Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary

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Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary
IUCN category V (protected landscape/seascape)
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Coordinates 34°N120°W / 34°N 120°W / 34; -120 Coordinates: 34°N120°W / 34°N 120°W / 34; -120
Area1,470 sq mi (3,800 km2)
Established1980
Governing body National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
www.cinms.nos.noaa.gov
Map of Channel Islands sanctuary Channel Islands NMS map.jpg
Map of Channel Islands sanctuary
Santa Barbara Maritime Museum Santa Barbara Maritime Museum.JPG
Santa Barbara Maritime Museum

The Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary is a sanctuary off the Pacific coast of Southern California. The National Marine Sanctuary program is administered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Established May 5, 1980, the sanctuary in the Santa Barbara Channel is an area of national significance because of its natural environment and resources. It also had removed sheep from the islands to conserve vegetation among the islands to keep its natural environment, grass and plants. It has an area of 1,470 square miles (3,800 km2) [1] and encompasses the waters that surround Anacapa, Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, San Miguel and Santa Barbara Islands (five of the eight Channel Islands of California), extending from mean high tide to 6 nautical miles (11 km) offshore around each of the five islands. The sanctuary is home to a diverse array of marine species, including whales. It also provides protection to more than 150 historic shipwrecks and is a place of important cultural significance for the Chumash people. Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary provides protection for its natural and cultural resources through education, conservation, science, and stewardship. [1]

Recreational activities

Spanish shawl nudibranch seen in shallow water, CINMS Spanish shawl nudibranch (Flabellina iodinea) CINMS.jpg
Spanish shawl nudibranch seen in shallow water, CINMS

There are many recreational activities at the sanctuary, including scuba diving, snorkeling, kayaking, boating, guided trips and sailing, viewing whales and other wildlife, and fishing. The sanctuary is home to a diverse array of marine mammals. Its waters and anchorages also make the sanctuary a year-round destination for recreation boaters and kayakers. [2]

In an effort to balance recreation and conservation, the California Fish and Game Commission established a network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) within the nearshore waters of the sanctuary in 2002. NOAA expanded the MPA network into the sanctuary's deeper waters in 2006 and 2007. The entire MPA network consists of 11 marine reserves; Richardson Rock, Judith Rock, Harris Point, South Point, Carrington Point, Skunk Point, Gull Island, Painted Cave, Scorpion, Footprint, and Anacopa Island. [3] All take and harvest from these marine reserves is prohibited. There are two marine conservation areas that allow limited take of lobster and pelagic fish. This MPA network encompasses 241 square nautical miles (or 318 square miles).

More than 150 historic ships and aircraft have been reported lost within the waters of the sanctuary, although just 25 have been discovered to date. Scuba divers can view some of the protected wrecks within the sanctuary, but should be mindful that removal of any artifacts is prohibited by federal regulations. The Santa Barbara Maritime Museum is a local resource for learning about shipwrecks and other maritime history in the Santa Barbara Channel.

Visitors to the sanctuary that decide to go ashore can go camping, hiking, and other activities at Channel Islands National Park.

Education

"Los Marineros" is a marine education program for children founded by the CINMS in 1987, and administered by the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History. Kids 300.jpg
"Los Marineros" is a marine education program for children founded by the CINMS in 1987, and administered by the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History.
Marine life off Santa Cruz Island Channel Islands marine life.jpg
Marine life off Santa Cruz Island

The Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary is dedicated to education and outreach. Their many programs help teach about understanding and conservation of marine resources. [4]

MERITO

The Multicultural Education for Resource Issues Threatening Oceans (MERITO) is a multicultural education program partnered with Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary. MERITO (which means ‘merit’ in Spanish) began implementation at CINMS in 2006 and delivers bilingual ocean conservation related products and services to students, teachers, adults, and families living near the Santa Barbara Channel region. A few MERITO program examples are the bilingual outreach program, MERITO internships, and the CINMS sponsored MERITO academy.

Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary visitor centers and exhibits display, promote and interpret the importance of the sanctuary and the resources it protects. Furthermore, the Channel Islands Naturalist Corps, is a group of specially trained volunteers dedicated to educating passengers on board whale watch vessels visiting the sanctuary and Channel Islands National Park.

