Santa Rosa, California

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Santa Rosa, California
City of Santa Rosa
Old Santa Rosa Post Office, Downtown Santa Rosa,2.jpg
Santa Rosa, Empire Building (2009).jpg
St. Francis Winery and Vineyard, Santa Rosa, California, USA - panoramio (cropped).jpg
Rrsqrazorback (cropped).jpg
Santa Rosa High School, July 08.jpg
Clockwise: Sonoma County Museum; St. Francis Winery; Santa Rosa High School; Railroad Square District; Empire Building
Sonoma County California Incorporated and Unincorporated areas Santa Rosa Highlighted.svg
Location in Sonoma County and the state of California
Usa edcp relief location map.png
Red pog.svg
Santa Rosa, California
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 38°26′55″N122°42′17″W / 38.44861°N 122.70472°W / 38.44861; -122.70472 Coordinates: 38°26′55″N122°42′17″W / 38.44861°N 122.70472°W / 38.44861; -122.70472 [1]
CountryUnited States
State California
County Sonoma
Incorporated March 26, 1868 [2]
Government
  Type Council-Manager
   Mayor Chris Rogers [3]
   City manager Currently vacant [4]
Area
[5]
   City 42.70 sq mi (110.58 km2)
  Land42.52 sq mi (110.13 km2)
  Water0.17 sq mi (0.45 km2)  0.49%
Elevation
[6]
164 ft (50 m)
Population
 (2010) [7]
   City 167,815
  Estimate 
(2019) [8]
176,753
  Rank 1st in Sonoma County
27th in California
146th in the United States
  Density4,156.84/sq mi (1,604.95/km2)
Time zone UTC−8 (Pacific)
  Summer (DST) UTC−7 (PDT)
ZIP codes
95401–95407, 95409 [9]
Area code 707
FIPS code 06-70098
GNIS feature IDs 249105, 1659601
Website ci.santa-rosa.ca.us

Santa Rosa (Spanish for "Saint Rose") is a city and the county seat of Sonoma County, in the North Bay region of the Bay Area in California. [10] Its estimated 2019 population was 176,753. [8] It is the largest city in California's Wine Country and Redwood Coast, as well as the fifth most populous city in the Bay Area after San Jose, San Francisco, Oakland, and Fremont; and the 27th most populous city in California.

Contents

History

Early history

Maria Ygnacia Lopez de Carrillo, a Californio ranchera and founder of Santa Rosa Maria Ygnacia Lopez de Carrillo (cropped).jpg
María Ygnacia López de Carrillo, a Californio ranchera and founder of Santa Rosa
The former Petaluma & Santa Rosa Railroad Station P&SR Railway station, 4th & Wilson, Downtown Santa Rosa, July 08.jpg
The former Petaluma & Santa Rosa Railroad Station

Santa Rosa was founded in 1833 and named after Saint Rose of Lima. Before the arrival of Europeans, the Santa Rosa Plain was home to a strong and populous tribe of Pomo natives known as the Bitakomtara. The Bitakomtara controlled the area closely, barring passage to others until permission was arranged. Those who entered without permission were subject to harsh penalties. The tribe gathered at ceremonial times on Santa Rosa Creek near present-day Spring Lake Regional Park. Upon the arrival of Europeans, the Pomos were decimated by smallpox brought from Europe. By 1900, the Pomo population had decreased by 95%. [11]

The first known permanent European settlement of Santa Rosa was the homestead of the Carrillo family of California, in-laws to Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, who settled the Sonoma pueblo and Petaluma area. In the 1830s, during the Mexican period, the family of María López de Carrillo built an adobe house on their Rancho Cabeza de Santa Rosa land grant, just east of what later became downtown Santa Rosa. Allegedly, however, by the 1820s, before the Carrillos built their adobe in the 1830s, Spanish and Mexican settlers from nearby Sonoma and other settlements to the south raised livestock in the area and slaughtered animals at the fork of the Santa Rosa Creek and Matanzas Creek, near the intersection of modern-day Santa Rosa Avenue and Sonoma Avenue. This is supposedly the origin of the name of Matanzas Creek as, because of its use as a slaughtering place, the confluence came to be called La Matanza.

Panoramic map of Santa Rosa from 1871 Bird's eye view of Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, Cal., 1876. LOC 76693083.jpg
Panoramic map of Santa Rosa from 1871

By the 1850s, a Wells Fargo post and general store were established in what is now downtown Santa Rosa. In the mid-1850s, several prominent locals, including Julio Carrillo, son of Maria Carrillo, laid out the grid street pattern for Santa Rosa with a public square in the center, a pattern which largely remains as the street pattern for downtown Santa Rosa to this day, despite changes to the central square, now called Old Courthouse Square.

In 1867, the county recognized Santa Rosa as an incorporated city and in 1868 the state officially confirmed the incorporation, making it officially the third incorporated city in Sonoma County, after Petaluma, incorporated in 1858, and Healdsburg, incorporated in 1867.

The U.S. Census records, among others, show that after California became a state, Santa Rosa grew steadily early on, despite initially lagging behind nearby Petaluma in the 1850s and early 1860s. According to the U.S. Census, in 1870 Santa Rosa was the eighth largest city in California, and county seat of one of the most populous counties in the state. Growth and development after that was steady but never rapid. The city continued to grow when other early population centers declined or stagnated, but by 1900 it was being overtaken by many other newer population centers in the San Francisco Bay Area and Southern California. According to a 1905 article in the Press Democrat newspaper reporting on the "Battle of the Trains", the city had just over 10,000 people at the time.

The 1906 San Francisco earthquake essentially destroyed the entire downtown, but the city's population did not greatly suffer. However, after that period the population growth of Santa Rosa, as with most of the area, was very slow.

