|Long title||An Act to consolidate and revise the laws relating to the Public Health Service, and for other purposes.|
|Enacted by||the 78th United States Congress|
|Effective||July 1, 1944|
|Statutes at Large||58 Stat. 682, Chapter 373|
|Titles amended||42 U.S.C.: Public Health and Social Welfare|
|U.S.C. sections created||42 U.S.C. ch. 6A § 201 et seq.|
| Family Planning Services and Population Research Act of 1970 |
National Cancer Act of 1971
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996
Muscular Dystrophy Community Assistance Research and Education Amendments of 2001
Hematological Cancer Research Investment and Education Act of 2001
Newborn Screening Saves Lives Act of 2007
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010
Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Reauthorization Act of 2013 (H.R. 307; 113th Congress)
The Public Health Service Act is a United States federal law enacted in 1944.The full act is captured under Title 42 of the United States Code (The Public Health and Welfare), Chapter 6A (Public Health Service).
The law of the United States comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law, of which the most important is the United States Constitution, the foundation of the federal government of the United States. The Constitution sets out the boundaries of federal law, which consists of Acts of Congress, treaties ratified by the Senate, regulations promulgated by the executive branch, and case law originating from the federal judiciary. The United States Code is the official compilation and codification of general and permanent federal statutory law.
Title 42 of the United States Code is the United States Code dealing with public health, social welfare, and civil rights.
The United States Public Health Service (USPHS) is a division of the Department of Health and Human Services concerned with public health. It contains eight out of the department's eleven operating divisions. The Assistant Secretary for Health (ASH) oversees the PHS. The Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (PHSCC) is the federal uniformed service of the USPHS, and is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The act clearly established the federal government's quarantine authority for the first time. It gave the United States Public Health Service responsibility for preventing the introduction, transmission and spread of communicable diseases from foreign countries into the United States.
The Federal Government of the United States is the national government of the United States, a federal republic in North America, composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and several island possessions. The federal government is composed of three distinct branches: legislative, executive, and judicial, whose powers are vested by the U.S. Constitution in the Congress, the President, and the federal courts, respectively. The powers and duties of these branches are further defined by acts of congress, including the creation of executive departments and courts inferior to the Supreme Court.
A quarantine is used to separate and restrict the movement of people; it is 'a restraint upon the activities or communication of persons or the transport of goods designed to prevent the spread of disease or pests,' for a certain period of time. This is often used in connection to disease and illness, such as those who may possibly have been exposed to a communicable disease, but do not have a confirmed medical diagnosis. The term is often erroneously used to mean medical isolation, which is "to separate ill persons who have a communicable disease from those who are healthy," and refers to patients whose diagnosis has been confirmed.
The Public Health Service Act granted the original authority for scientists and special consultants to be appointed "without regard to the civil-service laws", known as a Title 42 appointment.
A Title 42 appointment is an excepted service employment category in the United States federal civil service. It allows scientists and special consultants to be hired as part of the Public Health Service or Environmental Protection Agency under a streamlined process "without regard to the civil-service laws". Courts have ruled that, although Title 42 appointments are exempt from hiring and compensation provisions of civil service laws, they are still entitled to protections relating to termination, including appeals to the Merit Systems Protection Board.
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It has since been amended many times. Some of these amendments are:
An Act of Congress is a statute enacted by the United States Congress. It can either be a Public Law, relating to the general public, or a Private Law, relating to specific institutions or individuals.
The Title X Family Planning Program, officially known as Public Law 91-572 or "Population Research and Voluntary Family Planning Programs", was enacted under President Richard Nixon in 1970 as part of the Public Health Service Act. Title X is the only federal grant program dedicated solely to providing individuals with comprehensive family planning and related preventive health services. Title X is legally designed to prioritize the needs of low-income families or uninsured people who might not otherwise have access to these health care services. These services are provided to low-income and uninsured individuals at reduced or no cost. Its overall purpose is to promote positive birth outcomes and healthy families by allowing individuals to decide the number and spacing of their children.
