Petaluma River

Last updated

Petaluma River
Petaluma California aerial view.jpg
The river flowing through Petaluma. View is to the southeast.
Etymology Coast Miwok
Location
Country United States
State California
Region Sonoma and Marin counties
City Petaluma, California
Physical characteristics
Source 
  location1.5 mi (2 km) southwest of Cotati, California
  coordinates 38°18′18″N122°43′3″W / 38.30500°N 122.71750°W / 38.30500; -122.71750 [1]
  elevation332 ft (101 m)
Mouth San Pablo Bay
  location
5 mi (8 km) east of Novato, California
  coordinates
38°6′38″N122°29′15″W / 38.11056°N 122.48750°W / 38.11056; -122.48750 Coordinates: 38°6′38″N122°29′15″W / 38.11056°N 122.48750°W / 38.11056; -122.48750 [1]
  elevation
0 ft (0 m)
Length18 mi (29 km) [1]
Discharge 
  locationPetaluma (USGS gage station 11459000)
  average17 cu ft/s (0.48 m3/s)
  minimum0 cu ft/s (0 m3/s)
  maximum9,620 cu ft/s (272 m3/s)
Basin features
Tributaries 
  left Lichau Creek, Lynch Creek, Washington Creek, Adobe Creek
  right San Antonio Creek
The mouth of the Petaluma River on San Pablo Bay. View is to the northeast. Sears Point California aerial view.jpg
The mouth of the Petaluma River on San Pablo Bay. View is to the northeast.

The Petaluma River is a river in the California counties of Sonoma and Marin [1] that becomes a tidal slough for most of its length. The headwaters are in the area southwest of Cotati. The flow is generally southward through Petaluma's old town, where the waterway becomes navigable, and then flows another 10 mi (16 km) through tidal marshes before emptying into the northwest corner of San Pablo Bay.

Contents

History

The word Petaluma may derive from the Miwok words pe’ta, flat, and luma, back. The Miwok people lived in Sonoma County for more than 2500 years. Petaluma was the name of a village on a low hill east of Petaluma creek and north east of the present day town of Petaluma. The first recorded exploration of the Petaluma River was by Captain Fernando Quiros in October, 1776. While other members of his Spanish expedition collected adobe and timber for the new Presidio of San Francisco and for the Mission San Francisco de Asís (Mission Dolores), Quiros and his sailors tried unsuccessfully to sail from San Pablo Bay to Bodega Bay. [2]

Petaluma River Watershed

Located in southern Sonoma County, California, and a portion of northeastern Marin, the Petaluma River Watershed drains 146 square miles (380 km2). [3] The watershed is approximately 19 miles (31 km) long and 13 miles (21 km) wide with the City of Petaluma near its center. At 2,295 feet (700 m), Sonoma Mountain is the highest point in the watershed, and its western slopes drain to the Petaluma River by way of tributaries such as Lichau Creek, Lynch Creek, Washington Creek, and Adobe Creek. The lower 12 miles (19 km) of the Petaluma River flow through the Petaluma Marsh, the largest remaining salt marsh in San Pablo Bay. The marsh covers 5,000 acres (20 km2) and is surrounded by approximately 7,000 acres (28 km2) of reclaimed wetlands. [3] In the marshes west of Lakeville, the river is joined by San Antonio Creek, at which point it becomes the boundary between Marin County and Sonoma County. The river flows under State Route 37 at Green Point and enters northwest San Pablo Bay just north of Petaluma Point.

While the river's source lies over 300 ft (100 m) above sea level, it descends to 50 ft (15 m) within about 0.4 mi (600 m). The river is fully tidal 11 mi (18 km) from its mouth, indicating its slight gradient through the marshes below Petaluma. The United States Army Corps of Engineers dredges this section to keep it navigable by gravel barges and pleasure craft.