Famed director Alfred Hitchcock filmed his thriller Shadow of a Doubt in Santa Rosa in 1943; the film gives glimpses of Santa Rosa in the 1940s. Many of the downtown buildings seen in the film no longer exist due to major reconstruction following the strong earthquakes in October 1969. However, some, like the rough-stone Northwestern Pacific Railroad depot and the prominent Empire Building (built in 1910 with a gold-topped clock tower), still survive. A scene at the bank was filmed at the corner of Fourth Street and Mendocino Avenue (at present day Old Courthouse square); the Kress building on Fourth Street is also visible. However, the courthouse and bank are now gone. The Coen brothers' 2001 film The Man Who Wasn't There is set in Santa Rosa c. 1949.

Since World War II

Old Courthouse Square is the heart of downtown Santa Rosa. Shown here is the Empire Building, completed in 1910 and a Sonoma County landmark. It is seen in Shadow of a Doubt by Alfred Hitchcock. Santa Rosa, Empire Building (2012).jpg
Old Courthouse Square is the heart of downtown Santa Rosa. Shown here is the Empire Building, completed in 1910 and a Sonoma County landmark. It is seen in Shadow of a Doubt by Alfred Hitchcock.

Santa Rosa grew following World War II because it was the location for Naval Auxiliary Landing Field Santa Rosa, the remnants of which are now located in southwest Santa Rosa. The city was a convenient location for San Francisco travelers bound for the Russian River.

The population increased by two-thirds between 1950 and 1970, an average of 1,000 new residents a year over the 20-year period. Some of the increase was from immigration, and some from annexation of portions of the surrounding area.

In 1958 the United States Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization designated Santa Rosa as one of its eight regional headquarters, with jurisdiction over Region 7, which included American Samoa, Arizona, California, Guam, Hawaii, Nevada, and Utah. Santa Rosa continued as a major center for civil defense activity (under the Office of Emergency Planning and the Office of Emergency Preparedness) until 1979 when the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) was created in its place, ending the civil defense's 69-year history. [12]

When the City Council adopted the city's first modern General Plan in 1991, the population was about 113,000. In the 21 years following 1970, Santa Rosa grew by about 3,000 residents a year—triple the average growth during the previous twenty years.

Santa Rosa 2010, the 1991 General Plan, called for a population of 175,000 in 2010. The Council expanded the city's urban boundary to include all the land then planned for future annexation, and declared it would be Santa Rosa's "ultimate" boundary. The rapid growth that was being criticized as urban sprawl became routine infill development.

At the first five-year update of the plan, in 1996, the Council extended the planning period by ten years, renaming it Vision 2020 (updated to Santa Rosa 2020, and then again to Santa Rosa 2030 Vision), and added more land and population. Now the City projects a population of 195,000 in 2020.

Santa Rosa annexed the community of Roseland in November 2017. [13]

2017 firestorm

The historic Fountaingrove Round Barn, previously found at the southwestern base of Fountaingrove, was lost to fire in 2017. Fountaingrove Round Barn.jpg
The historic Fountaingrove Round Barn, previously found at the southwestern base of Fountaingrove, was lost to fire in 2017.

Beginning on the night of October 8, 2017, five percent of the city's homes were destroyed in the Tubbs Fire, a 45,000-acre wildfire that claimed the lives of at least 19 people in Sonoma County. [14] Named after its origin near Tubbs Lane and Highway 128 in adjacent Napa County, the fire became a major section of the most destructive and third deadliest firestorm in California history. [15] [16] [17] Most homes in the Coffey Park, Larkfield-Wikiup, and Fountain Grove neighborhoods were destroyed.

A notable exception to the destruction in the area was the protection of more than 1,000 animals at the renowned Safari West Wildlife Preserve northeast of Santa Rosa. All of the preserve's animals were saved by owner Peter Lang, who, at age 76, single-handedly fought back the flames for more than 10 hours using garden hoses. [18] [19]

The fire burned strongly for over seven days, bringing the largest aerial attack in history to Sonoma County skies.[ citation needed ] Some of the aircraft include a massive Boeing 747 Supertanker, a C-130, S-2, OV-10, DC-10 Air Tanker UH-60 Blackhawk, and Boeing CH-47 Chinook helicopter.[ citation needed ] Every police agency in the San Francisco Bay Area was called in to help.[ citation needed ] Firefighting crews from across California and as far away as Australia came to aid in extinguishing the fire.[ citation needed ] The fires, alongside the December 2017 Southern California wildfires, comprised the most destructive year of California wildfires on record.[ citation needed ]

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 41.50 sq mi (107.5 km2). Of that area, 41.29 sq mi (106.9 km2) is land and 0.205 sq mi (0.5 km2) (0.49%) is water. [20]

The city is part of the North Bay region, which includes such cities as Petaluma, Rohnert Park, Windsor, and smaller cities as Sonoma, Healdsburg, Sebastopol. It lies along the US Route 101 corridor, approximately 55 miles (89 km) north of San Francisco, via the Golden Gate Bridge.

Santa Rosa lies on the Santa Rosa Plain. The city's eastern extremities stretch into the Valley of the Moon, and the Sonoma Creek watershed known as the Sonoma Valley. The city's western edge lies in the Laguna de Santa Rosa catchment basin.

The city is in the watershed of Santa Rosa Creek, which rises on Hood Mountain and discharges to the Laguna de Santa Rosa. Tributary basins to Santa Rosa Creek lying significantly in the city are Brush Creek, Matanzas Creek, and Piner Creek. Other water bodies within the city include Fountaingrove Lake, Lake Ralphine, and Santa Rosa Creek Reservoir.

