Ferries of San Francisco Bay

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San Francisco Bay in California has been served by ferries of all types for over 150 years. John Reed established a sailboat ferry service in 1826. [1] Although the construction of the Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge led to the decline in the importance of most ferries, some are still in use today for both commuters and tourists.

Contents

The Southern Pacific Company's Bay City ferry plies the waters of San Francisco Bay in the late 19th century. Southern Pacific Bay City ferry circa 1885.jpg
The Southern Pacific Company's Bay City ferry plies the waters of San Francisco Bay in the late 19th century.

The Creek Route ferries

Contra Costa, in the foreground, was one of the earliest ferries built expressly for trans-bay service. Capital, in the background, formerly a Sacramento River steamboat, served the route from 1876 to 1896. Both were built by John Gunder North. Sidewheelers Capital and Contra Costa at Davis Street Landing.jpg
Contra Costa, in the foreground, was one of the earliest ferries built expressly for trans-bay service. Capital, in the background, formerly a Sacramento River steamboat, served the route from 1876 to 1896. Both were built by John Gunder North.

One of the earliest ferry routes ran between San Francisco and Oakland on what was called the "creek route". The name derived from the Oakland landing site located at the foot of Broadway where Jack London Square is today, fronting on what is today called the Oakland Estuary, an inlet of San Francisco Bay. The estuary, which in the 1800s included what is today's Lake Merritt, was the "creek". In 1851, [2] Captain Thomas Gray, grandfather of the famous dancer Isadora Duncan, began the first regular ferry service to San Francisco from the East Bay. [3] Service started with the stern-wheel Sacramento River packet General Sutter [2] and the small iron steam ferry Kangaroo. [4] Service was augmented in 1852 by Caleb Cope, the small ferry Hector powered by a steam sawmill engine, and the river packets Jenny Lind and Boston. Boston burned that year and was replaced first by William Brown's San Joaquin River packet Erastus Corning and then by Charles Minturn's river packet Red Jacket. In 1853, Minturn formed the Contra Costa Steam Navigation Company and had the ferry Clinton built expressly for trans-bay service. A second ferry, Contra Costa began operating over the route in 1857. [2] Contra Costa Steam Navigation Company acquired San Antonio Steam Navigation Company with ferries San Antonio and Oakland by merger before being purchased by the San Francisco and Oakland Railroad (SF&O) in 1865. [5]

Railroad ferries (1862–1958)

Central Pacific ferry El Capitan was the largest ferry on San Francisco Bay when built in 1868. C.P.R.R. ferry boat 'El Capitan', at the Terminus, by Thomas Houseworth & Co..jpg
Central Pacific ferry El Capitan was the largest ferry on San Francisco Bay when built in 1868.
Passenge Ferry General Frisbiein in 1909 General Frisbie.jpg
Passenge Ferry General Frisbiein in 1909
Passenger Ferry Oakland (as the Chrysopolis) ran from 1875 to 1940 Chrysopolis (steamboat) 01.jpeg
Passenger Ferry Oakland (as the Chrysopolis) ran from 1875 to 1940
Ferry Berkeley at the San Diego Maritime Museum Berkeley Ferry and U.S.S. Dolphin at the Maritime Museum of San Diego.jpg
Ferry Berkeley at the San Diego Maritime Museum

The first railroad ferries on San Francisco Bay were established by the San Francisco and Oakland Railroad and the San Francisco and Alameda Railroad (SF&A), which were taken over by the Central Pacific Railroad (CPRR) in 1870 to become an integral part of the First Transcontinental Railroad. The earliest railroad ferries ran from Oakland Point and from Alameda Terminal when Alameda was still a peninsula. The ferry pier at Oakland Point was greatly enlarged to form the Oakland Long Wharf. These railroad ferries mostly carried passengers, not trains, although there was some ferrying of freight cars to San Francisco. When the Central Pacific re-routed the Sacramento to Oakland segment of the Transcontinental Railroad in 1876, a ferry across the Carquinez Strait was established, and the world's largest ferryboat, the Solano was built (later joined by a sister ferry, the slightly larger Contra Costa), to serve the crossing. This railroad ferry actually carried whole trains of up to 48 freight cars or 24 passenger cars with their locomotives. These ferries became part of the Southern Pacific Railroad (SP) when it assumed many of the facilities of its affiliate, the Central Pacific. These large train ferries were idled when a railway bridge was completed over the Carquinez Strait in November, 1930. [6]

When trains reached Oakland, freight cars were loaded aboard ferries from Long Wharf on Oakland Point beginning in 1870. Freight car ferry loading switched to the Oakland Mole in 1881. After 1890 freight cars were delivered to the San Francisco Belt Railroad ferry slip at the foot of Lombard and East Streets. Belt Railroad tracks were later dual-gauged to also carry cars from the narrow gauge North and South Pacific Coast Railroads. [6]

The Key System transit company established its own ferry service in 1903 between the Ferry Building in San Francisco and its own pier and wharf ("mole") on the Oakland shoreline, located just south of what is today the eastern approach to the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge.

