Stockton Deepwater Shipping Channel

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Stockton Deep Water Shipping Channel StocktonDeepwaterShippingChannel.jpg
Stockton Deep Water Shipping Channel
Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta Wpdms usgs photo sacramento delta 2.jpg
Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta
California's Green Trade Corridor, is part of the Stockton Deepwater Shipping Channel California Green Trade Corridor.jpg
California’s Green Trade Corridor, is part of the Stockton Deepwater Shipping Channel
Map showing the San Joaquin River San Joaquin River watershed.png
Map showing the San Joaquin River

Stockton Deepwater Shipping Channel also called the Baldwin-Stockton Deepwater Shipping Channel or Stockton Deep Water Channel is a manmade deepwater water channel that runs from Suisun Bay and the Sacramento River - Sacramento Deep Water Ship Channel to the Port of Stockton and the Stockton Channel in California. The Stockton Ship Channel is 41 mi (66 km) long and about 37 ft (11 m) deep, allowing up to Panama Canal size ocean ships access to the Port of Stockton at the City of Stockton. The Stockton Deepwater Shipping Channel is part of the vast Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta that has a connection to the Pacific Ocean. Stockton Deepwater Shipping Channel is also called the lower San Joaquin River. [1]

Contents

History

At the time of the 1849 California Gold Rush ocean steamboats could travel up the San Joaquin River to Fresno. As San Joaquin Valley grew agriculturally and river water was used for crops, the river became shallow. With slower moving water, silt began to build up in the river and it became even shallower. By 1890 the city of Stockton had lost its importance as a seaport. By 1910 the city had created proposals to increase the depth of the lower river by dredging; however, the plans were delayed by World War I. In 1925 the city began a $1.3 million bond campaign dedicated to dredging the lower San Joaquin. [2] [3] [4] Stockton partnered with the federal and state governments in 1926 to form a $8.2 million fund to change the river to a new channel. In 1928 the river-channel project began. The river was both widened and deepened. To straighten the river, meanders and oxbow lakes were removed. [5] Major straightening cuts were built at Hog Island, Venice Island and Mandeville Island, along with five minor straightening cuts. The new deepwater channel was now 4 mi (6.4 km) long and had a depth of 37 ft (11 m). As silt build-up still continues, major dredging was performed in both 1968 and 1982. [6] The Stockton Deep Water Ship Channel can handle fully loaded ocean vessels of up to 60,000 short tons (120,000,000 lb; 54,000,000 kg) and up to 900 ft (270 m) long. [7]

Environmental concern

The slowing of the river-channel has unexpectedly caused low dissolved oxygen levels in the lower San Joaquin River water. The low dissolved oxygen has hurt the fish populations. The three causes are the straightening of the river, pollution from the harbors and cities, and poor tidal mixing. [8]

San Pablo Bay with Suisun Bay at upper right. Wpdms nasa photo san pablo bay.jpg
San Pablo Bay with Suisun Bay at upper right.

Baldwin Deepwater Shipping Channel

Baldwin Deepwater Shipping Channel, also called the John F. Baldwin Shipping Channel, runs from the San Francisco Bay through the San Pablo Bay and Suisun Bay to the entrance to the Stockton Ship Channels. Baldwin Deepwater Shipping Channel has a maximum depth of 45 feet and is maintained to 35 feet. The Baldwin Shipping Channel is 600 feet wide. Named after John F. Baldwin Jr., an American military officer and later a U.S. Representative from California. The Carquinez Strait is part of the John F. Baldwin Shipping Channel. Also on the John F. Baldwin Shipping Channel is the: Browns Island, West Island, Winter Island, Broad Slough, New York Slough, Kimball Island, Sherman Island, Sherman Lake, Chipps Island, Mallard Island, Simonons Point, Stake Point, Honker Bay, Roe Island, Port Costa, Port Chicago, Ryer Island, Point Edith, I-680, Bayo Vista, Mococo, Benicia, Interstate 80, Crolona Heights, Point Pinole Regional Shoreline, Richmond, Interstate 580 and Mare Island Naval Shipyard [9] [10] [11] [12]

On Stockton Deepwater Shipping Channel

On the Stockton Deepwater Shipping Channel:

See also

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Jersey Island Island in northern California, United States

Jersey Island is an island in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta of Contra Costa County, California, approximately 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) east of Antioch. The 1,425-hectare (3,520-acre) bounded on the west by the San Joaquin River-Stockton Deepwater Shipping Channel, on the north by the False River, on the northeast by Piper Slough, on the east by Taylor Slough, and on the south by Dutch Slough. It is administered by Reclamation District 830.