The prominent visual features east of the city include Bennett Peak, Mount Hood, and Sonoma and Taylor Mountains. [21]

Climate

Santa Rosa has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csb) with cool, wet winters and warm, dry summers. In the summer, fog and low overcast often move in from the Pacific Ocean during the evenings and mornings. They usually clear up to warm, sunny weather by late morning or noon before returning in the later evening but will occasionally linger all day. Average annual rainfall is 32.20 inches (818 mm), falling on 74 days annually. The wettest year was 1983 with 63.07 inches (1,602 mm) and the driest year was 1976 with 11.38 inches (289 mm). The most rainfall in one month was 19.42 inches (493 mm) in February 1998 and the most rainfall in 24 hours was 5.23 inches (133 mm) on December 19, 1981. Measurable snowfall is rare in the lowlands, but light amounts sometimes fall in the nearby mountains.

There are an average of 28.9 days with highs of 90 °F (32 °C) or more and an average of 30.2 days with lows reaching the freezing mark. The record high was 113 °F (45 °C) on July 11, 1913, and the record low was 9 °F (−13 °C) on December 25, 1924. [22]

Climate data for Santa Rosa, California (1981–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)85
(29)
93
(34)
91
(33)
98
(37)
104
(40)
109
(43)
113
(45)
107
(42)
111
(44)
105
(41)
92
(33)
83
(28)
113
(45)
Average high °F (°C)59.0
(15.0)
63.2
(17.3)
66.6
(19.2)
70.4
(21.3)
74.5
(23.6)
80.1
(26.7)
82.2
(27.9)
82.8
(28.2)
83.2
(28.4)
77.9
(25.5)
66.9
(19.4)
59.0
(15.0)
72.2
(22.3)
Daily mean °F (°C)47
(8)
50
(10)
53
(12)
56
(13)
60
(16)
65
(18)
67
(19)
67
(19)
65
(18)
61
(16)
53
(12)
47
(8)
58
(14)
Average low °F (°C)34.2
(1.2)
39.3
(4.1)
43.0
(6.1)
44.8
(7.1)
48.3
(9.1)
51.7
(10.9)
52.4
(11.3)
52.6
(11.4)
51.5
(10.8)
48.3
(9.1)
38.8
(3.8)
35.9
(2.2)
45.2
(7.3)
Record low °F (°C)15
(−9)
20
(−7)
24
(−4)
26
(−3)
27
(−3)
30
(−1)
39
(4)
30
(−1)
30
(−1)
24
(−4)
21
(−6)
9
(−13)
9
(−13)
Average rainfall inches (mm)5.93
(151)
6.02
(153)
4.53
(115)
1.82
(46)
1.28
(33)
0.23
(5.8)
0.01
(0.25)
0.07
(1.8)
0.35
(8.9)
1.73
(44)
4.04
(103)
6.19
(157)
32.2
(818.75)
Average snowfall inches (cm)0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.01 in)131110741012591174
Average relative humidity (%)81777166625860606063738168
Average dew point °F (°C)42
(6)
43
(6)
45
(7)
45
(7)
48
(9)
51
(11)
53
(12)
53
(12)
51
(11)
48
(9)
45
(7)
43
(6)
47
(9)
Source 1: [23]
Source 2: timeanddate.com (Charles M. Schulz-Sonoma County Airport: mean temperatures, humidity, and dew point 1985-2015) [24]

Seismicity

Santa Rosa lies atop the Healdsburg-Rodgers Creek segment of the Hayward-Rodgers Creek Fault System. The Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities estimated a minimum 27 percent chance of a magnitude 6.7 or greater earthquake on this segment by 2037. [25]

On November 21, 2005, the United States Geological Survey released a map detailing the results of a new tool that measures ground shaking during an earthquake. The map determined that the 1906 San Francisco earthquake was most powerful in an area between Santa Rosa and what is now Sebastopol, causing more damage in Santa Rosa (for its size) than any other city affected. [26]

On October 1, 1969, two earthquakes of magnitudes 5.6 and 5.7 shook Santa Rosa, damaging about 100 structures. They were the strongest quakes to affect the city since 1906. The epicenters were about two miles (3 km) north of Santa Rosa.

Nature and wildlife

Due to its population, much of Santa Rosa's remaining undisturbed area is on its urban fringe. However, the principal wildlife corridors of Santa Rosa Creek and its tributaries flow right through the heart of the town. Great blue herons, great egrets, snowy egrets and black-crowned herons nest in the trees of the median strip on West Ninth Street as well as along Santa Rosa Creek and downtown. Deer often are spotted roaming the neighborhoods nearer the eastern hills, as deep into town as Franklin Avenue and the McDonald area; rafters of wild turkeys are relatively common in some areas; and mountain lions are occasionally observed within city limits. Raccoons and opossums are a common sight throughout the city, while foxes, and rabbits may be regularly seen in the more rural areas. In addition, the city borders and then wraps around the northern end of Trione Annadel State Park, which itself extends into the Sonoma Mountains and Sonoma Valley. Trione-Annadel State Park also adjoins Spring Lake County Park and Howarth Park, forming one contiguous park system that enables visitors to venture into wild native habitats.

Neighborhoods

Restaurants and other retail stores occupy several historic buildings in Santa Rosa's Railroad Square district in the downtown area, including these along Fourth Street. Rrsqrazorback.jpg
Restaurants and other retail stores occupy several historic buildings in Santa Rosa's Railroad Square district in the downtown area, including these along Fourth Street.

Santa Rosa can be seen as divided into four quadrants: Northeast, Southeast, Southwest, and Northwest. U.S. Route 101 runs roughly north–south through the city, and divides it into east and west sides. State Route 12 runs roughly east–west, and divides the city into north and south sides.

