Shale

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Shale
Sedimentary rock
ShaleUSGOV.jpg
Shale
Composition
Clay minerals and quartz
Shale in Potokgraben, the Karawanks, Austria Shale in Potokgraben.jpg
Shale in Potokgraben, the Karawanks, Austria

Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock, composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite. [1] Shale is characterized by breaks along thin laminae or parallel layering or bedding less than one centimeter in thickness, called fissility. [1] It is the most common sedimentary rock. [2]

Contents

The term shale is sometimes applied more broadly, as essentially a synonym for mudrock, rather than in the more narrow sense of clay-rich fissile mudrock. [3]

Texture

Shale typically exhibits varying degrees of fissility, breaking into thin layers, often splintery and usually parallel to the otherwise indistinguishable bedding plane because of the parallel orientation of clay mineral flakes. [1] Non-fissile rocks of similar composition but made of particles smaller than 0.06 mm are described as mudstones (1/3 to 2/3 silt particles) or claystones (less than 1/3 silt). Rocks with similar particle sizes but with less clay (greater than 2/3 silt) and therefore grittier are siltstones. [1] [2]

Sample of drill cuttings of shale while drilling an oil well in Louisiana, United States. Sand grain = 2 mm in diameter Drill cuttings - Annotated - 2004.jpg
Sample of drill cuttings of shale while drilling an oil well in Louisiana, United States. Sand grain = 2 mm in diameter

Composition and color

Shales are typically composed of clay minerals and quartz grain, and are typically gray. Addition of variable amounts of minor constituents alters the color of the rock. Black shale results from the presence of greater than one percent carbonaceous material and indicates a reducing environment. [1] Black shale can also be referred to as black metal. [4] Red, brown and green colors are indicative of ferric oxide (hematite – reds), iron hydroxide (goethite – browns and limonite – yellow), or micaceous minerals (chlorite, biotite and illite – greens). [1]

Clays are the major constituent of shales and other mudrocks. The clay minerals represented are largely kaolinite, montmorillonite and illite. Clay minerals of Late Tertiary mudstones are expandable smectites whereas in older rocks especially in mid- to early Paleozoic shales illites predominate. The transformation of smectite to illite produces silica, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron and water. These released elements form authigenic quartz, chert, calcite, dolomite, ankerite, hematite and albite, all trace to minor (except quartz) minerals found in shales and other mudrocks. [1]

Shales and mudrocks contain roughly 95 percent of the organic matter in all sedimentary rocks. However, this amounts to less than one percent by mass in an average shale. Black shales, which form in anoxic conditions, contain reduced free carbon along with ferrous iron (Fe2+) and sulfur (S2−). Pyrite and amorphous iron sulfide along with carbon produce the black coloration. [1]

Formation

Succession of shale overlying thick bed of fossiliferous chert, Pottsville Formation, Pennsylvanian, Ohio Boggs Member (Middle Pennsylvanian; Rock Cut, Muskingum County, Ohio, USA) 1 (37351496202).jpg
Succession of shale overlying thick bed of fossiliferous chert, Pottsville Formation, Pennsylvanian, Ohio

The process in the rock cycle which forms shale is called compaction. The fine particles that compose shale can remain suspended in water long after the larger particles of sand have deposited. Shales are typically deposited in very slow moving water and are often found in lakes and lagoonal deposits, in river deltas, on floodplains and offshore from beach sands. They can also be deposited in sedimentary basins and on the continental shelf, in relatively deep, quiet water.

'Black shales' are dark, as a result of being especially rich in unoxidized carbon. Common in some Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata, black shales were deposited in anoxic, reducing environments, such as in stagnant water columns. Some black shales contain abundant heavy metals such as molybdenum, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. [5] [6] [7] The enriched values are of controversial origin, having been alternatively attributed to input from hydrothermal fluids during or after sedimentation or to slow accumulation from sea water over long periods of sedimentation. [6] [8] [9]

Splitting shale (Messel oil shale) with a large knife to reveal fossils MesselShaleSplitting.JPG
Splitting shale (Messel oil shale) with a large knife to reveal fossils
Weathering shale at a road cut in southeastern Kentucky Shale 8040.jpg
Weathering shale at a road cut in southeastern Kentucky

Fossils, animal tracks/burrows and even raindrop impact craters are sometimes preserved on shale bedding surfaces. Shales may also contain concretions consisting of pyrite, apatite, or various carbonate minerals.

Shales that are subject to heat and pressure of metamorphism alter into a hard, fissile, metamorphic rock known as slate. With continued increase in metamorphic grade the sequence is phyllite, then schist and finally gneiss.

Historical mining terminology

Before the mid-19th century, the terms slate, shale and schist were not sharply distinguished. [10] In the context of underground coal mining, shale was frequently referred to as slate well into the 20th century. [11]

See also

Related Research Articles

Clay A finely-grained natural rock or soil containing mainly clay minerals

Clay is a type of fine-grained natural soil material that contains hydrous aluminium phyllosilicates that develops plasticity when wet. Geologic clay deposits are mostly composed of phyllosilicate minerals containing variable amounts of water trapped in the mineral structure. Clays are plastic due to particle size and geometry as well as water content, and become hard, brittle and non–plastic upon drying or firing. Depending on the soil's content in which it is found, clay can appear in various colours from white to dull grey or brown to deep orange-red.