Ferries began serving north bay rail connections with the Petaluma and Haystack Railroad in 1864. San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad (SF&NP) and Petaluma and Santa Rosa Railroad (P&SR) [7] ferries connected Petaluma River landing locations with San Francisco. North Pacific Coast Railroad (NPC) ferries connected Sausalito [8] with San Francisco, and SF&NP ferries later sailed from Tiburon. Some of these ferries operated on Northwestern Pacific Railroad (NWP) schedules from 1907 to 1938. [9]

The Napa Valley Railroad established service in 1865 and connected with ferry boat service in Vallejo, California. Monticello Steamship Company began operating ferries between Vallejo and San Francisco in 1895, and began coordinating with train schedules in 1905. Golden Gate Ferry Company gained control of Monticello in 1927 and, after merging with Southern Pacific, discontinued ferry service to Vallejo in 1937. [10]

Sacramento Northern Railway used a ferry to cross the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers between Mallard and Chipps. Service began in 1912 with the wooden ferry Bridgit carrying six interurban cars. Bridgit burned in 1913 and was replaced by the steel ferry Ramon with the same car capacity. [6]

Santa Fe and Western Pacific (WP) both ran passenger ferries connecting their east bay terminals to San Francisco; but both discontinued ferry service in 1933. Southern Pacific maintained a dominant position in Bay ferry service by gaining control of the South Pacific Coast Railroad (SPC) ferries in 1887, [11] the Northwestern Pacific ferries in 1929, [12] and the Petaluma and Santa Rosa ferries in 1932. [13] After the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge and Golden Gate Bridge opened in 1936 and 1937, Southern Pacific passenger ferry service was reduced to three routes: San Francisco to Oakland Pier, San Francisco to Alameda Pier, and Hyde Street to Sausalito. Service to Sausalito was suspended in 1938 by order of the State Railroad Commission, and the last ferry to Alameda ran in 1939. Many of the large passenger ferries were idled until World War II, when they were mobilized by the federal government to transport military personnel around the bay and shipyard workers from San Francisco to Marinship and Richmond Shipyards. The last Southern Pacific ferry ran between Oakland and San Francisco on 29 July 1958. [14]

Richmond-San Rafael Ferry ended with the opening of the namesake bridge in 1956.

Auto ferries

Ferry Cazadero in 1922 FerryCazadero1922.png
Ferry Cazadero in 1922

Although earlier ferries had carried teams and wagons, Melrose was launched in 1909 as the first San Francisco Bay ferry built with an unobstructed lower deck specifically intended for automobiles, and an upper deck for passengers. Southern Pacific ferries Melrose and Thoroughfare were designated to carry automobiles to and from San Francisco on the original Creek Route in 1911. Southern Pacific built new facilities to shift auto routing to the Oakland Pier in 1921 and purchased three new Six Minute ferries. In 1922, Golden Gate Ferry Company (GG) began transporting automobiles between Hyde Street Pier in San Francisco and Sausalito Ferry Terminal in Marin County. Southern Pacific purchased three more auto ferries with a ferry route linking San Francisco with a Richmond, California connection to the Lincoln Highway in 1925. Golden Gate established another route between Hyde Street and Berkeley Pier in 1927. Southern Pacific built six diesel-electric ferries and gained control of Golden Gate's Golden-prefix ferries to form the subsidiary Southern Pacific-Golden Gate Company in 1929. Another auto ferry pier operated at the foot of Broadway. Southern Pacific-Golden Gate auto ferries ceased operation shortly after the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge and Golden Gate Bridge opened. A few of the larger ferries were purchased by the Richmond-San Rafael Ferry Company to shuttle automobiles between Richmond and San Rafael, but most were sold for use in Puget Sound. The surviving auto ferries were idled when the Richmond–San Rafael Bridge opened in 1956. [15]

Air ferries

In 1914, a short-lived seaplane ferry ran between San Francisco and Oakland. From 1930 to 1933, a more successful transbay seaplane ferry was operated by Air Ferries Ltd. It ran from Pier 5 on the San Francisco waterfront to a shoreline barge docked at the foot of Franklin Street along the Oakland Estuary. It also operated between San Francisco and Vallejo. A fatal accident in 1933 put an end to the service. [16]

During the 1960s, SFO Helicopter transported passengers to and from the San Francisco and Oakland airports from various locales around the bay including the San Francisco waterfront and the Berkeley Marina.