Neighborhoods, including both current ones and areas formerly known and named, include:

  • Bennett Valley
  • Burbank Gardens Historic District
  • Cherry Street Historic District
  • Coffey Park
  • Dutton Avenue
  • Fountain Grove
  • Hidden Valley
  • Holland Heights
  • Indian Village
  • Juilliard Park
  • Junior College [27]
  • Lomita Heights
  • McDonald Mansion Historic District
  • Monroe District, an area historically known, from 1870s on
  • Montecito Heights
  • Montgomery Village
  • Moorland Avenue
  • North Junior College [28]
  • North West Santa Rosa
  • Oakmont Village [29]
  • Olive Park
  • Railroad Square District
  • Ridgway Historic District
  • Rincon Valley
  • Roseland
  • Santa Rosa Avenue
  • Skyhawk
  • Spring Lake
  • Annadel Heights
  • South Park
  • St. Rose Historic District [30]
  • Stonegate
  • Town & Country/Grace Tract
  • West 3rd
  • West End Arts and Theater District
  • West End Historic District [31]
  • West Junior College

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1860 1,623
1870 2,89878.6%
1880 3,61624.8%
1890 5,22044.4%
1900 6,67327.8%
1910 7,81717.1%
1920 8,75812.0%
1930 10,63621.4%
1940 12,60518.5%
1950 17,90242.0%
1960 31,02773.3%
1970 50,00661.2%
1980 82,65865.3%
1990 113,31337.1%
2000 147,59530.3%
2010 167,81513.7%
2019 (est.)176,753 [8] 5.3%
source: [32]

A graph of the population growth of Santa Rosa (to 2010).

2010

The 2010 United States Census [33] reported that Santa Rosa had a population of 167,815. The population density was 4,043.8 people per square mile (1,561.3/km2). The racial makeup of Santa Rosa was: 119,158 White (59.7% non-Hispanic white), 4,079 (2.4%) African American, 2,808 (1.7%) Native American, 8,746 (5.2%) Asian (1.0% Filipino, 1.0% Chinese, 0.8% Vietnamese, 0.6% Indian, 0.5% Cambodian, 0.5% Laotian, 0.3% Japanese, 0.3% Korean, 0.1% Thai, 0.1% Nepalese), 810 (0.5%) Pacific Islander (0.2% Fijian, 0.1% Samoan, 0.1% Hawaiian, 0.1% Guamanian), 23,723 (14.1%) from other races, 8,491 (5.1%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 47,970 persons (28.6%). Among the Hispanic population, 98% of Santa Rosa is Mexican, 0.8% Salvadoran, and 0.4% Puerto Rican.

The Census reported that 164,405 people (98.0% of the population) lived in households, 1,697 (1.0%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 1,713 (1.0%) were institutionalized.

There were 63,590 households, out of which 20,633 (32.4%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 27,953 (44.0%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 7,663 (12.1%) had a female householder with no husband present, 3,615 (5.7%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 5,020 (7.9%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 757 (1.2%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 18,021 households (28.3%) were made up of individuals, and 7,474 (11.8%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59. There were 39,231 families (61.7% of all households); the average family size was 3.18.

In terms of age cohorts, there were 39,217 people (23.4%) under the age of 18, 15,982 people (9.5%) aged 18 to 24, 46,605 people (27.8%) aged 25 to 44, 43,331 people (25.8%) aged 45 to 64, and 22,680 people (13.5%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.7 years.[ citation needed ] For every 100 females, there were 95.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.2 males.

There were 67,396 housing units at an average density of 1,624.0 per square mile (627.0/km2), of which 34,427 (54.1%) were owner-occupied, and 29,163 (45.9%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.0%; the rental vacancy rate was 5.0%. 87,244 people (52.0% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 77,161 people (46.0%) lived in rental housing units.

As of 2011, there are an estimated 4,539 homeless people living in Sonoma County, many of whom live in Santa Rosa. [34]

Santa Rosa's Hispanic population, mainly of Mexican descent, while spread out through the city, is concentrated within the western part of Santa Rosa. [35] [36] The highest percentage of Hispanic residents in Santa Rosa is in the Apple Valley Lane/Papago Court neighborhood, at 87%. [37]

The Southeast Asian communities, mainly Vietnamese, Laotian, and Cambodian, are concentrated within the western Santa Rosa neighborhoods of Bellevue Ranch, Roseland, and West Steele areas. The northeast neighborhoods of Skyhawk and Fountaingrove have the most populous Chinese communities. [38] [39]

2000

Skyline of Santa Rosa Vfiles766.jpg
Skyline of Santa Rosa

As of the census of 2000, there were 63,153 households, of which 30.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.9% were married couples living together, 11.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.3% were non-families. 27.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 11.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.14.

In terms of age cohorts, 24.3% of the population was under the age of 18, 9.5% was from 18 to 24, 30.0% from 25 to 44, 22.3% from 45 to 64, and 13.9% were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.8 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $50,931, and the median income for a family was $59,659. Males had a median income of $40,420 versus $30,597 for females. The per capita income for the city was $24,495. 8.5% of the population and 5.1% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 9.5% of those under the age of 18 and 4.7% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.