Schist Medium grade metamorphic rock with lamellar grain

Schist is a medium-grade metamorphic rock formed from mudstone or shale. Schist has medium to large, flat, sheet-like grains in a preferred orientation. It is defined by having more than 50% platy and elongated minerals, often finely interleaved with quartz and feldspar. These lamellar minerals include micas, chlorite, talc, hornblende, graphite, and others. Quartz often occurs in drawn-out grains to such an extent that a particular form called quartz schist is produced. Schist is often garnetiferous. Schist forms at a higher temperature and has larger grains than phyllite. Geological foliation with medium to large grained flakes in a preferred sheetlike orientation is called schistosity.

Sedimentary rock Rock formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of material

Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the accumulation or deposition of mineral or organic particles at the Earth's surface, followed by cementation. Sedimentation is the collective name for processes that cause these particles to settle in place. The particles that form a sedimentary rock are called sediment, and may be composed of geological detritus (minerals) or biological detritus. The geological detritus originated from weathering and erosion of existing rocks, or from the solidification of molten lava blobs erupted by volcanoes. The geological detritus is transported to the place of deposition by water, wind, ice or mass movement, which are called agents of denudation. Biological detritus was formed by bodies and parts of dead aquatic organisms, as well as their fecal mass, suspended in water and slowly piling up on the floor of water bodies. Sedimentation may also occur as dissolved minerals precipitate from water solution.

Metamorphic rock Rock that was subjected to heat and pressure

Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form". The original rock (protolith) is subjected to heat and pressure, causing profound physical or chemical change. The protolith may be a sedimentary, igneous, or existing metamorphic rock.

Sedimentology encompasses the study of modern sediments such as sand, silt, and clay, and the processes that result in their formation, transport, deposition and diagenesis. Sedimentologists apply their understanding of modern processes to interpret geologic history through observations of sedimentary rocks and sedimentary structures.

Lithology

The lithology of a rock unit is a description of its physical characteristics visible at outcrop, in hand or core samples, or with low magnification microscopy. Physical characteristics include colour, texture, grain size, and composition. Lithology may refer to either a detailed description of these characteristics, or a summary of the gross physical character of a rock. Examples of lithologies in the second sense include sandstone, slate, basalt, or limestone.

Siltstone Sedimentary rock which has a grain size in the silt range

Siltstone is a clastic sedimentary rock that is composed mostly of silt. It is a form of mudrock with a low clay mineral content, which can be distinguished from shale by its lack of fissility.

Mudstone Fine grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds

Mudstone, a type of mudrock, is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. Mudstone is distinguished from shale by its lack of fissility.

Argillite Sedimentary rock, mostly of indurated clay particles

Argillite is a fine-grained sedimentary rock composed predominantly of indurated clay particles. Argillaceous rocks are basically lithified muds and oozes. They contain variable amounts of silt-sized particles. The argillites grade into shale when the fissile layering typical of shale is developed. Another name for poorly lithified argillites is mudstone. These rocks, although variable in composition, are typically high in aluminium and silica with variable alkali and alkaline earth cations. The term pelitic or pelite is often applied to these sediments and rocks. Metamorphism of argillites produces slate, phyllite, and pelitic schist.

Mudrock Class of fine grained siliciclastic sedimentary rocks

Mudrocks are a class of fine grained siliciclastic sedimentary rocks. The varying types of mudrocks include: siltstone, claystone, mudstone, slate, and shale. Most of the particles of which the stone is composed are less than 0.0625 mm and are too small to study readily in the field. At first sight the rock types look quite similar; however, there are important differences in composition and nomenclature. There has been a great deal of disagreement involving the classification of mudrocks. There are a few important hurdles to classification, including:

  1. Mudrocks are the least understood, and one of the most understudied sedimentary rocks to date
  2. It is difficult to study mudrock constituents, due to their diminutive size and susceptibility to weathering on outcrops
  3. And most importantly, there is more than one classification scheme accepted by scientists
Foliation (geology)

Foliation in geology refers to repetitive layering in metamorphic rocks. Each layer can be as thin as a sheet of paper, or over a meter in thickness. The word comes from the Latin folium, meaning "leaf", and refers to the sheet-like planar structure. It is caused by shearing forces, or differential pressure. The layers form parallel to the direction of the shear, or perpendicular to the direction of higher pressure. Nonfoliated metamorphic rocks are typically formed in the absence of significant differential pressure or shear. Foliation is common in rocks affected by the regional metamorphic compression typical of areas of mountain belt formation.

