San Timoteo Canyon

Last updated
View from Redlands of orange groves in San Timoteo Canyon. Redlands, ca.jpg
View from Redlands of orange groves in San Timoteo Canyon.

San Timoteo Canyon is a river valley canyon southeast of Redlands, in the far northwestern foothills of the San Jacinto Mountains in the Inland Empire region of Southern California.

Contents

Geography

The canyon runs from its southern inflow mouth in Beaumont in Riverside County, in a northwest alignment, to its northern outflow mouth west of Redlands and east of Loma Linda in San Bernardino County. [1]

San Timoteo Creek formed the canyon, and flows northwest through it to its confluence with the Santa Ana River, being a tributary of it. The creek drains the Banning Valley west of the San Gorgonio Pass water divide, and the watersheds of the San Bernardino and San Jacinto Mountains that feed into it.

History

The canyon was part of the winter homeland of the Serrano people for thousands of years. There were hot springs in the area.

The San Bernardino de Sena Estancia was established in 1819 as a ranch outpost Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, for the grazing of cattle by the Mission Indians. The original buildings grew to include a chapel, tile kiln, lime kiln, and a grist mill.

The canyon was part of Rancho San Bernardino, the 1842 Mexican land grant by Alta California Governor Juan B. Alvarado to José del Carmen Lugo, José María Lugo, Vicente Lugo, and Diego Sepulveda. [2]

Irving Gang, Cahuilla posse, and American militia

On the 27th day of May, 1851, Juan Antonio, the Californian Native American chief of the Mountain Cahuilla band, with a group of his tribesmen pursued and fought the Irving Gang of John "Red" Irving and his San Francisco and Sydney outlaws in San Timoteo Canyon. Irving's band of raiding thieves had robbed people and stolen property throughout the San Bernardino Valley, including on Rancho San Bernardino where Juan Antonio's Cahuilla village at Politana was located. Acting on the orders of the local Justice of the Peace, the Californio owner of the rancho and whose house the Irving Gang were robbing at the time, the Cahuilla attacked and pursued them into San Timoteo Canyon, where in a running fight they killed eleven of the twelve men in the gang after they refused to surrender. [3] There were decades of precedent for the Mountain Cahuilla who working on the local ranchos, tracking and hunting down bandits and other tribe's raiders was a service they were requested for in the San Bernardino region, during the 1822—1846 Mexican rule in Alta California. With this 1851 order, they were still authorized to carry out legally requested local law enforcement actions, now within the year old U.S. state. [3]

However some newly arrived American settlers to Southern California and the area resented the killing of "white men" by "indians" and mistook it to be the beginning of a Mission Indian uprising. A company of militia from the Presidio of San Diego was sent against the Cahuilla. [3] At the time, present day San Bernardino and Riverside Counties were within San Diego County, and served by troops based at the presidio. Juan Antonio's Cahuilla band fled Politana, going to their homelands in the San Jacinto Mountains. The American leader of the militia, Major General Joshua Bean, discovered the truth about the events and with difficulty restrained his troops from attacking the Cahuilla, preventing a battle and massacre. [3]

Closely following the outcome of the Irving Gang incident, in late 1851, Juan Antonio, his warriors and their families, moved eastward from Politana, toward the San Gorgonio Pass and settled in a valley which branched off to the north from San Timoteo Canyon, at a village named Saahatpa. [3]

In November 1851, the Garra Revolt occurred, a conflict of the Yuma War. The Cupeño leader Antonio Garra attempted to bring Juan Antonio and the Mountain Cahuilla band into the Serrano, Cahuilla and Cupeño Indians independence revolt. Juan Antonio, a new ally of the Americans, captured Antonio Garra, and turned him over to American officials ending the Garra Revolt. [3]

American expansion

One of San Timoteo Canyon's more famous residents was the teenaged Wyatt Earp, whose family lived in the canyon from 1864 to 1868.