Rebirth of ferries

With the building of the Bay Bridge and the Golden Gate Bridge in the 1930s, the ferries went into a period of rapid decline. But as the car traffic grew, the demand for ferries returned.

From 1958 to 1964 there was no known commuter ferry service to San Francisco. Instead companies offer ferry rides to tourists. The Red and White offered sight seeing cruises to the tourists of the Golden Gate Bridge. There was a Tiburon to Angel Island Ferry that started in 1959 by the McDonogh family. So the ferries continued, but only in places where the bridges did not go.

In 1964 the Red and White fleet started ferry service from Tiburon. [17]

Ferry service from Sausalito (discontinued in 1941) to San Francisco resumed in August 1970 with the Golden Gate Ferry. [18]

Ferry service to Alcatraz was added in October 1973.

Larkspur ferry began service in December 1976.

Ferry services from Vallejo to SF (discontinued in 1937) was resumed by Vallejo Transit in June 1986. [19]

Ferry service from Alameda and Oakland (discontinued in 1958) resumed immediately after the 1989 earthquake when the original Bay Bridge was damaged.

Harbor Bay Isle ferry service (from Bay Farm Island) began in 1992.

In 1999 the California Legislature established the San Francisco Bay Area Water Transit Authority.

In 2007 Vallejo and Alameda ferry service consolidated under the San Francisco Bay Area Water Emergency Transportation Authority (WETA).

Ferry service from San Mateo County (this time from South San Francisco/Oyster Point) to San Francisco resumed in 2012.

Ferries ran from northern San Jose to San Francisco in 1853 [20] but this service has not been restarted, due to excessive silt around Alviso.

Ferries today

Golden Gate Ferry , a division of the Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District, operates modern high speed ferryboats between the Ferry Building in San Francisco and landings at Sausalito, Tiburon, and Larkspur in Marin County.

Other commuter ferries are all owned by the Water Emergency Transit Authority (WETA) under the name San Francisco Bay Ferry . The agency unifies several previously separate services which run from the city of Alameda and Jack London Square in Oakland (formerly Oakland-Alameda Ferry), Bay Farm Island/Alameda (formerly Harbor Bay Ferry) and Vallejo (formerly Baylink Ferry) to the Ferry Building in San Francisco. South San Francisco service was added in 2012, and a Richmond route commenced in 2019.

The largest ferry system on San Francisco Bay as of 2019 is owned by the primarily tourist-based Blue & Gold Fleet . (Though they also operate WETA's Bay Ferry.) Red & White Fleet , the original concessionaire for Alcatraz excursions, currently operates sightseeing cruises.

Concessions for parks within San Francisco are awarded based on the jurisdiction in which the landings are located. Alcatraz Cruises runs from Pier 33 to Alcatraz Island under oversight from the National Park Service. Ferry services to Angel Island are provided from Tiburon by the Angel Island–Tiburon Ferry as well as from Pier 41 by Blue & Gold Fleet.

Annual ridership

FY*Alameda/
Oakland
Harbor BayRichmondSouth San FranciscoVallejo/
Mare Island
LarkspurSausalitoTiburonAlcatraz
2006–07443,000130,000897,0001,477,762547,173
2007–08459,000145,000848,0001,414,588565,255
2008–09400,000143,000690,0001,370,400578,635
2009–10421,000147,000682,0001,338,764583,331
2010–11455,130154,000697,0001,432,039599,180
2011–12545,393177,1595,141668,7701,526,375669,039
2012–13606,960203,13140,505713,3001,605,989718,885
2013–14821,633246,69584,098826,4451,677,050793,533
2014–15911,473266,304107,389858,6651,727,872812,819
2015–161,149,085311,313125,946959,9391,753,484791,638
2016–171,183,188321,289136,3201,000,7731,692,741768,94261,394
2017–181,311,041332,283144,7351,056,342*1,660,272726,010191,8551,700,000
2018–191,384,300355,71384,576142,7491,081,6653,048,733
Sources: [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30]

