Angeles National Forest

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Angeles National Forest
Angelesnationalforest.jpg
The San Gabriel Mountains, part of the Angeles National Forest. The southwest view from Islip Saddle shows Bear Creek, a tributary of the San Gabriel River that lies within the San Gabriel Wilderness, and Twin Peaks 7,761 feet (2,366 m).
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Location Los Angeles, San Bernardino, and Ventura counties, California, United States
Nearest city Los Angeles
Coordinates 34°20′N118°08′W / 34.333°N 118.133°W / 34.333; -118.133 Coordinates: 34°20′N118°08′W / 34.333°N 118.133°W / 34.333; -118.133
Area655,387 acres (2,652.26 km2)
EstablishedJuly 1, 1908
Governing body U.S. Forest Service
Website Angeles National Forest
Reference no.717 [1]
Monument Angeles National Forest Monument.jpg
Monument

The Angeles National Forest (ANF) of the U.S. Forest Service is located in the San Gabriel Mountains and Sierra Pelona Mountains, primarily within Los Angeles County in southern California. The ANF manages a majority of the San Gabriel Mountains National Monument.

Contents

The national forest was established in 1908, incorporating the first San Bernardino National Forest and parts of the former Santa Barbara and San Gabriel National Forests. Angeles National Forest headquarters are located in Arcadia, California.

Geography

The Angeles National Forest covers a total of 700,176 acres (1,094.0 sq mi; 2,833.5 km2), protecting large areas of the San Gabriel Mountains and Sierra Pelona Mountains. It is located just north of the densely inhabited metropolitan area of Greater Los Angeles.

While primarily within Los Angeles County, a small part extends eastward into southwestern San Bernardino County, in the Mount San Antonio ("Mount Baldy") area, and a tiny section also extends westward into northeastern Ventura County, in the Lake Piru area.

The San Gabriel Mountains National Monument, established in 2014 and managed by the U.S. Forest Service, is largely within the Angeles National Forest.

The John D. Dingell Jr. Conservation, Management, and Recreation Act of 2019 established the Saint Francis Dam Disaster National Memorial and Saint Francis Dam Disaster National Monument at and around the ruins of the St. Francis Dam in the Forest's San Francisquito Canyon. [2]

Wilderness areas

The Angeles National Forest contains five nationally designated wilderness areas. Two of these also extend into neighboring San Bernardino National Forest:

Climate

Climate data for Angeles National Forest (at San Gabriel Canyon)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °F (°C)68.5
(20.3)
69.1
(20.6)
70.0
(21.1)
73.3
(22.9)
77.9
(25.5)
84.0
(28.9)
91.5
(33.1)
91.7
(33.2)
87.5
(30.8)
80.9
(27.2)
75.5
(24.2)
68.5
(20.3)
78.2
(25.7)
Average low °F (°C)47.2
(8.4)
47.3
(8.5)
47.8
(8.8)
49.7
(9.8)
53.1
(11.7)
55.8
(13.2)
58.7
(14.8)
59.9
(15.5)
58.7
(14.8)
55.1
(12.8)
52.7
(11.5)
47.9
(8.8)
52.8
(11.6)
Average precipitation inches (mm)4.40
(112)
5.06
(129)
3.50
(89)
1.69
(43)
0.62
(16)
0.19
(4.8)
0.04
(1.0)
0.11
(2.8)
0.39
(9.9)
0.86
(22)
1.92
(49)
3.49
(89)
22.28
(566)
Source: [3]
Climate data for Angeles National Forest (at Hughes Lake)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °F (°C)51
(11)
55
(13)
59
(15)
64
(18)
71
(22)
80
(27)
89
(32)
89
(32)
84
(29)
73
(23)
60
(16)
53
(12)
68
(20)
Average low °F (°C)35
(2)
37
(3)
39
(4)
44
(7)
50
(10)
59
(15)
66
(19)
66
(19)
60
(16)
51
(11)
41
(5)
35
(2)
48
(9)
Average precipitation inches (mm)4.20
(107)
1.30
(33)
3.11
(79)
0.80
(20)
0.18
(4.6)
0
(0)
0.01
(0.25)
0.03
(0.76)
0.15
(3.8)
0.26
(6.6)
1.81
(46)
2.48
(63)
14.32
(364)
Average snowfall inches (cm)0
(0)
0.5
(1.3)
0.1
(0.25)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1.5
(3.8)
2.1
(5.3)
Source: [4]
Climate data for Angeles National Forest (at Mt. Baldy Notch)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °F (°C)42.7
(5.9)
42.3
(5.7)
41.7
(5.4)
48.0
(8.9)
59.1
(15.1)
67.7
(19.8)
75.3
(24.1)
77.4
(25.2)
68.1
(20.1)
59.8
(15.4)
48.3
(9.1)
42.2
(5.7)
56.0
(13.3)
Average low °F (°C)26.4
(−3.1)
25.7
(−3.5)
25.2
(−3.8)
29.4
(−1.4)
37.3
(2.9)
43.2
(6.2)
53.2
(11.8)
52.6
(11.4)
46.3
(7.9)
40.2
(4.6)
30.9
(−0.6)
26.0
(−3.3)
36.4
(2.4)
Average precipitation inches (mm)8.45
(215)
7.80
(198)
3.70
(94)
4.62
(117)
0.81
(21)
0.07
(1.8)
0.37
(9.4)
0.35
(8.9)
1.24
(31)
0.65
(17)
5.71
(145)
6.58
(167)
40.36
(1,025)
Average snowfall inches (cm)11.9
(30)
20.5
(52)
29.5
(75)
44.6
(113)
3.2
(8.1)
0.3
(0.76)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.5
(1.3)
0.9
(2.3)
6.3
(16)
13.5
(34)
131.3
(334)
Source: [5]