Clastic rock Sedimentary rocks made of mineral or rock fragments

Clastic rocks are composed of fragments, or clasts, of pre-existing minerals and rock. A clast is a fragment of geological detritus, chunks and smaller grains of rock broken off other rocks by physical weathering. Geologists use the term clastic with reference to sedimentary rocks as well as to particles in sediment transport whether in suspension or as bed load, and in sediment deposits.

Fissility (geology)

In geology, fissility is the ability or tendency of a rock to split along flat planes of weakness. These planes of weakness are oriented parallel to stratification in sedimentary rocks. Fissility is differentiated from scaly fabric in hand sample by the parting surfaces’ continuously parallel orientations to each other and to stratification. Fissility is distinguished from scaly fabric in thin section by the well-developed orientation of platy minerals such as mica. Fissility is the result of sedimentary or metamorphic processes.

This glossary of geology is a list of definitions of terms and concepts relevant to geology, its sub-disciplines, and related fields. For other terms related to the Earth sciences, see Glossary of geography terms.

Iron-rich sedimentary rocks

Iron-rich sedimentary rocks are sedimentary rocks which contain 15% or more iron. However, most sedimentary rocks contain iron in varying degrees. The majority of these rocks were deposited during specific geologic time periods: The Precambrian, the early Paleozoic, and the middle to late Mesozoic. Overall, they make up a very small portion of the total sedimentary record.

The geology of Arkansas includes deep 1.4 billion year old igneous crystalline basement rock from the Proterozoic known only from boreholes, overlain by extensive sedimentary rocks and even some volcanic rocks. The region was a shallow marine, riverine and coastal environment for much of the early Paleozoic as multi-cellular life became commonplace. At the end of the Paleozoic in the Permian the region experienced coal formation and extensive faulting and uplift related to the Ouachita orogeny mountain building event. Extensive erosion of new highlands created a mixture of continental and marine sediments and much of the state remained flooded even into the last 66 million years of the Cenozoic. In recent Pleistocene and Holocene time, glacial sediments poured into the region from the north, down major rivers, forming dunes and sedimentary ridges. Today, Arkansas has an active oil and gas industry, although hydraulic fracturing related earthquake swarms have limited extraction. Mining industries in the state also produce brines, sand, gravel and other industrial minerals.

Geology of Bosnia and Herzegovina

The geology of Bosnia & Herzegovina is the study of rocks, minerals, water, landforms and geologic history in the country. The oldest rocks exposed at or near the surface date to the Paleozoic and the Precambrian geologic history of the region remains poorly understood. Complex assemblages of flysch, ophiolite, mélange and igneous plutons together with thick sedimentary units are a defining characteristic of the Dinaric Alps, also known as the Dinaride Mountains, which dominate much of the country's landscape.

Hydrothermal mineral deposits are accumulations of valuable minerals which formed from hot waters circulating in Earth's crust through fractures. They eventually create rich-metallic fluids concentrated in a selected volume of rock, which become supersaturated and then precipitate ore minerals. In some occurrences, minerals can be extracted at a profit by mining. Discovery of mineral deposits consumes considerable time and resources and only about one in every one thousand prospects explored by companies are eventually developed into a mine. A mineral deposit is any geologically significant concentration of an economically useful rock or mineral present in a specified area. The presence of a known but unexploited mineral deposit implies a lack of evidence for profitable extraction.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Blatt, Harvey and Robert J. Tracy (1996) Petrology: Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic, 2nd ed., Freeman, pp. 281–292 ISBN   0-7167-2438-3
  2. 1 2 "Rocks: Materials of the Lithosphere – Summary". prenhall.com. Retrieved 2007-07-31.
  3. Boggs, Sam (2006). Principles of sedimentology and stratigraphy (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall. p. 139. ISBN   0131547283.
  4. Herbert, Bucksch (1996). Dictionary geotechnical engineering: English German. Springer. p. 61. ISBN   978-3540581642.
  5. R. Zangerl and E. S. Richardson (1963) The paleoecologic history of two Pennsylvanian shales, Fieldiana Memoirs v. 4, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago
  6. 1 2 J.D. Vine and E.B. Tourtelot (1970). "Geochemistry of black shale deposits – A summary report". Economic Geology. 65 (3): 253–273. doi:10.2113/gsecongeo.65.3.253.
  7. R.M. Coveney (1979). "Zinc concentrations in mid-continent Pennsylvanian black shales of Missouri and Kansas". Economic Geology. 74: 131–140. doi:10.2113/gsecongeo.74.1.131.
  8. R.M. Coveney (2003) "Metalliferous Paleozoic black shales and associated strata" in D.R. Lenz (ed.) Geochemistry of Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks, Geotext 4, Geological Association of Canada pp. 135–144
  9. H.D. Holland (1979). "Metals in black shales – A reassessment". Economic Geology. 70 (7): 1676–1680. doi:10.2113/gsecongeo.74.7.1676.
  10. R. W. Raymond (1881) "Slate" in A Glossary of Mining and Metallurigical Terms, American Institute of Mining Engineers. p. 78.
  11. Albert H. Fay (1920) "Slate" in A Glossary of the Mining and Mineral Industry, United States Bureau of Mines. p. 622.

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