Crime

Neighborhoods such as South Park in south Santa Rosa, Corby Avenue, and Roseland, West Ninth District, and Apple Valley in west Santa Rosa, are most vulnerable to criminal activity. Acts of crime in these neighborhoods are commonly burglaries, graffiti, and violent gang activity. Street gangs such as Sureños and Norteños have large concentrations throughout Santa Rosa. There are multiple other gangs, including mostly racially based gangs or racially mixed that commit theft, street and violent crimes, motorcycle gangs, white supremacist gangs, and prison gangs. [37] [40] [41] In 2011, there were 5 homicides, 58 rapes, 134 robberies, 485 aggravated assaults, and 637 burglaries. The violent crime rate for Santa Rosa (401.7 per 100,000 people) is slightly lower than the rate of California (411.1 per 100,000 people) and higher than that of the entire U.S. (386.3 per 100,000 people). [42]

2021 and especially its late spring and summer saw an increase in shootings, violence, homicides, drug, gang, and homeless-related crimes. The increase was up to double for some crimes and problems, compared to the past several years. [43]

Homelessness

There are at least 2,700 homeless people in Sonoma County. Around 1,500 are in Santa Rosa, about one percent of the city. Downtown Santa Rosa, including its outskirts and the area south of the Santa Rosa Mall (Wilson and Morgan Street) and Mendocino Avenue area, South Park/Fairgrounds area, Santa Rosa Avenue, West Steele Lane, and the Joe Rodota Trail/Stony Point districts and neighborhoods have been concentrations of homeless people since the 2000s. Homeless services can be found in the Wilson Street area. [44]

LGBT community

Santa Rosa saw the second-highest rate of couples in same-sex marriages among United States cities in 2018, behind only San Francisco. [45]

Economy

Forbes Magazine ranked the Santa Rosa metropolitan area 185th out of 200 on its 2007 list of Best Places For Business And Careers. [46] It was second on the list five years earlier. It was downgraded because of an increase in the cost of doing business, and reduced job growth—both blamed on increases in the cost of housing.

Top employers

The rotating sign at the east end of Coddingtown Mall facing US Route 101 Coddingtown sign.png
The rotating sign at the east end of Coddingtown Mall facing US Route 101

According to the city's 2015 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, [47] the city's top employers are:

#EmployerEmployees
1 County of Sonoma 4,058
2 Kaiser Permanente 2,555
3 Sutter Medical Center of Santa Rosa 1,797
4 St. Joseph Health System 1,740
5 Santa Rosa Junior College 1,589
6 Santa Rosa School District 1,502
7City of Santa Rosa1,250
8 Keysight/Agilent Technologies 1,200
9 Amy's Kitchen 870
10 Medtronic Aortic and Peripheral Disease Management840

Santa Rosa is also home to notable smaller businesses such as Moonlight Brewing Company, Russian River Brewing Company and ATIV Software.

Retail

As of 2014, Santa Rosa has 12 neighborhood shopping centers and 17 commercial districts, [48] including three sizeable shopping malls: Santa Rosa Plaza, with more than 100 merchants; [49] Coddingtown Mall, with over 40; [50] and Montgomery Village, an open-air mall with more than 70 shops, a supermarket, five banks, and a satellite U.S. Post Office. [51]

Arts and culture

Old Courthouse Square Santa Rosa.jpg
Panoramic view of Old Courthouse Square

Libraries

The Sonoma County Library offers a Central Library in downtown Santa Rosa, a Roseland branch on Sebastopol Road, a Northwest branch at Coddingtown Mall, and a Rincon Valley branch in east Santa Rosa. It is a member of the North Bay Cooperative Library System. The Santa Rosa Central Library, the largest branch of the Sonoma County Library system, has a Local History and Genealogy Annex behind it. [52]

The Sonoma County Public Law Library [53] is at the Sonoma County Courthouse.

At Santa Rosa Junior College, the four-story Frank P. Doyle Library [54] houses the Library, Media Services, and Academic Computing Departments, as well as the college art gallery, tutorial center and Center for New Media, a multimedia production facility for SRJC faculty.

Tourism

While the most expansive vineyards in Sonoma County lie within the Alexander, Russian River and Sonoma Valleys, Santa Rosa is home to several vineyards such as this one near Fountain Grove. SR vineyard.jpg
While the most expansive vineyards in Sonoma County lie within the Alexander, Russian River and Sonoma Valleys, Santa Rosa is home to several vineyards such as this one near Fountain Grove.

Santa Rosa sits at the northwestern gateway to the Sonoma and Napa Valleys of California's famed Wine Country. Many wineries and vineyards are nearby, as well as the Russian River resort area, the Sonoma Coast along the Pacific Ocean, Jack London State Historic Park, and the redwood trees of Armstrong Redwoods State Reserve.

The City Council pays the Santa Rosa Chamber of Commerce to operate the Santa Rosa Convention & Visitors Bureau. [55] The Chamber's visitors center is in the city-owned old railroad depot at the bottom of Fourth Street, in Historic Railroad Square. The SRC&VB has been a California Welcome Center since 2003.

Downtown Santa Rosa, including the central Old Courthouse Square and historic Railroad Square, is an area of shopping, restaurants, nightclubs, and theaters. Downtown also includes City Hall, state and federal office buildings, many banks, and professional offices. The Santa Rosa Memorial Hospital medical center is just to the east of downtown.

Although there are co-op network atms and several credit unions, there is no shared branching for credit unions in Santa Rosa. [56]

The city council funds a private booster group, Santa Rosa Main Street, which lobbies the city to revitalize the traditional business district. Three new mixed-use, high-rise buildings, and a new city parking garage, are under development. (WHEN?) The council and downtown business boosters hope condos atop the new buildings will house a population to keep the area active 24 hours a day.

The nearby cities and towns of Bodega Bay, Calistoga, Guerneville, Healdsburg, Petaluma, Sebastopol, Sonoma, and Windsor are popular with tourists and readily accessible from Santa Rosa.

The Hotel La Rose, built in 1907, is a functioning historic hotel in downtown Santa Rosa. Hotel La Rose, Downtown Santa Rosa, California,2.jpg
The Hotel La Rose, built in 1907, is a functioning historic hotel in downtown Santa Rosa.