Historic ferryboats on San Francisco Bay

Present

Golden Gate Ferry Sonoma, approaching the Ferry Building in San Francisco Ferry-sonoma-MCB.jpg
Golden Gate Ferry Sonoma, approaching the Ferry Building in San Francisco
  • Golden Gate (7 vessels)
  • WETA (13 vessels)
    • Bay Breeze
    • Encinal
    • Gemini
    • Intintoli
    • Mare Island
    • Peralta
    • Pisces
    • Solano
    • Vallejo
  • Angel Island–Tiburon
    • Angel Island
    • Bonita
    • Tamalpais
  • Blue & Gold (20+ vessels)
    • Golden Bear
    • Oski
    • Royal Star
    • Zelinsky
  • Red & White (5 vessels)
    • Enhydra
    • Harbor Princess
    • Harbor Queen
    • Royal Prince
    • Zalophus
  • NWP[ citation needed ]
    • Ukiah

Past

List of historical San Francisco Bay Ferries
Name [31] OperatorIn Service [31] RetiredGross Tons [31] Length (feet) [31] Horse- power [31] Notes
AlamedaSF&A / CPRR / SP18661898813193350side-wheel passenger ferry
Alameda SP1914194323022732500side-wheel passenger ferry; sold to USN as YHB-25 after wartime shipyard service [31]
AlviraDavie18891916469144200stern-wheel passenger ferry
AmadorCPRR / SP18691904985199300side-wheel passenger ferry
AntelopeSF&NP18711888581202side-wheel passenger ferry built 1848 [9]
Bay City SPC / SP187819291283230800side-wheel passenger ferry
Berkeley SP1898195819452611450passenger ferry
BostonGray18521852
Bridgit Sacramento Northern Railway 19121913186interurban car ferry [6]
Caleb CopeGray18521852
CalistogaMonticello / GG / SP1907193926802982600built as Florida; rebuilt as auto ferry in 1927; sold to USN as YFB-21 [31]
CapitalCPRR / SP187618961989277900side-wheel passenger ferry: Steamboat built in 1866 by John Gunder North for the California Steam Navigation Company; on the Sacramento - San Francisco run until 1876. [32] :125
CazaderoNS / NWP1903194116822571600converted to barge in 1941 [8]
City of Long Beach [33]
City of Sacramento Monticello / GG / SP1918194130162975900auto ferry; sold to Puget Sound Navigation; requisitioned for wartime shipyard service to Richmond yard 2 [34]
ClaremontKey
Clinton Contra Costa / NPC18531877194128125side-wheel passenger ferry; sunk in collision in 1877; [8] built by Domingo Marcucci [35] :15
Contra Costa Contra Costa / SF&A / NPC18571882449170150side-wheel passenger ferry, [8] built by John G. North [36] :127–128,135
Contra Costa SP19141930Carquinez Strait train ferry [6]
El Capitan CPRR / SP18681925982194250side-wheel passenger ferry
El Paso SP / Richmond-San Rafael1924195619532341400auto ferry transferred from SP service in 1938
EncinalSP1888193020142451000side-wheel passenger ferry
Erastus CorningBrown18521852 [2]
Eureka NWP / SP1923195724202771500Steam engine side-paddle ferry; Vessel originally built in 1890 as the railway ferry Ukiah with capacity for 10 freight cars; [6] conversion to a passenger ferry began in 1922 & was completed in 1923; after being converted to passenger use, "Ukiah" was renamed "Eureka"; [8] preserved at San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park [8]
Feather River WP1913193315782182500built as Edward T. Jeffery; sold to SP as Sierra Nevada in 1933 [37]
Fresno (now MV Willapa)SP1927194024682431800diesel auto ferry
Garden City SPC / SP187919291080208625side-wheel passenger ferry
USAT General Frank M. Coxe United States Army 19221947539144military personnel ferry
General Frisbie Monticello19011927passenger ferry [10]
General SutterGray18511852 [2]
GoldP&SR19031920334140200stern-wheel passenger & freight ferry built in 1883; burned 8 November 1920 [7]
GoldP&SR / NWP19211935317155150stern-wheel passenger & freight ferry built as Fort Bragg in 1899 [7]
Golden AgeGG / SP192819377792271200diesel auto ferry
Golden BearGG / SP192719377792271200diesel auto ferry
Golden CoastGG / SP190319376161751200auto ferry built as Yerba Buena; then Harry E. Speas [31]
Golden DawnKey /GG / SP190519376121802000former Key System passenger ferry San Francisco rebuilt as auto ferry [31]
Golden EraKey / GG / SP190819376731942000former Key System passenger ferry Fernwood rebuilt as auto ferry [31]
Golden GateGG / SP192219375982071300diesel auto ferry
Golden PoppyGG / SP192719377792271200diesel auto ferry