History

The San Gabriel Forest Reserve was established on December 20, 1892, the San Bernardino Forest Reserve was established on February 25, 1893, and the Santa Barbara Forest Reserve was established on December 22, 1903. Together, they became National Forests on March 4, 1907, and they were combined on July 1, 1908, with all of the San Bernardino forest and portions of San Gabriel forest and Santa Barbara forest composing the new Angeles National Forest. On September 30, 1925, portions of the Angeles National Forest and the Cleveland National Forest were detached to re-establish the San Bernardino National Forest. [6]

Angeles National Forest is registered as California Historical Landmark #717, for being the first National Forest in the state. [1]

The campgrounds at Broken Blade, Twisted Arrow and Pima Loops were closed on July 26, 2013, after squirrel infected with bubonic plague was discovered. [7]

Wildfires

2014, new growth emerges after the fires of 2012 LA Natl Forrest4.JPG
2014, new growth emerges after the fires of 2012

Loop Fire

On 1 November 1966, a fire started at 5:19 a.m. on the Los Pinetos Nike Site (LA-94). The fire spread, threatening medical facilities and residential areas south edge of the national forest. 12 firefighters with United States Forest Service's El Cariso "Hot Shot" crew were killed they were caught in a flare up in a canyon. 11 more firefighters were seriously burned in the incident. [8] The fire was brought under control on at 1:00 p.m. on 2 November, having burned 2,028 acres (8.21 km2). [8]

Station Fire

In the Station Fire, more than 161,000 acres (650 km2) of the forest were burned by an arson fire that began on August 26, 2009, near Angeles Crest Highway in La Cañada and quickly spread, fueled by dry brush that had not burned for over 150 years. The fire burned for more than a month and was the worst in Los Angeles County history, charring 250 square miles (650 km2), approximately one-fourth of the forest; displacing wildlife, and destroying 91 homes, cabins and outbuildings and the family-owned Hidden Springs Cafe.

During the fire, two firefighters died after driving off the Mt. Gleason County Road looking for an alternate route to get the inmates out at Camp 16. The Station Fire threatened the Mount Wilson Observatory atop Mt. Wilson . The site includes two telescopes, two solar towers, and transmitters for 22 television stations, several FM radio stations, and police and fire department emergency channels. Although the fire scorched one side of the outhouse at amateur-owned Stony Ridge Observatory, six miles northeast of Mt. Wilson, aside from minor damage from smoke and ash infiltration, the remainder of the observatory and its historic 30-inch Carroll telescope survived.

Bobcat Fire (2020)

In September and October 2020, the Bobcat Fire burned 115,796 acres (180.931 sq mi) (468 km2) in the central San Gabriel Mountains of the Angeles National Forest. It was one of the largest wildfires in Los Angeles County history. [9]

Natural history

The Angeles National Forest manages the habitats, flora and fauna ecosystems, and watersheds. Some of the rivers with watersheds within its boundaries provide valuable non-groundwater recharge water for Southern California. The existing protected and restored native vegetation absorb and slow surface runoff of rainwater to minimize severe floods and landslides in adjacent communities. [10] The land within the forest is diverse, both in appearance and terrain. Elevations range from 1,200 to 10,064 ft (366 to 3,068 m). The Pacific Crest Trail crosses the forest.

Flora

Various mountain plant life with the Chaparral yucca at right. LA Natl Forrest3.JPG
Various mountain plant life with the Chaparral yucca at right.

Much of this National Forest is covered with dense chaparral shrub forests with oak woodlands, which changes to pine and fir-covered slopes in the higher elevations. Subsequent to the fire there was a heavy growth of poodle-dog bush, apparently triggered by the fire's effect on dormant seeds, that lasted for several years. The plant produces prolific lavender flowers. Unfortunately, as visitors to the Forest discovered, contact with it may cause a poison-oak-like rash.

Tree species for which the forest is important include bigcone Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga macrocarpa ), Coulter pine (Pinus coulteri), and California walnut (Juglans californica). The National Forest also contains some 29,000 acres (12,000 ha) of old growth, with: Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) forests and mixed conifer forests (Coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), and white fir (Abies concolor)), and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) the most abundant types. [11]

Fauna

This forest is home to black bears, gray foxes, bobcats, cougars, mule deer, bighorn sheep, rattlesnakes and coyotes.