Family planning services are defined as "educational, comprehensive medical or social activities which enable individuals, including minors, to determine freely the number and spacing of their children and to select the means by which this may be achieved". Family planning may involve consideration of the number of children a woman wishes to have, including the choice to have no children, as well as the age at which she wishes to have them. These matters are influenced by external factors such as marital situation, career considerations, financial position, any disabilities that may affect their ability to have children and raise them, besides many other considerations. If sexually active, family planning may involve the use of contraception and other techniques to control the timing of reproduction. Other techniques commonly used include sexuality education, prevention and management of sexually transmitted infections, pre-conception counseling and management, and infertility management. Family planning as defined by the United Nations and the World Health Organization encompasses services leading up to conception and does not promote abortion as a family planning method, although levels of contraceptive use reduces the need for abortion.
Other attempted amendments to the act have failed, such as the Stem Cell Research Enhancement Acts of 2005 and 2007.
Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act was the name of two similar bills that both passed through the United States House of Representatives and Senate, but were both vetoed by President George W. Bush and were not enacted into law.
The Veteran Emergency Medical Technician Support Act of 2013 is a bill in the 113th United States Congress. The bill was introduced on January 14, 2013 by Rep. Adam Kinzinger (R-IL). It passed the United States House of Representatives on February 12, 2013 by a voice vote, indicating that it was generally non-controversial.
The One Hundred Thirteenth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, from January 3, 2013, to January 3, 2015, during the fifth and sixth years of Barack Obama's presidency. It was composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives based on the results of the 2012 Senate elections and the 2012 House elections. The seats in the House were apportioned based on the 2010 United States Census. It first met in Washington, D.C. on January 3, 2013, and it ended on January 3, 2015. Senators elected to regular terms in 2008 were in the last two years of those terms during this Congress.
Adam Daniel Kinzinger is the U.S. Representative for Illinois's 16th congressional district. He is a member of the Republican Party. He was first elected to Congress in 2010, winning election to represent Illinois's 11th congressional district. After redistricting, he was re-elected to Congress in 2012, 2014, 2016, and 2018 to represent Illinois's 16th congressional district.
The National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians (NAEMT) is a national Emergency medical services professional association representing all EMTs and Paramedics. The NAEMT educational programs also have an international scope.
The Emergency System for Advance Registration of Volunteer Health Professionals (ESAR-VHP) is a United States federal program to establish and implement guidelines and standards for the registration, credentialing, and deployment of medical professionals in the event of a large scale national emergency. The program is administered under the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness & Response (ASPR) within the Office of Public Health Emergency Preparedness of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The ESAR-VHP standards are mandated to American states and territories, enabling an enhanced national interstate and intrastate system for using and sharing medical professionals.
The Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA) is a federal statute passed into law in 2000 by the U.S. Congress and signed by President Clinton. The law was later reauthorized by presidents Bush, Obama, and Trump. In addition to its applicability to US citizens, it has the ability to authorize protections for undocumented immigrants who are victims of severe forms of trafficking and violence.
The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR) within the United States Department of Health and Human Services was created under the Pandemic and All Hazards Preparedness Act in the wake of Hurricane Katrina to lead the nation in preventing, preparing for, and responding to the adverse health effects of public health emergencies and disasters. ASPR focuses on preparedness planning and response; building federal emergency medical operational capabilities; countermeasures research, advance development, and procurement; and grants to strengthen the capabilities of hospitals and health care systems in public health emergencies and medical disasters. The office provides federal support, including medical professionals through ASPR’s National Disaster Medical System, to augment state and local capabilities during an emergency or disaster.
On December 19, 2006, the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act (PAHPA), Public Law No. 109-417, was signed into law by President George W. Bush. PAHPA has broad implications for the United States Department of Health and Human Services's (HHS) preparedness and response activities. Among other things, the act amended the Public Health Service Act to establish within the department a new Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR); provided new authorities for a number of programs, including the advanced development and acquisitions of medical countermeasures; and called for the establishment of a quadrennial National Health Security Strategy.
President George W. Bush signed the Newborn Screening Saves Lives Act of 2007 (Pub.L.110-204) (NBSSLA) into law on April 24, 2008, a day before DNA Day. The Act amended the Public Health Service Act to establish grant programs concerning newborn screening education and outreach, as parents are often unaware that newborn screening takes place and the number and types of screening varies across states. It also established grant programs to coordinate follow-up care, after newborn screening is conducted. The legislation also reauthorized programs under part A of title XI of the Public Health Service Act. In his introductory remarks, Senator Chris Dodd stated that the legislation "protect[s] the most vulnerable members of our society: newborn infants." Newborn Screening is a proven life saving and effective public health tool used to identify thousands of babies in the U.S. born with genetic, metabolic, and congenital conditions. At the time of the legislation's passage, only 15 States along with the District of Columbia required newborns to be screened for 29 core conditions as recommended by the Health Resources and Services Administration/American College of Medical Genetics' 2004 Report.
The Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Reauthorization Act of 2013 is a law enacted by the 113th United States Congress. The Act amends the Public Health Service Act in order to extend, fund, and improve several programs designed to prepare the United States and health professionals in the event of a pandemic, epidemic, or biological, chemical, radiological, or nuclear accident or attack. The Act clarifies the authority of different American officials, makes it easier to temporarily reassign personnel to respond to emergency situations, and alters the process for testing and producing medical countermeasures. The Act is focused on improving preparedness for any public health emergency.
The Prematurity Research Expansion and Education for Mothers who deliver Infants Early Reauthorization Act or PREEMIE Reauthorization Act is a bill that reauthorizes research programs on preterm births that are run by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It also authorizes grants and demonstration programs to be run by the Health Resources and Services Administration that will try to decrease preterm births. The bill passed the United States Senate during the 113th United States Congress.
The Children’s Hospital GME Support Reauthorization Act of 2013 is a law that amends the Public Health Service Act to authorize payments to children's hospitals for operating training programs that provide graduate medical education. The law authorizes funding for approximately 55 eligible hospitals across 30 different states. The Children’s Hospital GME Support Reauthorization Act of 2013 became law during the 113th United States Congress.
The Equitable Access to Care and Health Act is a bill that would amend the Internal Revenue Code, with respect to minimum essential health care coverage requirements added by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, to allow an additional religious exemption from such requirements for individuals whose sincerely held religious beliefs would cause them to object to medical health care provided under such coverage. Individuals could file an affidavit to get this exemption, but would lose the exemption if they went on to later use healthcare. The affidavit would be filed with their tax returns.
The Child Care and Development Block Grant Act of 2013 is a bill that would reauthorize the Child Care and Development Block Grant Act of 1990 to provide block grants to the states to help low-income parents find child care for their children. In addition to reauthorizing the program, it also makes amendments to the law to try to improve it. Some of those improvements include required background checks on grant recipients and annual inspections.
The Combating Autism Reauthorization Act of 2014 or Autism Collaboration, Accountability, Research, Education, and Support Act of 2014 or Autism CARES Act of 2014 is a bill that would amend the Public Health Service Act to reauthorize research, surveillance, and education activities related to autism spectrum disorders (autism) conducted by various agencies within the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The bill authorizes $1.3 billion in funding for fiscal years 2015-2019.
The Newborn Screening Saves Lives Reauthorization Act of 2013 is a bill that would amend the Public Health Service Act to reauthorize grant programs and other initiatives to promote expanded screening of newborns and children for heritable disorders.
The Improving Trauma Care Act of 2014 is a bill that would amend the Public Health Service Act, with respect to trauma care and research programs, to include in the definition of "trauma" an injury resulting from extrinsic agents other than mechanical force, including those that are thermal, electrical, chemical, or radioactive.
The Trauma Systems and Regionalization of Emergency Care Reauthorization Act is a bill that would amend the Public Health Service Act to authorize funding for public and private entities that provide trauma and emergency care services and for the administration of the Federal Interagency Committee on Emergency Medical Services (FICEMS).
The Traumatic Brain Injury Reauthorization Act of 2013 is a bill that would reauthorize appropriations for Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) projects to reduce the incidence of traumatic brain injury and projects related to track and monitor traumatic brain injuries.
The STELA Reauthorization Act of 2014 is a bill related to the regulation of satellite broadcasting in the United States.
The Paul D. Wellstone Muscular Dystrophy Community Assistance, Research and Education Amendments of 2013 is a United States public law that amends the Public Health Service Act to revise the muscular dystrophy research program of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
The Emergency Medical Services for Children Reauthorization Act of 2014 is a bill that would amend the Public Health Service Act to reauthorize the Emergency Medical Services for Children Program through FY2019. The bill would authorize appropriations of about $20 million in 2015 and $101 million over the 2015-2019 period.