MPA Education

Sanctuary staff work with the Sanctuary Education Team (SET), a working group of the Sanctuary Advisory Council, to identify target audiences, outreach tools, and delivery methods to communicate messages about the MPA network. Educational tools include: workshops for teachers and students, curriculum materials, signage and exhibits, multimedia products and adult education programs.

Outreach Products

The sanctuary distributes brochures and pamphlets for the public covering topics such as boat safety, scuba diver safety and responsible whale watching to promote responsible use of the sanctuary. The official website also contains additional information such as a shipwreck database, an encyclopedia of species found within the sanctuary, and a marine mammal sightings database.

Teacher and Student Resources

Research

Channel Islands kelp forests off San Miguel and Santa Rosa islands. Kelp beds are difficult to spot in conventional color air photos, but stand out clearly in this near-infrared image from Landsat data. Channel Islands kelp beds 2013.jpg
Channel Islands kelp forests off San Miguel and Santa Rosa islands. Kelp beds are difficult to spot in conventional color air photos, but stand out clearly in this near-infrared image from Landsat data.

The Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary is recognized regularly as an ecologically significant place with tremendous biodiversity. Partnerships have been developed with other government agencies, such as the National Marine Fisheries Service, the National Park Service and the Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada, as well as regional and international academic institutions such as the University of California, Santa Barbara, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Simon Fraser University and the University of Auckland, New Zealand. These partnerships are facilitated by staff research expertise as well as operational support provided by the NOAA research vessels Shearwater and Shark Cat.

The sanctuary is currently engaging in the following research:

MPA monitoring

Within the sanctuary, there is a network of 13 state and federal marine reserves and conservation areas that provide additional protections to the ecosystem. This marine reserves network was established to protect whole ecosystems and restore ecosystem health. One possible effect of marine reserves is that they may provide ”spillover benefits” to areas outside the reserves. Sanctuary staff is currently conducting research on the effectiveness of marine reserves for community dynamics. [6] In one project, performed in collaboration with the Channel Islands National Park and colleagues at Simon Fraser University in Burnaby B.C., staff are evaluating the food web interactions expressed in the long-term, Kelp Forest Monitoring data set that the Channel Islands National Park has been collecting since 1984. That project has revealed that trophic relationships within MPAs are more robust, while outside MPAs these relationships are less so and the food web shows lower resilience and stability. In other work, with colleagues at the University of Auckland, they are examining potential competition between predators protected within MPAs (large fish and lobsters) and fishers who are targeting the prey of those predators (sea urchins). In addition, the sanctuary’s ongoing maintenance of a network of oceanographic sensors provides a data stream that can contribute to our understanding of larval transport and adult animal movement across MPA boundaries.

Climate variability

This satellite image shows the sea-water temperature variations around the Northern Channel Islands. Temperature ranges are: blue = 44-52deg F, green-yellow = 56-64deg F, and orange-red = 65-72deg F. From west to east, the islands are: San Miguel, Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, and Anacapa. Temperature variation in the Northern Channel Islands.jpg
This satellite image shows the sea-water temperature variations around the Northern Channel Islands. Temperature ranges are: blue = 44–52° F, green-yellow = 56–64° F, and orange-red = 65–72° F. From west to east, the islands are: San Miguel, Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, and Anacapa.

Sanctuary staff are currently looking at how short term changes in climate can affect local conditions across large areas. Their work on the role of variability in jet stream trajectory and strength in determining seasonal variability in central Siberia allows a new and significantly more accurate ability to forecast the arrival of harsh winters several months in advance. This work has contributed to a better, more mechanistic understanding of the connectedness of climate processes across the Northern Hemisphere, from Siberia all the way to the US West Coast. More recently, they are looking at how these same processes manifest in long term data on winds along the Central and Southern California coast to see how climate variability signals can affect local winds in the Santa Barbara Channel area. Variation in wind strength has ecological effects by driving upwelling and also has a practical implication for local mariners: if climate change causes more windy days, there are fewer days for boating and fishing in the sanctuary. Additionally, the sanctuary’s ongoing maintenance of a network of moorings provides a continuous data series of oceanographic conditions in nearshore waters that is informing climate variability studies.

SAMSAP

The Sanctuary Aerial Monitoring and Spatial Analysis Program (SAMSAP) is an ongoing long-term aerial monitoring program that collects data on vessel and visitor use patterns and cetacean populations within the sanctuary. SAMSAP has been active since 1997 and has been instrumental in providing vital data for management, research, and emergency response needs.