Railroad Square is the portion of downtown that is on the west side of U.S. Route 101 and has the highest concentration of historic commercial buildings. Of particular note are the four rough-hewn stone buildings at its core, two of which are rare in that they predate the 1906 earthquake. They include the old Northwestern Pacific Railroad depot, prominently seen in the beginning and the end of the Alfred Hitchcock film Shadow of a Doubt , and the still-functioning Hotel La Rose, built in 1907 and registered as one of the National Trust for Historic Preservation's Historic Hotels of America. The area contains numerous other historic buildings, such as the former Petaluma and Santa Rosa Railroad depot, and the Lee Bros. Building, both at the corner of 4th and Wilson Streets. Near it in the West End district are numerous other old buildings, including not only many old houses but the masonry DeTurk Winery complex, dating to the 1880s–1890s, and the DeTurk round barn. Also of note nearby is the former Del Monte Cannery Building, built in 1894. One of the oldest surviving commercial buildings in town, it was renovated into the 6th Street Playhouse in 2005. [57]

Local attractions

The Charles M. Schulz Museum and Research Center is on the corner of West Steele Lane and Hardies Lane, next to Snoopy's Home Ice skating rink. Charles schulz museum.jpg
The Charles M. Schulz Museum and Research Center is on the corner of West Steele Lane and Hardies Lane, next to Snoopy's Home Ice skating rink.
Prince Memorial Greenway is a bicycle and pedestrian path through downtown Santa Rosa. Prince Memorial Greenway, Downtown Santa Rosa.jpg
Prince Memorial Greenway is a bicycle and pedestrian path through downtown Santa Rosa.
City of Santa Rosa, an A-26 Invader attack bomber built in 1944 CitySantaRosa1.jpg
City of Santa Rosa, an A-26 Invader attack bomber built in 1944

Performing and visual arts

The performing arts in Santa Rosa are represented by Luther Burbank Center for the Arts, the Sonoma County Philharmonic, the Summer Repertory Theatre, the Santa Rosa Symphony, and the 6th Street Playhouse. Santa Rosa is the home of the North Bay Theater Group, an alliance of some 40 theater companies, theater departments and individual performance companies from five North Bay counties.

The Luther Burbank Center for the Arts (LBC) is a performance venue, that opened in 1981 and serves as the North Bay's premier arts and events center, presenting world-class performances, nationally recognized education programs, contemporary visual arts, and many popular community events. The center's mission of connecting the Santa Rosa community through the arts across schools, homes, and stages serves over 500,000 people annually including 50,000 students throughout the county.

The Sonoma County Philharmonic performs at the Santa Rosa High School Performing Arts Auditorium. It is a 65-member all-volunteer orchestra that has presented hundreds of free and low-cost concerts throughout Sonoma County over the past 15 years. The orchestra is made up of professional-level local musicians who volunteer their time.

Summer Repertory Theater (SRT) is a complete and extensive practicum in all aspects of stage production. The program combines professional directing, design, and production staff with outstanding students in acting, design, technical theater, dance, music, and management. The ensemble mounts five productions, which are performed in full rotating Repertory six days a week beginning in mid-June. Company members put theory to the test and learn to work in a professional system.

The Santa Rosa Symphony, an award-winning regional orchestra founded in 1928, [59] [60] performs at the Green Music Center in Rohnert Park, a new venue with traditional "shoebox" acoustics. The Symphony's Institute for Music Education supports four youth ensembles and provides classical music education to students across Sonoma County, serving 30,000 elementary students per year. Francesco Lecce-Chong has served as music director since 2018, replacing Bruno Ferrandis, who held the post for twelve years. [61]

The Sonoma County Museum on 7th St., Downtown Santa Rosa. Completed in 1910, it was originally the Post Office and Federal Building. Old Santa Rosa Post Office, Downtown Santa Rosa,2.jpg
The Sonoma County Museum on 7th St., Downtown Santa Rosa. Completed in 1910, it was originally the Post Office and Federal Building.

The visual arts are represented by the Sonoma County Museum and numerous independent art galleries.

In 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic, Jessica Rasmussen, Anna Wiziarde, and Julian Billotte set up a mailbox painted gold with Dutch metal, for queries concerning the past or the future to be collected and answered by the "United States Portal Service" as part of the city's Open & Out project, with the aims of supporting the US Post Office and alleviating loneliness. [62]

Government

In the United States House of Representatives, Santa Rosa is in California's 5th congressional district , represented by Democrat Mike Thompson. [63] It was moved to the district beginning with the 2013 Congress. In the 1980s, future U.S. Senator Barbara Boxer was Santa Rosa's representative.

In the California State Legislature, the city is in California's 2nd State Senate district. The city is split between California's 2nd and 10th State Assembly districts. [64]

The city's Mayor is Chris Rogers, its Vice Mayor is Natalie Rogers, and the other five council members are Eddie Alvarez, Victoria Fleming, Jack Tibbits, John Sawyer, and Tom Schwedhelm. [3]

The city council in 2013 adopted a set of "Goals and Strategic Objectives" through 2015 comprising six main goals. A "strong, sustainable" economy topped the list; other goals include showing leadership in environmental and cultural issues, and promoting "partnerships between neighborhoods, community organizations, schools, and the City". [65]

According to the California Secretary of State, as of February 10, 2019, Santa Rosa has 91,998 registered voters. Of those, 47,905 (52.1%) are registered Democrats, 15,260 (16.6%) are registered Republicans, and 24,012 (26.1%) have declined to state a political party. [66]

Education

Santa Rosa High School, the first high school in Santa Rosa and one of the oldest high schools in California Santa Rosa High School, July 08.jpg
Santa Rosa High School, the first high school in Santa Rosa and one of the oldest high schools in California

