Health Resources and Services Administration

Last updated
Health Resources and Services Administration
Hrsa Logo only.gif
Agency overview
FormedOctober 1, 1982;36 years ago (1982-10-01) [1]
Preceding agencies
  • Health Services Administration (1973–1982)
  • Health Resources Administration (1973–1982)
Jurisdiction Federal government of the United States
Headquarters North Bethesda, Maryland (Rockville mailing address)
Employees1,996
Annual budget$10.5 billion USD (2016)
Agency executive
Parent agency United States Department of Health and Human Services
Website www.hrsa.gov

The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services located in North Bethesda, Maryland. It is the primary federal agency for improving access to health care services for people who are uninsured, isolated or medically vulnerable.

North Bethesda, Maryland Census-designated place in Maryland, United States

North Bethesda is an unincorporated, census-designated place in Montgomery County, Maryland, United States, located just north-west of the U.S. capital of Washington, D.C. Among its 14 neighborhoods, the centrally-located, urbanizing district of White Flint is the commercial and residential hub of North Bethesda. The WMATA White Flint metro station and Grosvenor-Strathmore metro station serve the region. Four of the National Institutes of Health as well other federal agencies, including the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Health Resources and Services Administration, and the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, are headquartered in North Bethesda. A number of corporate headquarters are headquartered in North Bethesda, as well as nonprofits such as the American Kidney Fund, the Society of American Foresters and United States Pharmacopeia (USP).

Contents

Comprising six bureaus and 13 offices, the Health Resources and Services Administration provides leadership and financial support to health care providers in every state and U.S. territory. Health Resources and Services Administration's grantees provide health care to uninsured people, people living with HIV/AIDS, and pregnant women, mothers and children. They train health professionals and improve systems of care in rural communities.

HIV Human retrovirus, cause of AIDS

The human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) are two species of Lentivirus that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). AIDS is a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive. Without treatment, average survival time after infection with HIV is estimated to be 9 to 11 years, depending on the HIV subtype. In most cases, HIV is a sexually transmitted infection and occurs by contact with or transfer of blood, pre-ejaculate, semen, and vaginal fluids. Research has shown that HIV is untransmissable through condomless sexual intercourse if the HIV-positive partner has a consistently undetectable viral load. Non-sexual transmission can occur from an infected mother to her infant during pregnancy, during childbirth by exposure to her blood or vaginal fluid, and through breast milk. Within these bodily fluids, HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells.

The Health Resources and Services Administration oversees organ, bone marrow and cord blood donation. It supports programs that prepare against bioterrorism, compensate individuals harmed by vaccination [ citation needed ], and maintains databases that protect against health care malpractice and health care waste, fraud and abuse.

Organ donation use of donated organs for transplantation or research

Organ donation is when a person allows an organ of their own to be removed and transplanted to another person, legally, either by consent while the donor is alive or dead with the assent of the next of kin.

Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones. In birds and mammals, bone marrow is the primary site of new blood cell production or hematopoiesis. It is composed of hematopoietic cells, marrow adipose tissue, and supportive stromal cells. In adult humans, bone marrow is primarily located in the ribs, vertebrae, sternum, and bones of the pelvis. On average, bone marrow constitutes 4% of the total body mass of humans; in an adult having 65 kilograms of mass, bone marrow typically accounts for approximately 2.6 kilograms (5.7 lb).

Cord blood is blood that remains in the placenta and in the attached umbilical cord after childbirth. Cord blood is collected because it contains stem cells, which can be used to treat hematopoietic and genetic disorders.

Goals

The Health Resources and Services Administration has five primary goals: [2]

Key facts

Medication substance used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease

A medication is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease. Drug therapy (pharmacotherapy) is an important part of the medical field and relies on the science of pharmacology for continual advancement and on pharmacy for appropriate management.

HIV/AIDS Spectrum of conditions caused by HIV infection

Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Following initial infection, a person may not notice any symptoms or may experience a brief period of influenza-like illness. Typically, this is followed by a prolonged period with no symptoms. As the infection progresses, it interferes more with the immune system, increasing the risk of developing common infections such as tuberculosis, as well as other opportunistic infections, and tumors that rarely affect people who have uncompromised immune systems. These late symptoms of infection are referred to as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This stage is often also associated with unintended weight loss.

