Surgeon

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Cardiac surgery operating room.jpg
Surgeons at Work.jpg
Surgeons performing operations

In modern medicine, a surgeon is a physician who performs surgery. There are also surgeons in podiatry, dentistry, orthodontics, and veterinary medicine.

Contents

History

Al-Zahrawi, the Islamic Golden Age physician widely considered one of the '"Fathers of Modern Surgery" Albucasis.gif
Al-Zahrawi, the Islamic Golden Age physician widely considered one of the '"Fathers of Modern Surgery"

The first person to document a surgery was the 6th century BC Indian physician-surgeon, Sushruta or Suśruta. He specialized in cosmetic plastic surgery and even documented an open rhinoplasty procedure. [1] His magnum opus Suśruta-saṃhitā is one of the most important surviving ancient treatises on medicine and is considered a foundational text of both Ayurveda and surgery. The treatise addresses all aspects of general medicine, but the translator G. D. Singhal dubbed Sushruta "the father of surgical intervention" on account of the extraordinarily accurate and detailed accounts of surgery to be found in the work. [2]

After the eventual decline of the Sushruta School of Medicine in India, surgery was largely ignored until the Islamic Golden Age surgeon Al-Zahrawi (936-1013) re-established surgery as an effective medical practice. He is considered the greatest medieval surgeon to have appeared from the Islamic World, and has also been described as the father of surgery. [3] His greatest contribution to medicine is the Kitab al-Tasrif , a thirty-volume encyclopedia of medical practices. [4] He was the first physician to describe an ectopic pregnancy, and the first physician to identify the hereditary nature of haemophilia. [5]

His pioneering contributions to the field of surgical procedures and instruments had an enormous impact on surgery but it was not until the 18th century that surgery emerged as a distinct medical discipline in England. [5]

In Europe, surgery was mostly associated with barber-surgeons who also used their hair-cutting tools to undertake surgical procedures, often at the battlefield and also for their employers. [6] With advances in medicine and physiology, the professions of barbers and surgeons diverged; by the 19th century barber-surgeons had virtually disappeared, and surgeons were almost invariably qualified doctors who had specialized in surgery. Surgeon continued, however, to be used as the title for military medical officers until the end of the 19th century, and the title of Surgeon General continues to exist for both senior military medical officers and senior government public health officers.

Titles in the Commonwealth

In 1950, the Royal College of Surgeons of England (RCS) in London began to offer surgeons a formal status via RCS membership. The title Mister became a badge of honour, and today, in many Commonwealth countries, a qualified doctor who, after at least four years' training, obtains a surgical qualification (formerly Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons, but now also Member of the Royal College of Surgeons or a number of other diplomas) is given the honour of being allowed to revert to calling themselves Mr, Miss, Mrs or Ms in the course of their professional practice, but this time the meaning is different. It is sometimes assumed that the change of title implies consultant status (and some mistakenly think non-surgical consultants are Mr too), but the length of postgraduate medical training outside North America is such that a qualified surgeon may be years away from obtaining such a post: many doctors previously obtained these qualifications in the senior house officer grade, and remained in that grade when they began sub-specialty training. The distinction of Mr (etc.) is also used by surgeons in the Republic of Ireland, some states of Australia, Barbados, New Zealand, South Africa, Zimbabwe, and some other Commonwealth countries. [7]

Military titles

In many English-speaking countries the military title of surgeon is applied to any medical practitioner, due to the historical evolution of the term. The US Army Medical Corps retains various surgeon United States military occupation codes in the ranks of officer pay grades, for military personnel dedicated to performing surgery on wounded soldiers.

Specialties

The Gross Clinic, 1875, Philadelphia Museum of Art and the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts EakinsTheGrossClinic.jpg
The Gross Clinic, 1875, Philadelphia Museum of Art and the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts

Some physicians who are general practitioners or specialists in family medicine or emergency medicine may perform limited ranges of minor, common, or emergency surgery. Anesthesia often accompanies surgery, and anesthesiologists and nurse anesthetists may oversee this aspect of surgery. Surgeon's assistant, surgical nurses, surgical technologists are trained professionals who support surgeons.