The canyon was used in 1877 by the Southern Pacific Railroad for its new southern transcontinental route's tracks into/out of the Los Angeles Basin and Southern California, to/from the eastern U.S.

For a time in the mid-1950s it was considered as one of three possible alignments for the path of Interstate 10 in California, as part of the new Interstate Highway System program, though the central route through Redlands was selected. [4]

Parks

San Timoteo Canyon State Park

San Timoteo Canyon State Park is in development for public access and recreation facilities, and is not yet open. [5] [6] In 2001 a portion of the canyon, through the efforts of the Riverside Land Conservancy and others, was protected for a regional park, and then came under management of the California State Parks department. [7]

When the regional park opens, it will add some much-needed public open space for the fast-growing Inland Empire. The park's features will include: trails for hiking and horseback riding; the native flora and fauna of the canyon's varied habitats; and historical landmarks, including the San Timoteo Schoolhouse. [8]

San Timoteo Canyon Schoolhouse

The San Timoteo Canyon Schoolhouse, a museum and park operated by the Riverside County Parks department, was built in 1883, and added to the National Register of Historic Places on January 19, 2001. It was acquired by Riverside County Parks from the Beaumont Unified School District in 1993, but was not opened to the public until after 2007, when a five-year restoration was completed. [9]

Fossils discovery

In 2010, a construction crew found a deposit of Quaternary Period prehistoric animal fossils dating back 1.4 million years before present in San Timoteo Canyon. The well-preserved natural cache contained nearly 1,500 bone fragments. They included those of: a giant cat that was the ancestor of the saber-toothed tiger; ground sloths the size of a modern-day grizzly bear; two types of camels; and more than 1,200 bones from small rodents. Other finds include new species of deer, horse, and possibly llama. [10]

See also

Related Research Articles

San Bernardino, California City in California, United States

San Bernardino is a city located in the Inland Empire region of Southern California. The city serves as the county seat of San Bernardino County, California. As one of the Inland Empire's anchor cities, San Bernardino spans 81 square miles (210 km2) on the floor of the San Bernardino Valley to the south of the San Bernardino Mountains. As of 2019, San Bernardino has a population of 215,784 making it the 17th-largest city in California and the 102nd-largest city in the United States. The governments of Guatemala and Mexico have established consulates in the downtown area of the city.

Cahuilla Native American people

The Cahuilla, also known as ʔívil̃uqaletem or Ivilyuqaletem, are a Native American people of the various tribes of the Cahuilla Nation, living in the inland areas of southern California. Their original territory included an area of about 2,400 square miles (6,200 km2). The traditional Cahuilla territory was near the geographic center of Southern California. It was bounded to the north by the San Bernardino Mountains, to the south by Borrego Springs and the Chocolate Mountains, to the east by the Colorado Desert, and to the west by the San Jacinto Plain and the eastern slopes of the Palomar Mountains.

San Bernardino de Sena Estancia

The San Bernardino de Sena Estancia was a ranch outpost of Mission San Gabriel Arcángel in what is now in Redlands, California, United States. It was built to graze cattle, and for Indian Reductions of the Serrano people and Cahuilla people into Mission Indians. Over time, it fell into disrepair, until the early 20th century, when a new, larger structure was built as a museum. The new structure shares the same architectural style, but is not otherwise similar to the original buildings.

San Bernardino Valley

The San Bernardino Valley is a valley in Southern California. It lies at the south base of the Transverse Ranges. It is bordered on the north by the eastern San Gabriel Mountains and the San Bernardino Mountains; on the east by the San Jacinto Mountains; and on the south by the Temescal Mountains and Santa Ana Mountains; and on the west by the Pomona Valley. Elevation varies from 590 feet (180 m) on valley floors near Chino, where it gradually increases to about 1,380 feet (420 m) near San Bernardino and Redlands. The valley floor is home to over 80% of the more than 4 million people of the Inland Empire region.