In the law of torts, malpractice, also known as professional negligence, is an "instance of negligence or incompetence on the part of a professional".

Primary health care

The Health Resources and Services Administration funds almost 1,400 health center grantees that operate more than 10,400 clinics and mobile medical vans. Health centers deliver primary and preventive care to over 16 million low-income patients in every state, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and U.S. possessions in the Pacific.

HIV/AIDS

The Health Resources and Services Administration's Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program provides primary care, support services and antiretroviral drugs for about 530,000 low-income people. The program also funds training, technical assistance and demonstration projects designed to slow the spread of the epidemic in high-risk populations. These services avert more costly in-patient care and improve the quality of life for those living with the virus.

Ryan White AIDS spokesperson and "poster boy"

Ryan Wayne White was an American teenager from Kokomo, Indiana, who became a national poster child for HIV/AIDS in the United States after failing to be re-admitted to school following a diagnosis of AIDS. As a hemophiliac, he became infected with HIV from a contaminated factor VIII blood treatment and, when diagnosed in December 1984, was given six months to live. Doctors said he posed no risk to other students, as AIDS is not an airborne disease and spreads solely through body fluids, but AIDS was poorly understood by the general public at the time. When White tried to return to school, many parents and teachers in Howard County rallied against his attendance due to concerns of the disease spreading through bodily fluid transfer. A lengthy administrative appeal process ensued, and news of the conflict turned Ryan into a popular celebrity and advocate for AIDS research and public education. Surprising his doctors, Ryan White lived five years longer than predicted. He died on April 8, 1990, one month before his high school graduation.

The HIV/AIDS Bureau is a part of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), a part of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. It was established to deal with the growing problem of HIV/AIDS in the United States since the early 1980s.

Maternal and child health bureau

The Health Resources and Services Administration administers a broad range of programs for pregnant women, mothers, infants, children, adolescents and their families, and children with special health care requirements. The largest of the programs, the Maternal and Child Health Services Block Grant to States, supports local efforts to reduce infant mortality and childhood illness and control costs associated with poor pre- and neo-natal care. The Block Grant includes State Formula Block Grants, Special Projects of Regional and National Significance (SPRANS), and Community Integrated Service Systems (CISS) projects. Other vital missions include Universal Newborn Hearing Screening, Traumatic Brain Injury, Healthy Start, Sickle Cell Service Demonstrations, Family to Family Health Information Centers, Emergency Medical Services for Children, and autism.

Among the most successful public health initiatives in U.S. history, the Health Resources and Services Administration's Maternal and infant health programs annually serve more than 34 million people.

Rural health

In order to make health care more accessible for the 60 million residents of rural America, the Health Resources and Services Administration funds programs that integrate and streamline existing rural health care institutions and aid in the recruitment and retention of physicians in rural hospitals and clinics. Ther Health Resources and Services Administration's telehealth program uses information technology to link isolated rural practitioners to medical institutions over great distances. Many of these activities are designed and operated out of the Agency's Office of Rural Health Policy.

Clinician recruitment and service

The agency strives to ensure a health care workforce that is diverse, well-trained and adequately distributed throughout the nation. In exchange for financial assistance through National Health Service Corps scholarships and student loan repayment programs, more than 28,000 clinicians have served in some of the most economically deprived and geographically isolated communities in America over the past 35 years.

Health professions

Many regions of the country—and various health disciplines—face serious workforce shortages. The Health Resources and Services Administration safeguards the foundations of the U.S. health care system by targeting grants to academic institutions to support post-graduate faculty retention; administering scholarships to increase staff in critical specialties, such as nursing; and funding leadership development programs. These programs leverage the educations of about 10,000 clinicians annually.