In the United States, the Department of Labor description of a surgeon is "a physician who treats diseases, injuries, and deformities by invasive, minimally-invasive, or non-invasive surgical methods, such as using instruments, appliances, or by manual manipulation". [8]

Pioneer surgeons

Russian surgeon Nikolay Pirogov - a pioneer of field surgery Ilya Repin Portrait of the Surgeon Nikolay Pirogov 1881.jpg
Russian surgeon Nikolay Pirogov - a pioneer of field surgery
Victor Horsley pioneered neurosurgery Victor Horsley.jpg
Victor Horsley pioneered neurosurgery

Organizations and fellowships

Related Research Articles

Neurosurgery Medical specialty of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system

Neurosurgery, or neurological surgery, is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, central and peripheral nervous system, and cerebrovascular system.

Plastic surgery is a surgical specialty involving the restoration, reconstruction, or alteration of the human body. It can be divided into two main categories: reconstructive surgery and cosmetic surgery. Reconstructive surgery includes craniofacial surgery, hand surgery, microsurgery, and the treatment of burns. While reconstructive surgery aims to reconstruct a part of the body or improve its functioning, cosmetic surgery aims at improving the appearance of it. Both of these techniques are used throughout the world.

Surgery Use of incisive instruments on a person to investigate or treat a medical condition

Surgery is a medical or dental specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a person to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function, appearance, or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.

Ophthalmology Field of medicine treating eye disorders

Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine and surgery which deals with the diagnosis and treatment of eye disorders. An ophthalmologist is a specialist in ophthalmology. The credentials include a degree in medicine, followed by additional four to five years of ophthalmology residency training. Ophthalmology residency training programs may require a one-year pre-residency training in internal medicine, pediatrics, or general surgery. Additional specialty training may be sought in a particular aspect of eye pathology. Ophthalmologists are allowed to use medications to treat eye diseases, implement laser therapy, and perform surgery when needed. Ophthalmologists may participate in academic research on the diagnosis and treatment for eye disorders.

Al-Zahrawi Arab physician

Abū al-Qāsim Khalaf ibn al-'Abbās al-Zahrāwī al-Ansari, popularly known as Al-Zahrawi (الزهراوي), Latinised as Abulcasis, was an Arab Andalusian physician, surgeon and chemist. Considered to be the greatest surgeon of the Middle Ages, he has been referred to as the "father of modern surgery".

Joseph Murray American physician (1919–2012)

Joseph Edward Murray was an American plastic surgeon who performed the first successful human kidney transplant on identical twins Richard and Ronald Herrick on December 23, 1954.

Microsurgery

Microsurgery is a general term for surgery requiring an operating microscope. The most obvious developments have been procedures developed to allow anastomosis of successively smaller blood vessels and nerves which have allowed transfer of tissue from one part of the body to another and re-attachment of severed parts. Microsurgical techniques are utilized by several specialties today, such as: general surgery, ophthalmology, orthopedic surgery, gynecological surgery, otolaryngology, neurosurgery, oral and maxillofacial surgery, plastic surgery, podiatric surgery and pediatric surgery.

Lithotomy

Lithotomy from Greek for "lithos" (stone) and "tomos" (cut), is a surgical method for removal of calculi, stones formed inside certain organs, such as the urinary tract, bladder, and gallbladder (gallstones), that cannot exit naturally through the urinary system or biliary tract. The procedure is usually performed by means of a surgical incision. Lithotomy differs from lithotripsy, where the stones are crushed either by a minimally invasive probe inserted through the exit canal, or by an acoustic pulse, which is a non-invasive procedure. Because of these less invasive procedures, the use of lithotomy has decreased significantly in the modern era.

Hand surgery deals with both surgical and non-surgical treatment of conditions and problems that may take place in the hand or upper extremity including injury and infection. Hand surgery may be practiced by graduates of general surgery, orthopedic surgery and plastic surgery. Chiroplasty, or cheiroplasty, is plastic surgery of the hands.

<i>Sushruta Samhita</i>

The Sushruta Samhita is an ancient Sanskrit text on medicine and surgery, and one of the most important such treatises on this subject to survive from the ancient world. The Compendium of Suśruta is one of the foundational texts of Ayurveda, alongside the Caraka-Saṃhitā, the Bheḷa-Saṃhitā, and the medical portions of the Bower Manuscript. It is one of the two foundational Hindu texts on medical profession that have survived from ancient India.

Sushruta

Sushruta, or Suśruta was an ancient Indian physician known as the main author of the treatise The Compendium of Suśruta.