Ecology

Petaluma River Watershed 2007 Steelhead Trout Biosurvey Petaluma River Watershed 2007 Steelhead Survey.jpg
Petaluma River Watershed 2007 Steelhead Trout Biosurvey

The Petaluma River Watershed hosts several federally endangered animals including the salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris) and Ridgway's Rail (Rallus obsoletus). Endangered flora include soft bird’s-beak (Cordylanthus mollis ssp. mollis), Baker’s stickyseed ( Blennosperma bakeri ), Burke’s goldfields ( Lasthenia burkei ), showy Indian clover (Trifolium amoenum), North American River Otter (Lontra canadensis), and Sebastopol meadowfoam (Limnanthes vinculans). [3]

Steelhead (Oncorhyncus mykiss) that spawn and rear in the Petaluma River watershed are wild, not hatchery, stock. [4] Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) are seen in the main stem of the Petaluma River and The United Anglers of Casa Grande High School have seen chinook at the turning basin, near the Lynch Creek confluence. The high school students constructed a salmonid hatchery in 1993 [5] and in 2002 74 Chinook salmon returned to spawn in the Adobe Creek tributary. [6]

Habitat and pollution

The marshes provide an important wildlife habitat and fish hatchery. However, since the onset of intensive immigration in the mid-1850s, the water quality has diminished, partly due to overgrazing and other agricultural uses. Pollutants present in the river include nitrates, phosphates, petroleum hydrocarbons, pesticides and sediment. [7] Urban runoff, particularly from the City of Petaluma, adds heavy metals and hydrocarbons to the river. [8] Starting about 1990, material steps were taken to mitigate the pollution.

Because the Petaluma River is relatively well-protected, most of the pollution comes from nearby storm drains. It is up to the people of Petaluma to keep the river clean.

Because most of the length of the waterway is tidal and urban/suburban, there is a significant collection of tidally deposited debris along the banks. Despite the poor aesthetics including turbidity, the water quality is not particularly poor. [9]

It has been alleged that the greatest threat to the Petaluma River is the planned Dutra asphalt plant. The reported concerns involve the "loud noises it will create" that will scare away the birds and "throw off the entire ecosystem". [10]

Bridges

The following bridges span the Petaluma River moving upstream from San Pablo Bay through Petaluma: Northwestern Pacific Railroad (NWP), California State Route 37, NWP, U.S. 101, D Street, Washington Street, Lakeville Street, NWP, Payran Street, NWP, Oak Drive, Corona Road, Petaluma Boulevard North, and Rainsville Road. [11] The longest highway span, the 4-lane Route 37 bridge, is 2,183 ft (665 m) long and was built in 1958. The oldest public bridge, built in 1925, is a 114 ft (35 m) concrete triple span carrying two lanes of Petaluma Boulevard North. [12]

The Petaluma Blvd South Interchange project will construct a new interchange at Petaluma Blvd South, frontage roads and replace the Petaluma River bridge. The existing Petaluma River bridge is an 866 feet long, twin reinforced concrete box girder (with pre-cast I girder span over the river) bridge that was built in 1955. The existing bridge has two lanes of traffic in each direction and no shoulders The new bridge will be 907 feet long with three lanes of traffic in each direction and standard shoulders. This will be one of the longest precast, post-tensioned spliced concrete girder bridges in the U.S. Constructing the new bridge over the Petaluma River, which is a navigation channel, will be very challenging. The bridge will be constructed in three stages and require erection of 99 girders up to 130 feet in length and weighing up to 60 tons each.

The project will also replace the existing South Petaluma Blvd On/Off Ramps constructed underneath Highway 101 in the mid 1950s with a new "diamond" interchange with a decorative gateway structure (overcrossing).

Construction is anticipated to be complete by the end of in 2016. [13]

See also

Related Research Articles

Sonoma County, California County in California, United States

Sonoma County is a county in the U.S. state of California. As of the 2010 United States Census, its population was 483,878. Its county seat and largest city is Santa Rosa. It is to the north of Marin County and the south of Mendocino County. It is west of Napa County and Lake County.

Coast Miwok Tribe of Native American people

Coast Miwok are an indigenous people that was the second-largest group of Miwok people. Coast Miwok inhabited the general area of modern Marin County and southern Sonoma County in Northern California, from the Golden Gate north to Duncans Point and eastward to Sonoma Creek. Coast Miwok included the Bodega Bay Miwok, from authenticated Miwok villages around Bodega Bay, and the Marin Miwok.