Whale research

After populations of large whales were decimated by whaling in the last two centuries, several species are rebounding. Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary is a seasonal home to several species of those large whales. From Early Spring to late Fall the sanctuary sees increasing numbers of humpback, blue and fin whales- with seasonally migrating gray whales transiting the sanctuary on their trips between the North Pacific and the lagoons of Baja California. At times, large whales aggregate in tremendous numbers, with as many as 186 unique photo identifications occurring in a single day. Understanding the causes of this aggregation, such as bloom dynamics of the krill the whales feed on, can provide valuable forecasting information to predict where whales are likely to be in the near term. [7] This information in turn could aid in reducing whale-ship interactions. Ongoing work has focused on behavioral responses of large whales to close encounters with large vessels transiting the Santa Barbara Channel. This work is being extended to focus on two problems: how variability in krill depth is key to whale decision making, and how the whales are selecting specific sized prey within pools of mixed-age krill. To get after these questions, sanctuary staff and contractors are combining an ongoing program of tagging large whales with time-depth-location recording tags with systematic mapping of krill fields around the sanctuary. The sanctuary is assisting the work of partners from Cascadia Research Collective and Scripps Institution of Oceanography.

Shipping

The Port of Los Angeles and Long Beach is the largest commercial harbor on the west coast with over 6,500 vessels stopping each year. Much of that traffic passes the Santa Barbara Channel and the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary on its way to ports around the Pacific Rim. These vessels are large, with some being over 1,000 feet long, and fast; they can travel at speeds over 20 knots. They also emit significant exhaust into the area and are the principal source of underwater noise in the sanctuary. To keep track of how these ships may affect the sanctuary staff have been building on a long-term program to monitor broad band acoustics in and around the sanctuary. [8] As a first step they are developing data management solutions with partners at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis for two new data streams: broadband acoustic data and Automatic Identification System (AIS) data on ship travel. Although both sources of data were originally developed for other objectives—oceanographic research and safety at sea—these data streams provide valuable information for evaluation of spatial use patterns. For example, recent work evaluating California State air quality rulings on vessel fuel use demonstrated a major change in traffic patterns and emerging conflicts in use of the ocean by shipping and National Defense interests. Evaluating these data in the context of shifts of vessel traffic has also revealed quantitative relationships between economic indicators (numbers of ships and amount of cargo) and noise levels in the sanctuary.

Deep water communities

The sanctuary contains a significant amount of deep water habitat: about 91.5% of the sanctuary is deeper than 100 ft. From depths of 100 ft to over 5,000 ft, deep water habitat experiences cold water, almost no light, and low oxygen, yet a variety of specially adapted animals such as corals, sponges, crabs, shrimp, fish, anemones, cucumbers, seastars, and worms reside here. In 2010, a NOAA expedition surveyed an underwater feature in the Footprint Marine Reserve to learn more about the abundance and distribution of coral and sponge habitat and to study the chemistry of the water in which these animals live.

Maritime Heritage

Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary is responsible for the protection and preservation of submerged remains of the past that occupy the bottomlands of the sanctuary. Cultural and historic submerged sites include archaeological remains of shipwrecks and prehistoric land sites. Sanctuary stewardship responsibilities include a mandate to inventory sites, encourage research, provide public education and oversee responsible visitor use.

Chumash

Chumash Tomol 'Elye'wun paddlers near Santa Cruz Island, CINMS 2006 Chumash Tomol 'Elye'wun paddlers, CINMS.jpg
Chumash Tomol 'Elye'wun paddlers near Santa Cruz Island, CINMS 2006

The northern Channel Islands have been home to the Chumash people for millennia, with the earliest known human remains dating back more than 13,000 years ago. The Chumash community continues to celebrate their maritime heritage through local cultural events, such as an annual crossing of the Santa Barbara Channel on traditional plank canoes known as tomols. [9]

Protected species

California sea lions in the kelp forest off San Miguel Island, CINMS. Over 80,000 California sea lions live and breed in the Channel Islands. These and other marine mammals are protected by the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972. California sea lions in the kelp forest off San Miguel Island.jpg
California sea lions in the kelp forest off San Miguel Island, CINMS. Over 80,000 California sea lions live and breed in the Channel Islands. These and other marine mammals are protected by the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972.
Brown pelicans, Pelecanus occidentalis, CINMS Brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), CINMS.jpg
Brown pelicans, Pelecanus occidentalis , CINMS