Colleges

School districts

Private schools

Media

Print

ThePress Democrat is published in Santa Rosa and is the largest daily newspaper in the North Bay. It is descended from the Sonoma Democrat, founded in 1857. [67] Local business papers include the North Bay Business Journal [68] and NorthBay biz . [69] TheNorth Bay Bohemian is a free weekly alternative. [70] The Sonoma County Gazette is a free monthly paper. [71]

Sonoma Media Investments is a significant regional presence: besides the Press Democrat and the North Bay Business Journal as well as the Sonoma County Gazette, it owns important newspapers in the nearby cities of Sonoma and Petaluma. [72]

Infrastructure

Law enforcement

The Santa Rosa Police Department currently has 259 employees, of which 172 are sworn peace officers. Its budget is more than $40 million, comprising more than one third of the city's General Fund budget. Police shootings in 2007 led to calls for an independent civilian police review board. [73]

Fire department

The Santa Rosa Fire Department provides fire protection and emergency medical services. [74]

The Santa Rosa Fire Department, like many departments across the United States, made its start as a volunteer organization on February 12, 1861. [75] Decades later in 1894 the Department made its transition to a paid organization. In 1906 a massive 7.8 magnitude earthquake destroyed most of Santa Rosa. [76] The department grew to 100 firefighters in 1983 with the addition of the city of Roseland to the SRFD responsibility area. [75] Many members of the department serve as part of the California Task Force 4, one of the eight FEMA Urban Search and Rescue Task Forces throughout the state. The team, which is deployed as part of the nation's response to disasters both within and outside of the United States, specializes in dealing with large-scale disasters. [77]

Transportation

Road

The city sprawls along U.S. Route 101, about an hour north of San Francisco and the Golden Gate Bridge. Sonoma County Transit provides local bus service in the city. Into the 1950s, the Southern Pacific Railroad offered substitute bus service from Crockett in the northwestern edge of the San Francisco Bay. [78]

Rail

Sonoma–Marin Area Rail Transit (SMART) operates two railway stations within the city limits: Guerneville Road and Railroad Square. Trains serve locations as far south as San Rafael; SMART opened on August 25, 2017, [79] Into the 1950s, the Northwestern Pacific Railroad operated a passenger train from Eureka, through Santa Rosa, to San Rafael at the north edge of the Bay. [80]

Air

Charles M. Schulz–Sonoma County Airport located just north of Santa Rosa is served by United, American, Alaska, and Sun Country airlines. Nonstop flights are available to San Francisco, Los Angeles, San Diego, Santa Ana, Portland, Seattle, Minneapolis, Las Vegas, Denver, Dallas, and Phoenix. Sonoma County Airport Express buses also connect Santa Rosa with Oakland International Airport and San Francisco International Airport. [81]

Motor-minimal travel

The Prince Memorial Greenway is a developed bicycle and pedestrian path along Santa Rosa Creek through downtown and out to the west of town. Near Railroad Square, it connects directly to the Joe Rodota Trail, a paved path which goes to Sebastopol. [82] Santa Rosa is on the path of the partially-developed Great Redwood Trail which will run "from San Francisco Bay in Marin County to Humboldt Bay in the north." [83]

Notable people

Film locations

Airplane hangar used in the film It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World Mad1.jpg
Airplane hangar used in the film It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World

Santa Rosa has served as a location for many major films, [84] including:

McDonald Mansion, Santa Rosa, exterior used in Pollyanna McDonald Mansion, 1015 McDonald Ave., Santa Rosa, CA 7-3-2010 1-51-49 PM.JPG
McDonald Mansion, Santa Rosa, exterior used in Pollyanna

City image

The intersection of 4th & D, downtown Santa Rosa Downtown Santa Rosa, 4th & D.jpg
The intersection of 4th & D, downtown Santa Rosa

Horticulturalist Luther Burbank lived in Santa Rosa for more than 50 years. He said of Sonoma County, "I firmly believe, from what I have seen, that this is the chosen spot of all this earth as far as Nature is concerned."

For many years the city's slogan was "The City Designed For Living". In 2007 the Santa Rosa Chamber of Commerce adopted a new slogan, "California's Cornucopia". [85]

Sister cities

See also

Related Research Articles

Sonoma County, California County in California, United States

Sonoma County is a county in the U.S. state of California. As of the 2010 United States Census, its population was 483,878. Its county seat and largest city is Santa Rosa. It is to the north of Marin County and the south of Mendocino County. It is west of Napa County and Lake County.

Sebastopol, California City in California, United States

Sebastopol is a city in Sonoma County, in California with a recorded population of 7,379, per the 2010 U.S. Census.

Cotati, California City in California, United States

Cotati is an incorporated city in Sonoma County, California, United States, located approximately 45 mi (70 km) north of San Francisco in the 101 corridor between Rohnert Park and Petaluma. Cotati's population as of the 2010 Census was 7,265, making it the smallest incorporated community in Sonoma County.

Petaluma, California City in California, United States

Petaluma is a city in Sonoma County, California, located in the North Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area. Its population was 57,941 according to the 2010 Census.

Roseland, California Place in California, United States

Roseland is a neighborhood in Santa Rosa, California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 6,325. Roseland was an unincorporated enclave within the City of Santa Rosa until the area was annexed by Santa Rosa on November 1, 2017.

Windsor, California Town in California in the United States

Windsor is an incorporated town in Sonoma County, California, United States. The town is 9 miles north of Santa Rosa and 63 miles north of San Francisco. The population was 26,801 as of the 2010 census. Windsor was once home to a waterslide park known as Windsor Waterworks, or as the Doom Flume, from 1980 to 2006. Windsor also has a bowling center which sits right next to the site where the former Windsor Waterworks waterslide park sat until its 2006 closure.