Healthcare systems

The Health Resources and Services Administration oversees the nation's organ and tissue donation and transplantation systems, [4] by way of supervising the work of the United Network for Organ Sharing, a nonprofit organization that is contracted to run the complex organ and tissue donation and transplantation system in the U.S. [5]

The Health Resources and Services Administration oversees a drug discount program for certain safety-net health care providers. [6]

The Health Resources and Services Administration agency also supports the nation's poison control centers and vaccine injury compensation programs, which distribute awards to individuals and families thought[ by whom? ] to have been injured by certain vaccines.[ citation needed ]

History

The Health Resources Administration and the Health Services Administration have worked to improve the health of needy people since 1943.

Health Resources and Services Administration was established on October 1, 1982, when the Health Resources Administration and the Health Services Administration were merged. [1] Dr. Robert Graham was the first administrator of the Health Resources and Services Administration. [7]

In May 2017, George Sigounas was appointed administrator of the Health Resources and Services Administration, [8] replacing acting administrator, Jim Macrae, who returned to his position as administrator of the Health Resources and Services Administration's Bureau of Primary Health Care (BPHC). [9]

Related Research Articles

A Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) is a reimbursement designation from the Bureau of Primary Health Care and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. This designation is significant for several health programs funded under the Health Center Consolidation Act.

The Bureau of Primary Health Care is a part of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. HRSA helps fund, staff and support a national network of health clinics for people who otherwise would have little or no access to care.

Ryan White CARE Act

The Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency Act, was an act of the United States Congress and is the largest federally funded program in the United States for people living with HIV/AIDS. The act sought funding to improve availability of care for low-income, uninsured and under-insured victims of AIDS and their families. The act is named in honor of Ryan White, an Indiana teenager who contracted AIDS through a tainted hemophilia treatment. He was diagnosed with AIDS in 1984 and was subsequently expelled from school because of the disease. White became a well-known advocate for AIDS research and awareness, until his death on April 8, 1990.

Whitman-Walker Health (WWH), formerly Whitman-Walker Clinic, is a non-profit community health center in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area with a special expertise in HIV/AIDS healthcare and LGBT healthcare. Founded as an affirming health center for the gay and lesbian community in 1978, Whitman-Walker was one of the first responders to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in D.C. and became a leader in HIV/AIDS education, prevention, diagnosis and treatment. In recent years, Whitman-Walker has expanded its services to include primary healthcare services, a stronger focus on queer women's care and youth services.

The Bureau of Health Professions is a part of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), of the United States Department of Health and Human Services.

The Office of Rural Health Policy (ORHP) is a part of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).

The Bureau of Clinician and Recruitment Service (BCRS) is a part of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. BCRS coordinates the recruitment and retention of health professionals in underserved communities and supports efforts to build more integrated and sustainable health care systems.

The Healthcare Systems Bureau is part of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), of the United States Department of Health and Human Services.

Maternal and Child Health Bureau

The Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB), is one of six Bureaus within the Health Resources and Services Administration, an agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services located in Rockville, Maryland.

Elizabeth M. Duke was the administrator for the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) from March 6, 2002 to February 28, 2009.

NMAC, formerly known as the National Minority AIDS Council, leads with race to urgently fight for health equity and racial justice to end the HIV epidemic in America. The nonprofit organization located in Washington, D.C., was founded in 1987. NMAC represents over 3,000 community- and faith-based organizations nationwide. The agency advances its mission by providing minority and minority-serving faith- and community-based organizations a variety of capacity building assistance programs, online and classroom-based trainings, printed and electronic resources, grassroots organization and political advocacy. These activities help these agencies deliver HIV/AIDS services more efficiently and effectively, ultimately helping to mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS in underserved and marginalized communities.

Mary Wakefield head of Health resources and services administration

Mary Wakefield is an American nurse and health care administrator, who served in the Obama administration as acting United States Deputy Secretary of Health and Human Services from 2015 to 2017, and as head of the Health Resources and Services Administration from 2009 to 2015.

AIDS Education and Training Centers

The AIDS Education and Training Centers (AETC) are a United States network of five national centers, 11 regional training centers, and over 130 associated local performance sites that provide education on HIV and related co-morbidities such as hepatitis, tuberculosis, and sexually transmitted diseases for healthcare providers in the United States. The AETCs were established in 1987 through federal funding from the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Bureau of Health Professions. In 1997, the AETCs became a component of the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program. The Ryan White Program is administered by HRSA’s HIV/AIDS Bureau.