José del Carmen Lugo was a major 19th century Californio landowner in Southern California.

Mission Indians Indigenous peoples who were forcibly relocated to missions in Southern California

Mission Indians are the indigenous peoples of California who lived in Southern California and were forcibly relocated from their traditional dwellings, villages, and homelands to live and work at 15 Franciscan missions in Southern California and the Asistencias and Estancias established between 1796 and 1823 in the Las Californias Province of the Viceroyalty of New Spain.

History of San Bernardino, California

San Bernardino, California, was named in 1810.

Timeline of San Bernardino, California history

This is a historical timeline of San Bernardino, California.

Rancho San Bernardino was a 35,509-acre (143.70 km2) Mexican land grant in present-day San Bernardino County, California given in 1842 by Governor Juan B. Alvarado to José del Carmen Lugo, José María Lugo, Vicente Lugo, and Diego Sepulveda. The grant included a large part of the San Bernardino valley, and encompassed present-day San Bernardino, Fontana, Rialto, Redlands and Colton.

Rancho San Jacinto y San Gorgonio was a 4,440-acre (18.0 km2) Mexican land grant in present day Riverside County, California given in 1843 by Governor Manuel Micheltorena to James (Santiago) Johnson. At the time of the US Patent, Rancho San Jacinto y San Gorgonio was a part of San Bernardino County. The County of Riverside was created by the California Legislature in 1893 by taking land from both San Bernardino and San Diego Counties. The grant encompassed San Timoteo Canyon.

Riverside County, California County in California, United States

Riverside County is a county located in the southern portion of the U.S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,189,641, making it the fourth-most populous county in California and the 10th-most populous in the United States. The name was derived from the city of Riverside, which is the county seat.

Juan Antonio (1783–1863), Cahuilla name: Cooswootna, Yampoochee,, was a major chief of the Mountain Band of the Cahuilla from the 1840s to 1863.

Yuma War Armed conflict fought primarily between the United States and the Yuma people

The Yuma War was the name given to a series of United States military operations conducted in southern California and what is today southwestern Arizona from 1850 to 1853. The Quechan were the primary opponent of the United States Army, though engagements were fought between the Americans and other native groups in the region.

Politana or Apolitana was the first Spanish settlement in the San Bernardino Valley of California. It was established as a mission chapel and supply station by the Mission San Gabriel in the a rancheria of the Guachama Indians that lived on the bluff that is now known as Bunker Hill, near Lytle Creek. Besides the Guachama, it was also at various times the home for colonists from New Mexico and Cahuilla people. Its most prominent landmark today is the St. Prophet Elias Greek Orthodox Church on Colton Avenue, just southwest of the Inland Center Mall, in San Bernardino, California.

Saahatpa, California

Saahatpa was a former Cahuilla settlement in Riverside County. It was a settlement of Juan Antonio's Mountain Cahuilla from 1851 to 1863. It was located in a valley that branched to the northeast from San Timoteo Canyon. The site is marked by California Historical Landmark #749, and is located at the abandoned Brookside Rest Area, on westbound Interstate 10, Freeway, 3 miles northwest of the I-10/CA 60 junction in modern Calimesa, California.

San Timoteo Creek River in the southern California, US

San Timoteo Creek is a stream in Riverside and San Bernardino counties in southern California, United States. A tributary of the Santa Ana River, it flows through San Timoteo Canyon. San Timoteo Creek has a drainage basin of about 125 square miles (320 km2). The creek receives most of its water from headwater tributaries flowing from the San Bernardino Mountains near Cherry Valley, as well as Yucaipa Creek, which flows from Live Oak Canyon.

Glen Helen Regional Park

Glen Helen Regional Park is a county park located in San Bernardino, California, United States adjacent to the Cajon Pass. It was the site of both US Festivals of the early 1980s. It is also home to the Glen Helen Amphitheater, the largest outdoor amphitheater in the United States. The park also hosts several off-road races since 1985.