San Pablo Bay

San Pablo Bay is a tidal estuary that forms the northern extension of San Francisco Bay in the East Bay and North Bay regions of the San Francisco Bay Area in northern California.

Sears Point

Sears Point is a prominent landform that juts into the San Pablo Bay in Sonoma County, California, United States. This hill is the southernmost peak of the Sonoma Mountains and forms the southwestern ridge above Tolay Lake. Starting with European settlement of this area in the mid-19th century considerable modification of the Napa Sonoma Marsh began to occur, such that in contemporary times, there is considerable upland between Sears Point and San Pablo Bay. Numerous local conservation organizations are presently working to restore hundreds of acres of these historic tidal wetlands as part of the Sears Point Wetlands and Watershed Restoration Project. The region can be accessed via State Route 37 or State Route 121.

Sonoma Valley

Sonoma Valley is a valley located in southeastern Sonoma County, California, in the North Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area. Known as the birthplace of the California wine industry, the valley is home to some of the earliest vineyards and wineries in the state, some of which survived the phylloxera epidemic of the 1870s and the impact of prohibition in the early 20th century. Today, the valley's wines are protected by the U.S. Federal Government's Sonoma Valley and Carneros AVAs.

Northwestern Pacific Railroad

The Northwestern Pacific Railroad is a railroad covering the 62 mi (100 km) stretch between Schellville and Windsor with freight and Sonoma–Marin Area Rail Transit (SMART) commuter trains. Formerly, it was a regional railroad that served the entire North Coast of California, with a main line running 271 miles (436 km) from Schellville to Eureka, along with an additional portion of the line running from the Ignacio Wye to the edge of San Rafael. The portion of the NWP main line between the Ignacio Wye in Marin County and the depot in Healdsburg is owned by SMART. The Schellville–Ignacio and Healdsburg–Eureka portions are owned by the North Coast Railroad Authority (NCRA). Private contractor NWPco operates freight service under NCRA lease. California's 2018 Great Redwood Trail Act repurposes the abandoned railroad right-of-way from Eureka to the San Francisco Bay in Marin County for future use as the "Great Redwood Trail" rail-trail.

Sonoma Creek Stream in California

Sonoma Creek is a 33.4-mile-long (53.8 km) stream in northern California. It is one of two principal drainages of southern Sonoma County, California, with headwaters rising in the rugged hills of Sugarloaf Ridge State Park and discharging to San Pablo Bay, the northern arm of San Francisco Bay. The watershed drained by Sonoma Creek is roughly equivalent to the wine region of Sonoma Valley, an area of about 170 square miles (440 km2). The State of California has designated the Sonoma Creek watershed as a “Critical Coastal Water Resource”. To the east of this generally rectangular watershed is the Napa River watershed, and to the west are the Petaluma River and Tolay Creek watersheds.

Sonoma Mountains

The Sonoma Mountains are a northwest-southeast trending mountain range of the Inner Coast Ranges in the California Coast Ranges System, located in Sonoma County, Northern California.

Americano Creek stream in California

Americano Creek is a 7.5-mile (12 km) long westward-flowing stream in the California counties of Sonoma and Marin. It flows into the Estero Americano, a 9.2 mi (15 km) long estuary, and thence to the Pacific Ocean. This article covers both watercourses.

Redwood Creek (Marin County)

Redwood Creek is a short but significant stream in Marin County, California. 4.7 miles (7.6 km) long, it drains a 7-square-mile (18 km2) watershed which includes the Muir Woods National Monument, and reaches the Pacific Ocean north of the Golden Gate at Muir Beach.

Tolay Lake

Tolay Lake is a shallow freshwater lake in southern Sonoma County, California, United States. The lake, nestled within the southern vestiges of the Sonoma Mountains, is the site of significant Native American prehistoric seasonal settlement. In 2005, Sonoma County acquired the entirety of the lake and virtually its whole drainage basin from the Cardoza family for the sum of $18 million; the County's intention is to utilize the property as Tolay Lake Regional Park for ecological and archaeological preservation, as well as public use and enjoyment. Tolay Lake and its immediate drainage area is home to several nesting pairs of golden eagles, Aquila chrysaetos, and a number of rare, threatened or endangered species including the California red-legged frog, Rana draytonii; Western pond turtle, Actinemys marmorata; and Western burrowing owl, Athene cunicularia.

