Pinole Creek

Last updated
Pinole Creek
PinoleCreek.JPG
Location
Country United States
State California
Region Contra Costa County
City Pinole, California
Physical characteristics
Source Briones Hills
  location6 mi (10 km) west of Pleasant Hill, California
  coordinates 37°57′3″N122°9′34″W / 37.95083°N 122.15944°W / 37.95083; -122.15944 [1]
  elevation1,090 ft (330 m)
Mouth Chelsea Wetlands, San Pablo Bay
  location
Hercules
  coordinates
38°0′51″N122°17′48″W / 38.01417°N 122.29667°W / 38.01417; -122.29667 Coordinates: 38°0′51″N122°17′48″W / 38.01417°N 122.29667°W / 38.01417; -122.29667 [1]
  elevation
7 ft (2.1 m) [1]
Basin features
Tributaries 
  left Duncan Creek
  right North Creek, Fana Creek

Pinole Creek is a stream in western Contra Costa County, in the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area, California.

Contents

The creek has one of the last primarily undeveloped watersheds in the Bay Area. [2]

Course

The headwaters of Pinole Creek are in the Briones Hills on Costa Peak, within the western area of Briones Regional Park. It flows 10 miles (16 km) westerly through the towns of Pinole and El Sobrante, [3] to its river mouth at the Chelsea Wetlands in Hercules on San Pablo Bay. Its mouth is 4 miles (6.4 km) east of Point Pinole. [4]

History

The name Pinole is from the Spanish term for "parched corn", which the Mexicans ground for eating. [4] In 1823, a Mexican land grant for 17,000 acres (69 km2) that included Pinole Creek was granted to Don Ignacio Martinez, a Commandant of the San Francisco Presidio. The land grant was initially known as El Rancho de La Nuestra Sonora de Merced, and later renamed Rancho El Pinole. Martinez built the first adobe in Pinole Valley and brought his family to settle the property with livestock and orchards. [5]

Watershed

The upper watershed contains large areas of open space and managed grazing lands, with ranching and agricultural activities, and residential equestrian properties. The lower watershed contains the historic Old Town District of Pinole, and suburban neighborhoods in Pinole, El Sobrante, and Hercules. The watershed follows the regional geologic northwest–southeast orientation, similar to the orientation of the Berkeley Hills, and is located just northeast of the Sobrante Ridge.

The watershed is approximately 39.6 square miles (103 km2) in area, extending from headwaters on Costa and Duarte Peaks in the Briones Hills, northwest to the San Pablo Bay just east of Wilson Point. The average annual rainfall for the Pinole Creek watershed is 610 mm (24 in), with 90% falling between November and April. There are twelve minor, locally named tributaries and the gradient is 1%. [2]

In 1965, the Army Corps of Engineers armored the creek channel between Interstate 80 and San Pablo Bay for flood control. However, this removed riparian zone vegetation and tree cover needed for food, shelter, and shade for fish and other wildlife. [5]

Ecology

Fauna

Biologists from the East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD) have observed Steelhead trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss) in the Pinole Creek watershed of multiple ages. Genetic studies by EBMUD in 1999 suggest that the trout are native Central California stock and not introduced. [5] Perennial flows are jeopardized by water usage in the upper watershed but the creek may have the best trout restoration potential in the East Bay because large portions of the watershed are in open space. However, the I-80 crossing may be a significant obstacle to upstream trout migration. [6]

Pinole Creek supports a mostly native fish assemblage including rainbow/steelhead trout, California roach (Lavinia symmetricus), Sacramento sucker ( Catostomus occidentalis), Threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), Prickly sculpin ( Cottus asper ). Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) and Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are nonnative fishes found predominately in the lower section of Pinole Creek, below Interstate 80. [5]

Flora

Native plants are species of the California chaparral and woodlands and riparian forest habitats. Invasive plant species such as Giant reed (Arundo donax), Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius), Yellow star thistle (Centaurea solstitialis), Himalayan blackberry (Rubus discolor) and many others are established along riparian zone sections of Pinole Creek.

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 3 U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Pinole Creek
  2. 1 2 Pearce, S., McKee, L., and Shonkoff, S. (2005). Pinole Creek Watershed Sediment Source Assessment. A technical report of the Regional Watershed Program, San Francisco Estuary Institute (SFEI) (PDF) (Report). Oakland, California: San Francisco Estuary Institute. p. 102. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 10, 2007. Retrieved 2010-09-05.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  3. TopoQuest map, USGS, retrieved July 5, 2008
  4. 1 2 David L. Durham (2000). Durham's place names of the San Francisco Bay area: includes Marin, San Francisco, San Mateo, Contra Costa, Alameda, Solano & Santa Clara counties. Quill Driver Books. p. 133. ISBN   978-1-884995-35-4 . Retrieved 2010-09-05.
  5. 1 2 3 4 Urban Creeks Council of California, and Restoration Design Group, LLC (June 2004). Pinole Creek Watershed Vision Plan (PDF) (Report). Retrieved 2010-09-05.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  6. San Francisco Estuary Watersheds Evaluation - Identifying Promising Locations for Steelhead Restoration in Tributaries of the San Francisco Estuary (PDF) (Report). San Francisco Estuary Institute. August 2007. p. 29. Retrieved 2010-09-05.