Guachama Rancheria

Guachama Rancheria was the place the Guachama Native Californians lived. The villages, or as the Spanish called them, Rancheria, were located what is now Loma Linda, California. Guachama Rancheria was designated a California Historic Landmark (No.95) on March 29, 1933. A marker was placed at 25894 Mission Road, Loma Linda, California to designate were the villages were. Translated, "Guachama" means a "place where there is plenty to eat". There were fresh springs and creeks in the area, thus providing ample food. Nearby was the Jumuba rancheria, another group of villages, that also start mission farming and cattle ranching. In 1772 Spanish exploration of the area started. Mission San Gabriel started to look at what is now the Loma Linda and Redlands lands in 1810, as a place to start a mission outpost. Father Francisco Dumetz (?-1811) came to the area and started Rancho San Bernardino on May 20, 1810 as an outpost of the Mission San Gabriel. Rancho San Bernardino became the headquarters of farming and cattle ranching in the area. The Guachama were taught to farm and care for cattle. Zanja trenches were made to bring water to more farm land. Guachama Rancheria from this time was called San Bernardino. In 1819 it was officially renamed San Bernardino Rancho of the Mission San Gabriel. Due to flooding from San Timoteo Creek, the mission was moved to higher ground in 1830. The Guachama were probably a branch of the Tongva/Gabrieleno tribes. Some ruins remain at the site.

Mormon Trail Monument California Historic Landmark

The Mormon Trail Monument was designated a California Historic Landmark (No.577). The Monument is to remember the 500 Mormon pioneers came to the San Bernardino Valley in June 1851. The Monument is near Phelan, California in San Bernardino County, California. The Monument was built in 1937 and is on California State Route 138, 3.6 Miles West of Interstate 15. In 1857 about half the Mormons were told to return to Utah during the Mormon War, also call the Utah War. the Mormon War, or the Mormon Rebellion

References

  1. U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: San Timoteo Canyon
  2. Ogden Hoffman, 1862, Reports of Land Cases Determined in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California, Numa Hubert, San Francisco
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 The Native Americans of Southern California, 1852. Family Tree Legends Records Collection (Online Database). Pearl Street Software, 2004-2005. pp. 40-41 For description of Juan Antonio's campaign against John Irving and his gang of San Francisco and Sydney outlaws, as well as the subsequent repercussions, see Beattie, Heritage of the Valley, 84-89; History of San Bernardino County (San Francisco, Wallace W. Elliott and Company, 1883), 77-79; Los Angeles Star, June 7, 1851, and November 20, 1851, Hayes, Scrapbooks, XXXVIII, Bancroft Library.
  4. Moore, Frank Ensor, "Redlands Astride the Freeway", Chapter VIII - The Route Controversy: Through Redlands or San Timoteo Canyon?, pages 37-40, Moore Historical Foundation, Redlands, California, 1995, ISBN   0-914167-07-3.
  5. California State Parks.gov: San Timoteo Canyon Park Property . accessed 1.21.2016.
  6. Trails.com: San Timoteo Canyon State Park . accessed 7.14.2014
  7. Riverside Land Conservancy Newsletter Archived 2009-06-01 at the Wayback Machine , Fall 2006. Retrieved October 4, 2009.
  8. Google Books: McKinney, John. California's State Parks: A Day Hiker's Guide. Wilderness Press, June 2005. Retrieved October 4, 2009.
  9. Lech, Steve (2011). More Than a Place To Pitch a Rent: The Stories Behind Riverside County's Regional Parks. Riverside, CA: Steve Lech. p. 150. ISBN   978-0-9837500-0-0. OCLC   768249467.information about the San Timoteo Schoolhouse County Park.
  10. Calif. utility stumbles on 1.4M-year-old fossils

Further reading

Coordinates: 34°01′48″N117°12′17″W / 34.03000°N 117.20472°W / 34.03000; -117.20472