's Water Park in the Evening

Media

Punjab Kesari header with the photos of its founders, Lala Jagat Narain and Romesh Chander. PKD2.jpg
Punjab Kesari header with the photos of its founders, Lala Jagat Narain and Romesh Chander.
Jag Bani Jag Bani, Jalandhar (Oct. 03, 2013).jpg
Jag Bani

Doordarshan Kendra, Jalandhar is an Indian television station in Jalandhar, owned and operated by state-owned Doordarshan, the television network of Prasar Bharati (Broadcasting Corporation of India). [23] It was established in 1979 and produces and broadcasts the 24-hour Punjabi language TV channel, DD Punjabi, which was launched in 1998 and covers most of the state of Punjab, India.

The city is the region's headquarters for newspapers, national television and radio stations. These include Daily Ajit, Jagbani, Punjab Kesari, Dainik Bhaskar, Dainik Jagran, Hindustan Times, The Tribune, Truescoop News, Hind Samachar , etc. [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29]

State-owned All India Radio has a local station in Jalandhar that transmits programs of mass interest. FM local radio stations include:

Healthcare

The Municipal Corporation of Jalandhar claims that the city has over 800 hospitals, [30] that makes it the city with the highest number of hospitals in per capita in Asia. Three new Health Centres were set up in Jalandhar on 9 September 2020. [31]

Sports


Cricket

Cricket is very popular in grounds and streets of the city. There is an international-standard stadium at Gandhi Stadium formerly known as Burlton Park. The Indian cricket team played a Test Match against the Pakistan cricket team on this ground on 24 September 1983. [32]

Kabaddi

Major Kabaddi matches are usually held at Guru Gobind Singh Stadium.

Guru Gobind Singh Stadium

Guru Gobind Singh Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Jalandhar. It is usually used mostly for football matches and served as the home stadium of JCT Mills FC. [33] People can be seen jogging, playing soccer, weight-lifting, etc. in the stadium most of the time. The Punjab government has started new projects at the stadium.

Surjit Hockey Stadium

Surjeet Hockey Stadium is a field hockey stadium in Jalandhar, Punjab, India. It is named after Jalandhar-born Olympian Surjit Singh. This stadium is home of the franchise Sher-e-Punjab of the World Series Hockey.

Sports college

There is a Government Sports College in the city and it is a focus for many of the National Sports Councils. In this college, many sports are played like cricket, hockey, swimming, volleyball and basketball.

Education

Higher education institutions include

Universities

Schools

Jalandhar Cantonment

Notable people

Diljit Dosanjh Diljit Dosanjh during Soorma promotion 05.jpg
Diljit Dosanjh
I. K. Gujral Inder Kumar Gujral 071.jpg
I. K. Gujral
Sugandha Mishra Sugandha mishra.jpg
Sugandha Mishra
Amrish Puri Amrish Puri.jpg
Amrish Puri
Harbhajan Singh Harbhajan Singh bowling.jpg
Harbhajan Singh
Rannvijay Singh Rannvijay Singh (2).jpg
Rannvijay Singh
Dharam Singh Uppal Fzdfs.jpg
Dharam Singh Uppal
NameOccupation
Yash Chopra Producer/Director [43]
Anurag Singh (director) Director, Producer, Writer
Diljit Dosanjh Actor, Singer
Karambir Singh 24th Chief of Naval Staff of Indian Navy
Dr. Ranbir Singh Kanwar Sugarcane Researcher, Director of Research (Agriculture) PAU, Director of Research Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University [44]
Lawrence Durrell Expatriate British novelist, poet, dramatist, and travel writer [45]
Vanya Mishra Winner of Miss India Femina 2012
Sunil Dutt Actor [46]
Kundan Lal Saigal Actor/Singer [47]
Amrish Puri Actor [48]
Jazzy B Singer
Sukhwinder Panchhi Singer
Apache Indian Singer
Sarbjit Cheema Singer
Kanth Kaler Singer
Karan Mehra Actor
Nooran Sisters Singers
Master Saleem Singer
Hans Raj Hans Singer
Jagjit Singh Singer
Bahadur Singh Indian former shot putter who won gold medal
General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq Chief of Army Staff, fourth Chief Martial Law Administrator and the sixth President of Pakistan
Diwan Bhai Abdul Hamid Revenue and Chief Minister of Kapurthala State
Hafeez Jullundhri Writer and poet
Baba Kashmira Singh Head of Sidhant Sant Samaj or Gurbani
Paul Nischal NRI President, first Indian candidate for the British Political Party
Col. Balbir Singh Kular Hockey Player
Varinder Singh Ghuman Bodybuilder, Wrestler and Punjabi Film Actor
Ajit Pal Singh Hockey Player
Surjit Singh Hockey Player
Pargat Singh Hockey Player
Inder Kumar Gujral Former Prime Minister of India
Harbhajan Singh Cricketer
Wasim Sajjad Two-time Acting President of Pakistan, Ex-Chairman of Senate
Sheikh Anwarul Haq Former Chief Justice
Mian Mohammed Sharif Surveyor General
Lala Amarnath Cricketer
Sushil Kohli Swimmer
Lala Jagat Narain Freedom fighter and founder of Punjab Kesri
Basheer Hussain Najafi One of the six Grand Ayatollahs
Taruwar Kohli Cricketer
Sardar Swaran Singh Politician
Udham Singh (field hockey) Hockey Player
Avneet Kaur Actress
Darshan Singh (field hockey) Hockey Player
Salma Mumtaz Actress
Saurav Mandal Football player
Ashwini Kumar Chopra Journalist, Politician (MP-Karnal)
Kartar Singh Duggal Writer
Kulwant Singh Virk Writer
Ishar Singh (poet) Poet
Sadhu Singh Hamdard Freedom fighter and Writer
Prem Parkash Writer
Ajit Saini Writer and Army General
Hasrat Writer
Gurbachan Singh Talib Writer
Gurdial Singh Writer and novelist
Chaudhry Muhammad Ali Former Prime Minister of Pakistan
Swami Shraddhanand Indian educationist and an Arya Samaj missionary
Wazir Ali Cricketer
R. Paul Dhillon Indo-Canadian journalist
Arun Shourie Politician, author, and journalist
Amanjot Singh Social Worker
Agha Sadiq Writer and poet
Fateh Ali Khan Singer. Father of Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan
Dharam Singh Uppal Athlete
Balbir Singh Sr. Hockey Player
Mandeep Singh Cricketer
Vimi Actress
Ranvir Shorey Actor
Sugandha Mishra Singer, Anchor, Comedian
Nalini Priyadarshni Poet, Writer
Vijay Sampla State Minister in Union Govt
Bhagat Chunni Lal Minister in Punjab Govt
Ram Kapoor Indian Actor
Sardar Buta Singh Ex-Home Minister of India
Sukhbir Singh Punjabi Musician, Singer
Amarjit Kaypee Former highest run scorer in Ranji Trophy (Cricket)
Akshaye Khanna Indian Actor
Surbhi Jyoti Indian Actress
Jyotica Tangri Playback singer, appeared in several reality TV shows
Lord Wilberforce British Judge
Jass Manak Singer
Manpreet Singh Hockey Player
Garry Sandhu Singer
Akhil Singer
Jasmine Sandlas Singer

Notes

  1. 1891-1941: Data for the entirety of the town of Jalandhar, which included Jalandhar Municipality and Jalandhar Cantonment. [15] :32
  2. 1 2 1931-1941: Including Ad-Dharmis

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