Tolay Creek is a 12.5-mile-long (20.1 km) southward-flowing stream in southern Sonoma County, California, United States, which flows through Tolay Lake and ends in north San Pablo Bay.

Hydrography of the San Francisco Bay Area

The Hydrography of the San Francisco Bay Area is a complex network of watersheds, marshes, rivers, creeks, reservoirs, and bays predominantly draining into the San Francisco Bay and Pacific Ocean.

Nicasio Creek

Nicasio Creek is an 11.9-mile-long (19.2 km) stream in Marin County, California, United States and is the primary tributary of Lagunitas Creek, which flows, in turn, into Tomales Bay, and the Pacific Ocean. The Nicasio Reservoir, formed in 1961 by Seeger Dam, is located on this stream.

San Antonio Creek is a northward then eastward-flowing stream in the California, United States, counties of Marin and Sonoma that forms part of the boundary between those counties. It empties into the tidal portion of the Petaluma River.

Adobe Creek (Sonoma County, California)

Adobe Creek is a southward-flowing stream in Sonoma County, California, United States, which flows past the historic Rancho Petaluma Adobe on the creek's 7.5-mile (12.1 km) course to its confluence with the Petaluma River. It has also been called Casa Grande Creek.

Novato Creek

Novato Creek is a stream in eastern Marin County, California, United States. It originates in highlands between Red Hill and Mount Burdell above the city of Novato, California, and flows 17 miles (27 km) before emptying into San Pablo Bay south of Petaluma Point.

San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge

San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge is a 13,190-acre (53.4 km2) National Wildlife Refuge in California established in 1970. It extends along the northern shore of San Pablo Bay, from the mouth of the Petaluma River, to Tolay Creek, Sonoma Creek, and ending at Mare Island.

Corte Madera Creek (Marin County)

Corte Madera Creek is a short stream which flows southeast for 4.5 miles (7.2 km) in Marin County, California. Corte Madera Creek is formed by the confluence of San Anselmo Creek and Ross Creek in Ross and entering a tidal marsh at Kentfield before connecting to San Francisco Bay near Corte Madera.

Rush Creek is a stream in eastern Marin County, California, United States. It originates on the north edge of Novato, California and flows 1.5 miles (2.4 km) northeasterly through wetlands into Black John Slough and then the Petaluma River. The name is associated with Peter Rush who bought land near Novato in 1862.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Petaluma River
  2. Adair Heig (1982). History of Petaluma, A California River Town. San Francisco, California: Scottwall Associates.
  3. 1 2 3 The Southern Sonoma County Resource Conservation District (July 1999). Petaluma Watershed Enhancement Plan (Report). The State Water Resources Control Board. Retrieved June 24, 2010.
  4. Prunuske Chatham, Inc. (February 1999). Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities in the Petaluma River Watershed (PDF) (Report). Southern Sonoma County Resource Conservation District. Retrieved June 24, 2010.
  5. Malcolm MacConnell (1999). "Miracle at Adobe Creek". Reader's Digest. Archived from the original on July 5, 2010. Retrieved June 24, 2010.
  6. "Project Highlights". United Anglers of Casa Grande High School. 2001. Archived from the original on July 5, 2010. Retrieved June 24, 2010.
  7. "Petaluma River Water Quality Profile" (PDF). ca.gov. Retrieved April 10, 2018.
  8. Kay Ransom, C. Michael Hogan, Ballard George et al., Environmental Impact Report for the Petaluma General Plan, prepared by Earth Metrics Inc. for the city of Petaluma (1986)
  9. California, City of Petaluma IT Division, State of. "Petaluma". cityofpetaluma.net. Retrieved April 10, 2018.
  10. "Stop the New Dutra Asphalt Plant in Petaluma". nopetalumaasphaltplant.com. Retrieved April 10, 2018.
  11. Sonoma County Street Guide and Directory . Irvine, California: Thomas Brothers Maps. 1994. pp.  176, 183, 184, 191, 192, 196, 197&199. ISBN   0-88130-738-6.
  12. "National Bridge Inventory Database".
  13. "Caltrans Project Page".