Mayo Hospital is one of the oldest and biggest hospitals in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. King Edward Medical University, one of the oldest and most prestigious medical institutions in South Asia, is attached to Mayo Hospital. Mayo Hospital is located in the heart of Old Lahore, and provides free treatment to almost all admitted patients as part of a government policy.It also has many different ward's mainly centered around the Syed A route location.

History of surgery

Surgery is the branch of medicine that deals with the physical manipulation of a bodily structure to diagnose, prevent, or cure an ailment. Ambroise Paré, a 16th-century French surgeon, stated that to perform surgery is, "To eliminate that which is superfluous, restore that which has been dislocated, separate that which has been united, join that which has been divided and repair the defects of nature."

The Neurologic & Orthopedic Hospital of Chicago was a medical center from 1987 to 2009.

McLaren Flint Hospital in Michigan, United States

McLaren Flint is a nonprofit, 378 bed tertiary teaching hospital located in Flint, Michigan. McLaren is affiliated with the Michigan State University College of Human Medicine's medical residency programs, including family medicine, internal medicine, general surgery, orthopedic surgery and radiology. McLaren also maintains a hematology/oncology fellowship program in partnership with Michigan State University and is sponsoring a surgical oncology fellowship program. McLaren Flint is a subsidiary of McLaren Health Care Corporation.

Aesthetic medicine is a broad term for specialties that focus on altering cosmetic appearance through the treatment of conditions including scars, skin laxity, wrinkles, moles, liver spots, excess fat, cellulite, unwanted hair, skin discoloration and spider veins. Traditionally, it includes dermatology, oral and maxillofacial surgery, reconstructive surgery and plastic surgery. It includes both surgical procedures and non-surgical procedures, and practitioners may utilize a combination of both. Aesthetic medicine procedures are usually elective.

Various individuals have advanced the surgical art and, as a result, have been called the father of surgery by various sources.

Terence English

Sir Terence Alexander Hawthorne English is a South African-born British retired cardiac surgeon. He was Consultant Cardiothoracic Surgeon, Papworth Hospital and Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, 1973–1995. After starting a career in mining engineering, English switched to medicine and went on to lead the team that performed Britain's first successful heart transplant in August 1979 at Papworth, and soon established it as one of Europe's leading heart–lung transplant programmes.

References

  1. 1 2 Ira D. Papel, John Frodel, Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
  2. Singhal, G. D. (1972). Diagnostic considerations in ancient Indian surgery: (based on Nidāna-Sthāna of Suśruta Saṁhitā). Varanasi: Singhal Publications.
  3. Ahmad, Z. (St Thomas' Hospital) (2007), "Al-Zahrawi - The Father of Surgery", ANZ Journal of Surgery, 77 (Suppl. 1): A83, doi:10.1111/j.1445-2197.2007.04130_8.x
  4. al-Zahrāwī, Abū al-Qāsim Khalaf ibn ʻAbbās; Studies, Gustave E. von Grunebaum Center for Near Eastern (1973). Albucasis on surgery and instruments. University of California Press. ISBN   978-0-520-01532-6 . Retrieved 16 May 2011.
  5. 1 2 Cosman, Madeleine Pelner; Jones, Linda Gale (2008). Handbook to Life in the Medieval World. Handbook to Life Series. 2. Infobase Publishing. pp. 528–530. ISBN   0-8160-4887-8.
  6. "Surgeons and Surgical Spaces #The barbers shop". sciencemuseum.org.uk. Retrieved 2020-05-05.
  7. "Patients: The Surgical Team: Qualifications of a surgeon". Royal College of Surgeons of England . Retrieved 13 June 2015.
  8. "Occupational Employment Statistic: Occupational Employment and Wages, May 2015: 29-1067 Surgeons". bls.gov. Retrieved 2016-04-26.
  9. A. Martin-Araguz, C. Bustamante-Martinez, Ajo V. Fernandez-Armayor, J. M. Moreno-Martinez (2002)
  10. http://www.neurosocietyindia.org/site/Past-president/Basant%20Kumar%20Misra,%20President%20NSI%202008.pdf
  11. US Patent 4,840,175, "METHOD FOR MODIFYING CORNEAL CURVATURE", granted June 20, 1989
  12. "A Look at LASIK Past, Present and Future". 1 June 2009.
  13. "When Cornea Transplants Fail. What Next?" Archived 2006-09-09 at the Wayback Machine