Access

A National Forest Adventure Pass is required for parking at many locations in the Angeles National Forest and other National Forests in Southern California, and this can be obtained online or from visitor centers and local merchants. [12] Los Angeles County has declared that passes are not required on county-maintained roads. There are also many other areas that do not require the pass.

General information

Angeles National Forest, the two green areas north of Los Angeles. AngelesNFmap.png
Angeles National Forest, the two green areas north of Los Angeles.

Ranger Districts

Trails

Natural features

The east fork of the San Gabriel River is one of most visited sites in the forest system. ANF East Fork01.jpg
The east fork of the San Gabriel River is one of most visited sites in the forest system.

Sensitive species

Mountain peaks

Mount Islip. Mount-Islip.jpg
Mount Islip.
Mount Harwood, from Devils Backbone Mount Harwood from Devils Backbone.jpg
Mount Harwood, from Devils Backbone

Mountains within the Angeles National Forest include:

All the above mountains are part of the San Gabriel Mountains, except for Burnt Peak, which is in the Sierra Pelona Mountains.

Water recreation

Volunteer organizations

California Historical Landmark

The California Historical Landmark Marker NO. 717 at San Gabriel Mountain, Clear Creek vista point, State Hwy 2, 8.3 mi N of I-210, La Canada reads: [23]

See also

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San Gabriel Wilderness Protected wilderness area in California, United States

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Henninger Flats Place in Angeles National Forest

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Strawberry Peak Mountain in southern California, United States

Strawberry Peak is a prominent peak in the San Gabriel Mountains of Los Angeles County, California. It is located about 10 miles (16 km) north of Pasadena, and 28 miles (45 km) from Los Angeles, along the Angeles Crest Highway. Strawberry Peak is the tallest of the front range peaks, being three feet higher than nearby San Gabriel Peak. Both can be widely seen from greater Los Angeles and the San Gabriel Valley, and are popular with hikers. Other prominent nearby peaks include Josephine Peak and Mount Wilson. Strawberry Peak was named by mountaineers over a century ago, who felt the peak resembled an enormous upside-down strawberry.

Mount Baldy, California Unincorporated community in California, United States

Mount Baldy or Mount Baldy Village, formerly Camp Baynham and Camp Baldy, is an unincorporated community in the San Gabriel Mountains, in San Bernardino County near the eastern border of Los Angeles County, in Southern California. It is located below Mount San Antonio, commonly known as "Mount Baldy", hence its name.

San Gabriel Mountains Trailbuilders

The San Gabriel Mountains Trailbuilders (SGMTBs) is a 501(c)3 non-profit volunteer organization which performs hiking and nature trail building and maintenance within the Los Angeles Gateway District of the United States Forest Service which maintains the Angeles National Forest within the San Gabriel Mountains.

References

  1. 1 2 "Angeles National Forest". Office of Historic Preservation, California State Parks. Retrieved 2012-10-07.
  2. "Trump's signature means St. Francis Dam memorial is coming". Ventura County Star. Retrieved 2019-04-01.
  3. "SAN GABRIEL CANYON, CALIFORNIA (047776)". www.wrcc.dri.edu. Retrieved April 19, 2021.
  4. "LAKE HUGHES, CALIFORNIA". www.weatherbase.com. Retrieved April 19, 2021.
  5. "MT BALDY NOTCH, CALIFORNIA (045901)". www.wrcc.dri.edu. Retrieved March 27, 2021.
  6. Davis, Richard C. (September 29, 2005), National Forests of the United States (PDF), The Forest History Society
  7. "Plague squirrel closes Calif. campgrounds". USA Today. July 26, 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
  8. 1 2 Pyles, Hamilton; Spaulding, Alfred; Wilson, Carl; Moore, William; Brunton, George (n.d.). "The Loop Fire Disaster" (PDF). Fireleadership.gov. United States Forest Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 May 2019. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  9. "Bobcat Information - InciWeb the Incident Information System". inciweb.nwcg.gov.
  10. Lockman, Ronald F., 1981. Guarding the Forests of Southern California: Evolving Attitudes Toward Conservation of Watershed, Woodlands, and Wilderness (Glendale: A. H. Clarke).
  11. Warbington, Ralph; Beardsley, Debby (2002), 2002 Estimates of Old Growth Forests on the 18 National Forests of the Pacific Southwest Region, United States Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Region
  12. "Angeles Passes and Permits". Angeles Permits. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 2008-02-14.
  13. USFS.gov: Mt. Islip fire lookout tower
  14. Sierra Madre Search & Rescue
  15. San Gabriel Mountain Trailbuilders
  16. West Fork Conservancy
  17. Angeles Volunteer Association
  18. Fisheries Resource Volunteer Corps
  19. San Dimas Mountain Rescue Team
  20. Save The East Fork
  21. (Facebook: Helping Our Mountain Environment page)
  22. "Lowelifes RCC". Lowelifes Respectable Citizens' Club. Retrieved 2021-07-27.
  23. californiahistoricallandmarks.com 717, Angeles National Forest

Further reading