All species listed are found within Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary and are recognized as endangered, threatened, or as a species of concern under the Endangered Species Act and/or California Endangered Species Act. [10]

Endangered species found within the sanctuary

The species listed below are categorized by Federal and California state government as endangered:

Threatened species found within the sanctuary

The species listed below are categorized by Federal and California state government as threatened:

Species of concern found within the sanctuary

The species listed below are categorized by Federal and California state government as species of concern

Delisted species found within the sanctuary

The species listed below are categorized by Federal and California state government as delisted

Sanctuary Advisory Council

The Sanctuary Advisory Council was established in December 1998 to assure continued public participation in management of the sanctuary. Since its establishment, the Council has played a vital role in the decisions affecting the sanctuary, bringing valuable community advice and expertise to the task of assuring effective sanctuary management. The Council provides a public forum for consultation and community deliberation on resource management issues affecting the waters surrounding the Channel Islands. It is composed of 21 member and 21 alternate seats that include local stakeholder groups and governmental agencies.

Threats to the sanctuary

Protecting the resources of Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary is a collaborative effort involving local, state and federal agencies as well as numerous non-governmental organizations. The sanctuary focuses on education, permitting, regulations, emergency response preparedness, enforcement, and consultation with other agencies to help protect the sanctuary's resources. In addition, staff meet regularly with the Sanctuary Advisory Council for advice on how to ensure appropriate protection and enjoyment of the sanctuary.

Current threats in the sanctuary include ship strikes on endangered whales, ocean acidification, invasive species, damage to eelgrass beds, marine debris, poaching, and water pollution. [12]

See also

Related Research Articles

Channel Islands (California) Archipelago off the coast of southern California, US

The Channel Islands are an eight-island archipelago located within the Southern California Bight in the Pacific Ocean, off the coast of California. The four Northern Channel Islands are part of the Transverse Ranges geologic province, and the four Southern Channel Islands are part of the Peninsular Ranges province. Five of the islands are within the Channel Islands National Park, and the waters surrounding these islands make up Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary. The Nature Conservancy was instrumental in establishing the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary. The islands were inhabited as early as 13,000 years ago, the earliest paleontological evidence of humans in North America. They are the easternmost islands in the Pacific Island group.

The National Ocean Service (NOS), an office within the U.S. Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is responsible for preserving and enhancing the nation's coastal resources and ecosystems along 95,000 miles (153,000 km) of shoreline bordering 3,500,000 square miles (9,100,000 km2) of coastal, Great Lakes, and ocean waters. Its mission is to "provide science-based solutions through collaborative partnerships to address evolving economic, environmental, and social pressures on our oceans and coasts." NOS works closely with many partner agencies to ensure that ocean and coastal areas are safe, healthy, and productive. National Ocean Service scientists, natural resource managers, and specialists ensure safe and efficient marine transportation, promote innovative solutions to protect coastal communities, and conserve marine and coastal places. NOS is a scientific and technical organization of 1,700 scientists, natural resource managers, and specialists in many different fields.

Greater Farallones National Marine Sanctuary

The Greater Farallones National Marine Sanctuary protects the wildlife, habitats, and cultural resources of one of the most diverse and bountiful marine environments in the world, an area of 3,295 square miles off the northern and central California coast. The waters within Greater Farallones National Marine Sanctuary are part of a nationally significant marine ecosystem, and support an abundance of life, including many threatened or endangered species.

Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

The Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS) is a US Federally protected marine area offshore of California's Big Sur and central coast. It is the largest US national marine sanctuary and has a shoreline length of 276 miles (444 km) stretching from just north of the Golden Gate Bridge at San Francisco to Cambria in San Luis Obispo County. Supporting one of the world’s most diverse marine ecosystems, it is home to numerous mammals, seabirds, fishes, invertebrates and plants in a remarkably productive coastal environment. The MBNMS was established in 1992 for the purpose of resource protection, research, education, and public use.

Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary

Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary is a marine sanctuary located off the coast of California. It protects an area of 1,286 sq mi (3,331 km2) of marine wildlife. The administrative center of the sanctuary is on an offshore granite outcrop 4.5 sq mi (12 km2) by 9.5 sq mi (25 km2), located on the continental shelf off of California. The outcrop is, at its closest, 6 mi (10 km) from the sanctuary itself.

National Marine Sanctuary of American Samoa

The National Marine Sanctuary of American Samoa is a national marine sanctuary in American Samoa. It is the smallest, yet one of the most important, marine sanctuaries as it is home to more fish and marine mammals than any other marine sanctuary. It also provides a natural food source for sharks and other predators of the ocean.

Elkhorn Slough Body of water in Monterey County, California

Elkhorn Slough is a 7-mile-long (11 km) tidal slough and estuary on Monterey Bay in Monterey County, California. It is California's second largest estuary and the United States' first estuarine sanctuary. The community of Moss Landing and the Moss Landing Power Plant are located at the mouth of the slough on the bay.

Asilomar State Marine Reserve

Asilomar State Marine Reserve (SMR) is one of four small marine protected areas (MPAs) located near the cities of Monterey and Pacific Grove, at the southern end of Monterey Bay on California’s central coast. The four MPAs together encompass 2.96 square miles (7.7 km2). The SMR protects all marine life within its boundaries. Fishing and take of all living marine resources is prohibited.

Año Nuevo State Marine Conservation Area

Año Nuevo State Marine Conservation Area (SMCA) is one of two adjoining marine protected areas off the coast of San Mateo and Santa Cruz Counties, on California’s central coast. The area is approximately 55 miles south of San Francisco. The SMCA is 11.07 square miles. Except for limited taking of giant kelp, all living marine resources are protected.

Moro Cojo Slough State Marine Reserve

Moro Cojo Estuary State Marine Reserve (SMR) is a marine protected area established to protect the wildlife and habitats in Moro Cojo Slough. Moro Cojo Slough is located inland from Monterey Bay on the central coast of California, directly south of the more widely known Elkhorn Slough. The area covers 0.46 square miles (1.2 km2). The SMR protects all marine life within its boundaries. Fishing and take of all living marine resources is prohibited.

Gerstle Cove State Marine Reserve

Gerstle Cove State Marine Reserve (SMR) is a marine protected area that lies onshore from Salt Point State Park, within the Salt Point State Marine Conservation Area, in Sonoma County on California’s north central coast. The marine protected area covers 0.1 square miles. Gerstle Cove SMR prohibits the take of all living resources.

Cambria State Marine Conservation Area

Cambria State Marine Conservation Area (SMCA) is a marine protected area located off the coast of the city of Cambria, California on California’s central coast in San Luis Obispo County, California. The marine protected area covers 6.26 square miles (16.2 km2). Within the SMCA recreational fishing and take is allowed while commercial fishing and take of all living marine resources is prohibited.

Edward F. Ricketts State Marine Conservation Area

Edward F. Ricketts State Marine Conservation Area is one of four small marine protected areas located near the cities of Monterey and Pacific Grove, at the southern end of Monterey Bay on California’s central coast. The four areas together encompass 2.96 square miles (7.7 km2). Within SMCAs fishing and take of all living marine resources is prohibited except the recreational take of finfish by hook-and-line and the commercial take of giant and bull kelp under certain conditions.

Greyhound Rock State Marine Conservation Area Marine protected area in Californias central coast

Greyhound Rock State Marine Conservation Area (SMCA) is one of two adjoining marine protected areas off the coast of San Mateo County and Santa Cruz County, on California's central coast. The area is approximately 55 miles (89 km) south of San Francisco. The SMCA is 11.81 square miles (30.6 km2). Within the SMCA fishing and take of all living marine resources is prohibited except the recreational take of giant kelp, squid, salmon, and other finfish, subject to various conditions. Also permitted is the commercial take of giant kelp, salmon, and squid, subject to various conditions.

Lovers Point State Marine Reserve

Lovers Point State Marine Reserve (SMR) is one of four small marine protected areas located near the cities of Monterey and Pacific Grove, at the southern end of Monterey Bay on California’s central coast. The four MPAs together encompass 2.96 square miles (7.7 km2). The SMR protects all marine life within its boundaries. Fishing and take of all living marine resources is prohibited.