The National AHEC Organization (NAO) is the professional association of Area Health Education Centers (AHECs) in the United States. AHECs are regional organizations associated with The National AHEC Program. AHECs work in designated regions through community and academic partnerships to advance the availability of health care and health care education, focusing on rural and medically underserved areas. According to the NAO, approximately 120 medical schools and 600 nursing and allied health schools work with the AHEC system. AHECs affiliated with the NAO collaborate to educate, share resources, and strengthen local and national partnerships.

The community health center (CHC) in the United States is the dominant model for providing integrated primary care and public health services for the low-income and uninsured, and represents one use of federal grant funding as part of the country's health care safety net. The health care safety net can be defined as a group of health centers, hospitals, and providers willing to provide services to the nation’s uninsured and underserved population, thus ensuring that comprehensive care is available to all, regardless of income or insurance status. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, 29 million people in the country were uninsured in 2015. Many more Americans lack adequate coverage or access to health care. These groups are sometimes called "underinsured." CHCs represent one method of accessing or receiving health and medical care for both underinsured and uninsured communities.

Community health center clinic, staffed by a group of general practitioners and nurses providing healthcare services to people in a certain area

A healthcare center, health center, or community health center is one of a network of clinics staffed by a group of general practitioners and nurses providing healthcare services to people in a certain area. Typical services covered are family practice and dental care, but some clinics have expanded greatly and can include internal medicine, pediatric, women’s care, family planning, pharmacy, optometry, laboratory testing, and more. In countries with universal healthcare, most people use the healthcare centers. In countries without universal healthcare, the clients include the uninsured, underinsured, low-income or those living in areas where little access to primary health care is available. In the Central and East Europe, bigger health centres are commonly called policlinics.

Healthy Way LA was a free public health care program available to underinsured or uninsured, low-income residents of Los Angeles County. The program, administered by the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services, was a Low Income Health Program (LIHP) approved under the 1115 Waiver. HWLA helped to narrow the large gap in access to health care among low-income populations by extending health care insurance to uninsured LA County residents living at 0 percent to 133 percent of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL). Individuals eligible for HWLA were assigned to a medical home within the LA County Department of Health Services (LADHS) or its partners, thus gaining access to continuous primary care, preventive and specialty services, mental health services, and other support systems. HWLA was one of the few sources of coordinated health care for disadvantaged adults without dependents in LA County. HWLA was succeeded by My Health LA, a no-cost health care program for low-income Los Angeles County residents launched on October 1, 2014.

Healthcare in Belize

Healthcare in Belize is provided through both public and private healthcare systems. The Ministry of Health (MoH) is the government agency responsible for overseeing the entire health sector and is also the largest provider of public health services in Belize. The MoH offers affordable care to a majority of Belizeans with a strong focus on providing quality healthcare through a range of public programs and institutions.

The Bureau of Health Workforce is a part of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. HRSA programs train health care professionals and place them where they are needed most. Grants support scholarship and loan repayment programs at colleges and universities to meet critical workforce shortages and promote diversity within the health professions.

References

  1. 1 2 Peterson, Cass (August 26, 1982). "Executive Notes". The Washington Post. p. A17.
  2. "HRSA Strategic Plan". Health Resources and Services Administration. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  3. "About HRSA". Health Resources and Services Administration. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  4. "New Transplants Are Changing Lives". University Wire May 22, 2018.
  5. Bernstein, Lenny (April 30, 2018). "Group running organ transplant network may face competition". The Washington Post. p. A5.
  6. Burgess, Michael C. (July 13, 2018). "House Energy and Commerce Committee, Health Subcommittee Hearing on Opportunities to Improve to 340B Drug Pricing Program]". United States House oF Representatives. Political Transcript Wire.
  7. Pear, Robert (December 7, 1982). "New Rules Seek to Separate Abortion and Family Clinics". The New York Times. p. A18.
  8. "George Sigounas, M.S., Ph.D." Health Resources and Services Administration.
  9. "James Macrae, MA, MPP". Official web site of the U.S. Health Resources & Services Administration.