Alameda (island)

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Alameda Island
Oakland California aerial view.jpg
Aerial view of the north end of Alameda Island (left), with Oakland on the right and San Francisco in the background
Geography
Location San Francisco Bay, California
Coordinates 37°46′36″N122°16′40″W / 37.77667°N 122.27778°W / 37.77667; -122.27778 Coordinates: 37°46′36″N122°16′40″W / 37.77667°N 122.27778°W / 37.77667; -122.27778
Coastline9.25 km (5.748 mi)
Administration
United States
StateFlag of California.svg  California

Alameda Island is an island located in the San Francisco Bay in California. It is south and west of, and adjacent to Oakland, and across the bay eastward from San Francisco. Located on the island is most of the city of Alameda, a city in Alameda County. A very small western tip of the island's territory is technically part of San Francisco, however, this is uninhabited and is not separately managed.

Contents

Once located on the island was the Naval Air Station Alameda, a defunct naval air station. The island was originally a peninsula and a part of Oakland and is now separated from the mainland by the Oakland Estuary. The island is connected to the mainland by four bridges: the Park Street Bridge, Fruitvale Bridge, High Street Bridge, and Bay Farm Island Bridge. The Posey and Webster Street tubes also connect Oakland to Alameda Island.

History

False color image of San Francisco Bay, showing Alameda Island as the largest island in the bay, just off the mainland of the East Bay, across from the end of the San Francisco Peninsula. Wpdms usgs photo san francisco full bay.jpg
False color image of San Francisco Bay, showing Alameda Island as the largest island in the bay, just off the mainland of the East Bay, across from the end of the San Francisco Peninsula.

The island was originally a peninsula connected to Oakland. Much of it was low-lying and marshy, but on higher ground, the peninsula and adjacent parts of what is now downtown Oakland were home to one of the largest coastal oak forests in the world. The area was therefore called Encinal, Spanish for "oak grove". Alameda is Spanish for "grove of poplar trees" or "tree-lined avenue", [1] and was chosen in 1853 by popular vote. [2]

The inhabitants at the time of the arrival of the Spanish in the late 18th century were a local band of the Ohlone tribe. The peninsula became part of the vast Rancho San Antonio granted to Luis Peralta by the viceroyalty under King Ferdinand VII of Spain. The grant was later confirmed by the new Republic of Mexico upon its independence from Spain.

Over time, the place became known as Bolsa de Encinal or Encinal de San Antonio. [3] The island was created in 1902 with the opening of a canal on the south side to enhance tidal scouring to keep the estuary to the north cleared for shipping. [4] Landfill was added around the island and stopped once the island had been extended over the San Francisco border.

The island contains many Victorian homes built in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Nearly the entire island has been developed. There are several miles of beaches along the south side.

Related Research Articles

Alameda, California City in California, United States

Alameda is a city in Alameda County, California, United States. It spans Alameda Island and Bay Farm Island. It is adjacent to and south of Oakland and east of San Francisco across the San Francisco Bay. Bay Farm Island, a portion of which is also known as "Harbor Bay Isle", is part of the mainland adjacent to Oakland International Airport. The city's estimated 2019 population was 77,624. Alameda is a charter city, rather than a general law city and adopted a council–manager government in 1916.

San Francisco Bay Shallow estuary on the coast of California, United States

San Francisco Bay is a shallow estuary in the US state of California. It is surrounded by a contiguous region known as the San Francisco Bay Area, and is dominated by the large cities of San Francisco, San Jose, and Oakland.

San Diego Bay Natural harbor and deepwater port in San Diego County, California, United States

San Diego Bay is a natural harbor and deepwater port located in San Diego County, California near the U.S.–Mexico border. The bay, which is 12 miles (19 km) long and 1 to 3 miles wide, is the third largest of the three large, protected natural bays on California's 840 miles (1,350 km) of coastline, after San Francisco Bay and Humboldt Bay. The highly urbanized land adjacent to the bay includes the city of San Diego and four other cities: National City, Chula Vista, Imperial Beach and Coronado.

California State Route 61 Highway in California

State Route 61 is a state highway in the U.S. state of California, running along the eastern edge of Oakland International Airport and through Alameda. Two additional "hidden" state highways, State Route 112 and State Route 260, are also signed as part of SR 61, despite having legal descriptions separate from Route 61.

Coast Guard Island

Coast Guard Base Alameda also referred to as Coast Guard Island is an artificial island in the Oakland Estuary between Oakland and Alameda, California. It is home to several major United States Coast Guard commands and cutters, including the Coast Guard Pacific Area. It is one of the largest Coast Guard bases on the West Coast. From 1942 until 1982, the island was the site of the Coast Guard's recruiting training center, enlisting and training hundreds of thousands of Coast Guardsmen including many of the 214,239 who served in the Pacific and European Theaters of World War II.

East Bay Electric Lines

The East Bay Electric Lines were a unit of the Southern Pacific Railroad that operated electric interurban-type trains in the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area. Beginning in 1862, the SP and its predecessors operated local steam-drawn ferry-train passenger service in the East Bay on an expanding system of lines, but in 1902 the Key System started a competing system of electric lines and ferries. The SP then drew up plans to expand and electrify its system of lines and this new service began in 1911. The trains served the cities of Berkeley, Albany, Emeryville, Oakland, Alameda, and San Leandro transporting commuters to and from the large Oakland Pier and SP Alameda Pier. A fleet of ferry boats ran between these piers and the docks of the Ferry Building on the San Francisco Embarcadero.

Temescal Creek (Northern California)

Temescal Creek is one of the principal watercourses in the city of Oakland, California, United States.