Pacific Grove Marine Gardens State Marine Conservation Area

Pacific Grove Marine Gardens State Marine Conservation Area is one of four small marine protected areas located near the cities of Monterey and Pacific Grove, at the southern end of Monterey Bay on California’s central coast. The four MPAs together encompass 2.96 square miles (7.7 km2). Within the SMCA fishing and take of all living marine resources is prohibited except the recreational take of finfish and the commercial take of giant and bull kelp by hand under certain conditions. According to the Frommer's guide, the Marine Gardens area is "renowned for ocean views, flowers, and tide-pool seaweed beds."

Piedras Blancas State Marine Reserve and Marine Conservation Area

Piedras Blancas State Marine Reserve (SMR) and Piedras Blancas State Marine Conservation Area (SMCA) are two adjoining marine protected areas that lie offshore of San Luis Obispo County on California’s central coast. The combined area of these marine protected areas is 19.68 square miles (51.0 km2). The SMR protects all marine life within its boundaries. Fishing and take of all living marine resources is prohibited. Within the SMCA fishing and take of all living marine resources is prohibited except the commercial and recreational take of salmon and albacore.

Point Sur State Marine Reserve and Marine Conservation Area

Point Sur State Marine Reserve (SMR) and Point Sur State Marine Conservation Area (SMCA) are two adjoining marine protected areas that lie offshore of Point Sur, part of the Big Sur area on California's central coast. The combined area of these marine protected areas is 19.68 square miles (51.0 km2). The SMR protects all marine life within its boundaries. Fishing and take of all living marine resources is prohibited. Within the SMCA fishing and take of all living marine resources is prohibited except the commercial and recreational take of salmon and albacore.

Portuguese Ledge State Marine Conservation Area (SMCA) is an offshore marine protected area in Monterey Bay. Monterey Bay is on California’s central coast with the city of Monterey at its south end and the city of Santa Cruz at its north end. The SMCA covers 10.9 square miles (28 km2). Within the SMCA fishing and take of all living marine resources is prohibited except the commercial and recreational take of pelagic finfish.

White Rock (Cambria) State Marine Conservation Area

White Rock (Cambria) State Marine Conservation Area (SMCA) is a marine protected area located off the coast of the city of Cambria, California on California’s central coast. The marine protected area covers 2.32 square miles (6.0 km2). Within the SMCA the take of all living marine resources is prohibited except the commercial take of giant kelp and bull kelp under certain conditions.

References

  1. 1 2 "About the Sanctuary". Channel Island National Marine Sanctuary website. NOAA. July 14, 2010. Retrieved 24 March 2011.
  2. "Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary". Visit Santa Barbara. Retrieved 2019-04-11.
  3. US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. "NOAA's Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary". channelislands.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2019-04-11.
  4. Administration, US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric. "NOAA's Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary". channelislands.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2016-11-05.
  5. Floating Forests Revealed, NASA Earth Observatory, January 6, 2015
  6. Hamilton, SL; Caselle, JE; Malone, DP; Carr, MH (2010). "Incorporating biogeography into evaluations of the Channel Islands marine reserve network". PNAS. 107 (43): 18272–18277. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0908091107 . PMC   2973008 . PMID   20176956.
  7. "Blue whale habitat and prey in the California Channel Islands". Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography. 45.
  8. Administration, US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric. "NOAA's Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary". channelislands.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2016-11-05.
  9. Rick, Torben C.; Erlandson, Jon M.; Vellanoweth, René L.; Braje, Todd J. (2005). "From Pleistocene Mariners to Complex Hunter-Gatherers: The Archaeology of the California Channel Islands". Journal of World Prehistory. 19 (3): 169–228. doi:10.1007/s10963-006-9004-x. S2CID   162492009.
  10. California, State of. "Threatened and Endangered Species - California Department of Fish and Wildlife". www.dfg.ca.gov. Retrieved 2016-11-05.
  11. "Island Fox - Channel Islands National Park (U.S. National Park Service)". www.nps.gov. Retrieved 2016-11-05.
  12. Keller, BD; Gleason, DF; McLeod, E; et al. (December 2009). "Climate Change, Coral Reef Ecosystems, and Management Options for Marine Protected Areas". Environmental Management. 44 (6): 1069–88. doi:10.1007/s00267-009-9346-0. PMC   2791481 . PMID   19636605.