Georgiana Slough, is a slough within Sacramento County, California. It is located in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, and links both the Sacramento River and the San Joaquin River above their confluence in the Delta near Pittsburg, at the head of Suisun Bay, through its connection with the Mokelumne River. The entrance to the slough on the Sacramento River is just below Walnut Grove, at 38°14′21″N121°30′59″W and runs between Tyler Island and Andrus Island to where it has its confluence with the Mokelumne River at 38°07′49″N121°34′40″W northwest of Bouldin Island just above that rivers confluence with the San Joaquin River.

Bouldin Island

Bouldin Island is an island in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, 20 kilometers (12 mi) northwest of Stockton on the Stockton Deepwater Shipping Channel. It is in San Joaquin County, and managed by Reclamation District 756.

Venice Island (California) Island in Northern California, United States

Venice Island is an island in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, fifteen kilometres northwest of Stockton. It is in San Joaquin County, California, and managed by Reclamation District 2023.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Bay Model

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Bay Model is a working hydraulic scale model of the San Francisco Bay and Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta System. While the Bay Model is still operational, it is no longer used for scientific research but is instead open to the public alongside educational exhibits about Bay hydrology. The model is located in the Bay Model Visitor Center at 2100 Bridgeway Blvd. in Sausalito, California.

Mandeville Island Island in California, United States

Mandeville Island is an island in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta located about 15 miles (24 km) northwest of Stockton, in central California in the United States. The island covers about 5,500 acres (2,200 ha), and lies between the Old River to the west and Middle River to the east, both distributaries of the San Joaquin River-Stockton Deepwater Shipping Channel. The Connection Slough forms the island's southern end, and Sand Mound Slough borders the island to the north. The island lies directly to the east of Franks Tract State Recreation Area. It is in San Joaquin County, and managed by Reclamation District 2027.

Steamboats operated in California on San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, and Sacramento River as early as November 1847, when the Sitka built by William A. Leidesdorff briefly ran on San Francisco Bay and up the Sacramento River to New Helvetia. After the first discovery of gold in California the first shipping on the bays and up the rivers were by ocean going craft that were able to sail close to the wind and of a shallow enough draft to be able to sail up the river channels and sloughs, although they were often abandoned by their crews upon reaching their destination. Regular service up the rivers, was provided primarily by schooners and launches to Sacramento and Stockton, that would take a week or more to make the trip.

Old River (California)

The Old River is a tidal distributary of the San Joaquin River that flows for about 40 miles (64 km) through the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta in Northern California. The Old River was once the main channel of the San Joaquin until navigation and flood control projects in the late 19th and 20th century fixed the San Joaquin to its present course past Stockton. It diverges from the San Joaquin near Tracy, about 38 miles (61 km) upstream from Antioch, and first runs west towards Mountain House, then north to rejoin the San Joaquin 13 miles (21 km) above Antioch. The river is lined with levees that prevent flooding of the adjacent Delta islands, many of which lie below sea level. The Middle River runs east of and roughly parallel to Old River. False River diverges from Old River about a mile (1.6 km) above the Old River's mouth and runs westward to join the San Joaquin at a point closer to Antioch. Part of the Old River forms the boundary between San Joaquin County on the east and Contra Costa County to the west.

Winter Island (California) Restored as a tidal marsh in Suisun Bay

Winter Island is a 453-acre (183 ha) island in Suisun Bay, in the western Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. It is north of Pittsburg, separated from Browns Island to the west by a slough. It was private property, and contained one house. It is used as a duck hunting area, a wetland, and a dredging disposal area. In 2016 Winter Island was purchased by the California Department of Water Resources in order to restore the island as a tidal marsh. Winter Island is part of Contra Costa County, and managed by Reclamation District 2122. It is shown, labeled "Ruckels Island", on an 1850 survey map of the San Francisco Bay area made by Cadwalader Ringgold and an 1854 map of the area by Henry Lange.