Bay Farm Island, Alameda, California

Bay Farm Island is a district of the city of Alameda, California, though it is separated from the rest of the city on Alameda Island by an estuary of San Leandro Bay. Its ZIP code is 94502. The location was originally an island in San Francisco Bay, but due to land reclamation it has become a peninsula and is now connected to the mainland of Oakland and Oakland International Airport. Marshes and other areas of the island were also reclaimed.

The Posey and Webster Street tubes are two parallel underwater tunnels connecting the cities of Oakland and Alameda, California, running beneath the Oakland Estuary. Both are immersed tubes, constructed by sinking precast concrete segments to a trench in the Estuary floor, then sealing them together to create a tunnel. The Posey tube, completed in 1928, currently carries one-way (Oakland-bound) traffic under the Estuary, while the Webster tube, completed in 1963, currently carries traffic from Oakland to Alameda.

Oakland Estuary

The Oakland Estuary is the strait in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, separating the cities of Oakland and Alameda and the Alameda Island from the East Bay mainland. On its western end, it connects to San Francisco Bay proper, while its eastern end connects to San Leandro Bay.

Oakland Coliseum station Rapid transit and railway station in San Francisco Bay Area

The station complex of Amtrak's Oakland Coliseum station and Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART)'s Coliseum station is located in the East Oakland area of Oakland, California, United States. The two stations, located about 600 feet (180 m) apart, are connected to each other and to the RingCentral Coliseum/Oakland Arena sports complex with an accessible pedestrian bridge.

Ferries of San Francisco Bay

San Francisco Bay in California has been served by ferries of all types for over 150 years. John Reed established a sailboat ferry service in 1826. Although the construction of the Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge led to the decline in the importance of most ferries, some are still in use today for both commuters and tourists.

Sausal Creek (Alameda County)

Sausal Creek, 3.1 miles (5.0 km) long, is one of the principal creeks in Oakland, California.

Park Street Bridge

The Park Street Bridge is a double-leaf bascule drawbridge spanning 372 feet of the Oakland Estuary in the San Francisco Bay Area. It links the cities of Oakland and Alameda. In a year, the bridge is opened approximately 1700 times and carries approximately 40,000 vehicles per work day. It was built when the Oakland Estuary was trenched, converting Alameda from a peninsula to an island.

Alameda Mole

The Alameda Mole was a transit and transportation facility in Alameda, California for ferries landing in the East Bay of San Francisco from 1878 to the 1930s. It was located on the west end of Alameda, and later became part of the Alameda Naval Air Station. It was one of four neighbouring moles. The others were the Oakland Mole, the WP Mole, and the Key System Mole. The purpose of the mole was to extend tracks of rail-based transportation lines beyond the shallow mud flats along the shore of the East Bay into water deep enough to accommodate the passenger and rail ferries to San Francisco.

The San Francisco and Oakland Railroad (SF&O) was built in 1862 to provide ferry-train service from a San Francisco ferry terminal connecting with railroad service through Oakland to San Antonio. In 1868 Central Pacific Railroad decided that Oakland would be the west coast terminus of the First transcontinental railroad and bought SF&O. Beginning November 8, 1869, part of the SF&O line served as the westernmost portion of the transcontinental railroad. It subsequently was absorbed into the Southern Pacific Railroad (SP). The track in Oakland was electrified in 1911 and extended across the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge in 1939. Service was abandoned in 1941.

The San Francisco and Alameda Railroad (SF&A) was a short-lived railroad company in the East Bay area of the San Francisco Bay Area. The railroad line opened 1864-1865 from Alameda Terminal on Alameda Island to Hayward, California, with ferry service between Alameda Terminal and San Francisco started in 1864. After being bankrupted by the 1868 Hayward earthquake, it was acquired by a subsidiary of the Central Pacific Railroad in August 1869. Part of the SF&A line between Alameda Terminal and San Leandro served as a portion of the First Transcontinental Railroad starting in September 1869, while the southern section was abandoned in 1873.

Oakland Ferry Terminal

The Oakland Ferry Terminal is a ferry terminal on the San Francisco Bay, located in Jack London Square in Oakland, California.

High Street Bridge

The High Street Bridge is a double-leaf bascule drawbridge spanning 296 feet of the Oakland Estuary in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, United States. It links the cities of Oakland and Alameda. The bridge is opened approximately 1,400 times a year. The bridge carries an average of 26,000 vehicles per year. The bridge was built when the Oakland Estuary was trenched, converting Alameda from a peninsula to an island.

Bay Farm Island Bridge

The San Leandro Bay Bridge, better known as the Bay Farm Island Bridge, is a single-leaf bascule drawbridge spanning the San Leandro Channel, the inlet of San Leandro Bay within the San Francisco Bay Area, California, United States. It carries California State Route 61 and links the main island of Alameda with Bay Farm Island within the city of Alameda. The present bridge was completed in 1953; it is paralleled by a second bridge devoted to pedestrian and bicycle traffic, the Bay Farm Island Bicycle Bridge. The draw opens approximately 360 times per year.

References

  1. "alameda – Spanish-English Translation and Pronunciation". Yahoo! Education. Yahoo!. Archived from the original on August 21, 2008. Retrieved February 15, 2010.
  2. "A Brief History of Alameda". A Brief History of Alameda. City of Alameda, California. Archived from the original on February 2, 2010. Retrieved February 15, 2010.
  3. Durham, David L. (1998). California's Geographic Names: A Gazetteer of Historic and Modern Names of the State. Clovis, Calif.: Word Dancer Press. p. 592. ISBN   1-884995-14-4.
  4. Rego, Nilda (December 18, 2013). "Days Gone By: In 1902, 'island city' Alameda celebrates its new tidal canal". San Jose Mercury News.