Sonoma Valley Valley in the North Bay region of California famous for winemaking

Sonoma Valley is a valley located in southeastern Sonoma County, California, in the North Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area. Known as the birthplace of the California wine industry, the valley is home to some of the earliest vineyards and wineries in the state, some of which survived the phylloxera epidemic of the 1870s and the impact of prohibition in the early 20th century. Today, the valley's wines are protected by the U.S. Federal Government's Sonoma Valley and Carneros AVAs.

Penngrove, California Census-designated place in California, United States

Penngrove is a census-designated place (CDP) in Sonoma County, California, United States, situated between the cities of Petaluma and Cotati, at the foot of the western flank of Sonoma Mountain. It is part of the North Bay subregion of the San Francisco Bay Area. The population was 2,522 at the 2010 census.

Sonoma–Marin Area Rail Transit Commuter rail service in Marin and Sonoma counties, California

Sonoma–Marin Area Rail Transit (SMART) is a passenger rail service and bicycle-pedestrian pathway project in Sonoma and Marin counties of the U.S. state of California. When completed, the entire system will serve a 70-mile (110 km) corridor between Cloverdale in northern Sonoma County and Larkspur Landing in Marin County.

Northwestern Pacific Railroad

The Northwestern Pacific Railroad is a railroad covering the 62 mi (100 km) stretch between Schellville and Windsor with freight and Sonoma–Marin Area Rail Transit (SMART) commuter trains. Formerly, it was a regional railroad that served the entire North Coast of California, with a main line running 271 miles (436 km) from Schellville to Eureka, along with an additional portion of the line running from the Ignacio Wye to the edge of San Rafael. The portion of the NWP main line between the Ignacio Wye in Marin County and the depot in Healdsburg is owned by SMART. The Schellville–Ignacio and Healdsburg–Eureka portions are owned by the North Coast Railroad Authority (NCRA). Private contractor NWPco operates freight service under NCRA lease. California's 2018 Great Redwood Trail Act repurposes the abandoned railroad right-of-way from Eureka to the San Francisco Bay in Marin County for future use as the "Great Redwood Trail" rail-trail.

Area code 707 Area code for northwestern California, United States

Area code 707 is a telephone area code in the North American Numbering Plan (NANP) for the northwestern part of the U.S. state of California. It was created by a split of area code 415 on March 1, 1959. It serves part of the northern San Francisco Bay Area, as well as the North Coast. Major cities in the area code include Napa, Sebastopol, Vallejo, Benicia, Fairfield, Santa Rosa, Windsor, Healdsburg, Rohnert Park, Petaluma, Fort Bragg, Rio Vista, Crescent City, Eureka, Clearlake, Vacaville, Dixon, and Ukiah.

Petaluma and Santa Rosa Railroad

Petaluma and Santa Rosa Railroad was a 600 volt DC electric interurban railway in Sonoma County, California, United States. It operated between the cities of Petaluma, Sebastopol, Forestville, and Santa Rosa. Company-owned steamboats provided service between Petaluma and San Francisco.

Sonoma County Transit Public transportation system in California, United States

Sonoma County Transit is a public transportation system based in Sonoma County, California.

Taylor Mountain (Sonoma County, California)

Taylor Mountain is a summit at the northern extreme of the Sonoma Mountains in California. The mountain lies in the Laguna de Santa Rosa drainage basin; its east flank drains to Matanzas Creek, a northwestward flowing stream running the length of Bennett Valley, and its west flank drains to Five Creek. The mountain is named after California Gold Rush pioneer John Shackleford Taylor, who settled on the mountain slopes in 1853 to raise dairy cows and plant a vineyard.

Sonoma County Library

The Sonoma County Library is a medium-sized public library system that serves the nine cities and unincorporated areas of Sonoma County, California. The library system is a joint powers authority, with administration located at the Administrative Offices, 6135 State Farm Dr, Rohnert Park, CA 94928.

The Joe Rodota Trail is a 8.5-mile paved rail trail in Sonoma County, California that spans from near the intersection of Mill Station Road and Highway 116 in Sebastopol to the area of West 3rd Street and Roberts Avenue in Santa Rosa. The trail provides a safety separation for pedestrians and bicycles from motor vehicle traffic on the parallel California State Route 12/Luther Burbank Memorial Highway.

South Park, Santa Rosa, California

South Park is residential neighborhood in the city of Santa Rosa, California. It is located in south Santa Rosa, east of U.S. Highway 101, south of Bennett Valley Road, west of the Sonoma County Fairgrounds, and encompasses 60 blocks. The community is known for its old houses and artistic murals in the area, and notorious for its history of an above average crime rate and gang activity. South Park was also once a settlement for African Americans during the mid-1900s and was a center of Santa Rosa's Black community. Today, the neighborhood is mainly Latino. It has around 1,500 residents.

Foss Creek

Foss Creek is a rain-fed watercourse in the San Francisco Bay Area. It is considered a tributary of the Russian River.

Haystack Landing is a historic property in Sonoma County, California, now owned by Dutra Materials. Haystack Landing was a passenger and freight connection on San Francisco Bay via the Petaluma River and San Pablo Bay. The landing is currently the site of a historic steamer dock, a railroad bridge, and of a planned asphalt production and storage facility. Haystack Landing was featured in then-congressman Frank Riggs' election campaign in the 1996 California First Congressional District race, when his ties to the property drew criticism.

Tubbs Island Island in California

Tubbs Island is an island in San Pablo Bay. It is in Sonoma County, California, and parts of it are managed as part of the Napa-Sonoma Marshes Wildlife Area. Its coordinates are 38°08′59″N122°25′27″W, and the United States Geological Survey measured its elevation as 0 ft (0 m) in 1981. It, long with Island No. 1, Island No. 2 and Green Island, are labeled on a 1902 USGS map of the area.

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