Stockton Channel

Stockton Channel is in Stockton, California. Stockton Channel runs form the San Joaquin River-Stockton Deepwater Shipping Channel at the Port of Stockton to Downtown Stockton. The Stockton Channel is often called the Stockton Waterfront, and its northeastern arm is known as McLeod Lake. The Channel is about 2.5 miles long and dates back to the 1800s. The Stockton Channel started as the Stockton Slough, a water channel made when the San Joaquin River changed course in the past. McLeod lake is named after Alexander Roderick McLeod a Hudson Bay trappers who came to Stockton to trap beavers in the area. The Stockton Marina is on the Stockton Channel. The Interstate 5 in California crosses the Channel at its midpoint. United States Army Corps of Engineers does once a year maintenance on the Stockton Channel, which requires dredging to remove silt. The Mormon Slough branches off the Stockton Channel. The Stockton Channel is contained by levees. The Miners Levee is on the north side and the Tuleburg Levee on the south side. The Stockton Channel is a small part of the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta. The Stockton Channel over flowed its banks in the great flood of 1955. The Smith Channel runs parallel to the north of the Stockton Channel. There was a dam on the Mormon Slough to stop flooding and slit build up in the Stockton Channel. The Dam was removed on 24 October 2016. At the downtown end of the Stockton Channel, there was in the past a creek called Miner Channel. Miner Channel ran between Miner Street and Channel Street. Miner Street sometimes flood, so it was piped and filled in. In 2000 archaeologists did an excavation of the past site of Miner Channel and uncovered artifacts from 1890s to the 1930s. The excavation was done before the new Cineplex complex was built.

Colberg Boat Works shipyard in Stockton, California, United States

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Hickinbotham Brothers Shipbuilders shipyard in Stockton, California, United States

Hickinbotham Brothers Shipbuilders was a shipbuilding company in Stockton, California on the Stockton Channel. To support the World War II demand for ships Hickinbotham Brothers built: Type V ship Tugboats, Tank Landing Barge, balloon barges and Coastal Freighter. Hickinbotham Brothers also called Hickinbotham Brothers Construction Division was opened in 1852 and is still a working shipyard. Hickinbotham Brothers started by building: horse carriages, horse wagons, threshers and Combine harvester. In 1942 Ronald Guntert and L. R. Zimmerman ran the company as a partnership on the Banner Island waterfront. After World War II, Guntert and Zimmerman purchased Hickinbotham out and renamed the company Guntert & Zimmerman Construction. In 1984 the company moved to Ripon, California on the Stanislaus River, as the business continues. The Banner Island waterfront yard was on the deepwater port on the Stockton Ship Channel of the Pacific Ocean and an inland port located more than seventy nautical miles from the ocean, on the Stockton Channel and San Joaquin River-Stockton Deepwater Shipping Channel (before it joins the Sacramento River to empty into Suisun Bay. Notable ship: USNS Shearwater.

Clyde W. Wood was a shipbuilding company in Stockton, California. To support the World War 2 demand for ships Clyde W. Wood built: tugboats, and US Army barges. Clyde W. Wood started as a construction company paving asphalt and concrete slabs. In 1941 the company opened a small emergency shipyard. The yard first built barges and then tugs for the Army. After World War 2, the shipyard closed in 1945. The yard was located at 1805 Harbor Street, Stockton, the current location of the Penny Newman Grain Terminal. The shipyard was on the Stockton Channel on the deepwater port on the Stockton Ship Channel of the Pacific Ocean and an inland port located more than seventy nautical miles from the ocean, on the Stockton Channel and San Joaquin River-Stockton Deepwater Shipping Channel (before it joins the Sacramento River to empty into Suisun Bay.

References

  1. usace.army.mil, Baldwin-Stockton Deepwater Shipping Channel
  2. USGS Topo Maps for United States (Map). Cartography by United States Geological Survey. ACME Mapper. Retrieved 2011-03-18.
  3. Rose, p. 27
  4. Nolte, Carl (2010-05-23). "When great steamboats plied our rivers and bay". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2011-03-19.
  5. Rose, p. 110
  6. Rose, p. 111
  7. "The Port of Stockton Today". Port of Stockton. Archived from the original on 2011-05-19. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
  8. "Delta Solutions". Center for Watershed Sciences. University of California Davis. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
  9. a Joint Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the San Francisco Bay to Stockton (John F. Baldwin and Stockton Ship Channels)
  10. John F. Baldwin Ship Channel, Phase II: Environmental Impact Statement
  11. Ship Simulation Study of John F. Baldwin (Phase II) Navigation Channel San Francisco Bay, California
  12. "John Finley Baldwin Jr". History, Arts, & Archives-- US House of Representatives. 2010.