Golden ShoreGG / SP192719377792271200diesel auto ferry
Golden StateGG / SP192619377802271200diesel auto ferry
Golden WayKey / GG / SP1907193711381892000former Key System passenger ferry Claremont rebuilt as auto ferry [31]
Golden WestGG / SP192319375942141300diesel auto ferry
Grace BartonWhitney1890191619410060stern-wheel passenger ferry
HaywardKey1945requisitioned for wartime shipyard service
HectorGray18521852 [2]
James M. DonahueSF&NP / NWP18751921730228side-wheel passenger ferry [9]
Jenny Lind Gray1850185361 [36] :139 [2] Wrecked by an explosion on April 13, 1853. [36] :139
KangarooGray18511852 [2]
Klamath SP / Richmond-San Rafael1924195619522341300auto ferry transferred from SP service in 1938
LagunitasNS / NWP19031921767280400stern-wheel freight car ferry [8] (capacity 8 freight cars) [6]
Las PlumasWP1957diesel railcar ferry
Lake Tahoe SP1927194024682431800diesel auto ferry
LouiseSF&O / CPRR18701877368148125side-wheel passenger ferry
Mare IslandBerkeley18701877338124125side-wheel passenger ferry
MarinSF&NP / NWP1909193410197passenger ferry built as Requa and renamed after repairing fire damage in 1911 [9]
Melrose SP1909193126622731340side-wheel auto ferry
Mendocino NWP1927193924672431800diesel auto ferry
Napa ValleyMonticello / GG / SP1910194021852312600auto ferry
Newark SPC / SP1877192317832681200side-wheel passenger ferry rebuilt as Sacramento in 1923 [31]
New Orleans SP1924193819522341400auto ferry sold as Russian River in 1938
OaklandSan Antonio / Contra Costa / SF&O / CPRR18591874418200side-wheel passenger ferry
OaklandCPRR / SP187519401672265200side-wheel passenger ferry built as a side-wheel steamboat Chrysopolis in 1860, by John G. North; [31] rebuilt as a double ended ferry-boat in 1875 by Patrick Henry Tiernan; [38] :151 destroyed by fire in 1940. [36] :34–40, 136, 142
Ocean WaveSanta Fe19011933
Peralta18571857 [39]
Peralta Key19261933passenger ferry; burned 6 May 1933
PetalumaP&SR18841914264135250stern-wheel passenger & freight ferry built as Resolute in 1884; burned 22 March 1914 [7]
PetalumaP&SR / NWP19141935448148250stern-wheel passenger & freight ferry built in 1914 using the engine of the burned ferry Petaluma [7]
PiedmontSP188319401854257257side-wheel passenger ferry
RamonSacramento Northern1913 [6] 1954600interurban car ferry [40]
RangerChipman & Aughinbaugh1853185429passenger ferry destroyed by boiler explosion 8 January 1854
Red JacketMinturn18521857 [2]
Redwood Empire NWP1927193924702431800diesel auto ferry
RosalieDavie1893318137350passenger ferry
Russian River Richmond-San Rafael1938195619522341400former auto ferry New Orleans purchased in 1938
Sacramento SP1923195422542681400side-wheel passenger ferry rebuilt from Newark in 1923 [31]
San AntonioSan Antonio / Contra Costa / SF&O18581871659side-wheel passenger ferry
San JoseKey
San LeandroKey / SP1923195816532251325passenger ferry requisitioned for wartime shipyard service and then to United States Army [41]
San Mateo SP1922194017822171400auto ferry
San PabloSanta Fe190019331535passenger ferry [42]
San PedroSanta Fe191119331720passenger ferry; became USN YFB-46 [42]
San RafaelNPC18771901692220side-wheel passenger ferry sunk in collision in 1901 [8]
Santa Clara SP1915194522822732500side-wheel passenger ferry requisitioned for wartime shipyard service to Marinship
Santa Rosa NWP1927193924652431800diesel auto ferry
SaucelitoNPC18771884692220side-wheel passenger ferry burned at San Quentin in 1884 [8]
SausalitoNPC / NS / NWP1894193217662561200side-wheel freight car and passenger ferry [8]
SehomeMonticello19091918passenger ferry built as stern-wheel Mountain Queen in 1877; rebuilt with side-wheel propulsion in 1889; rebuilt with propeller in 1914; sunk in collision with General Frisbie [10]
Shasta SP1922194017822171400auto ferry
Sierra Nevada SP / Richmond-San Rafael1933195615782182500formerly WP passenger ferry Feather River purchased 1933; requisitioned for wartime shipyard service to Richmond yard 1; converted to auto ferry when sold by SP in 1947
Solano CPRR / SP18791930484Carquinez Strait train ferry [6]
Sophie MacLaneSF&A18581864242148side-wheel passenger ferry
Stockton SP1927194024672431800diesel auto ferry
TamalpaisNPC18571900365150side-wheel passenger ferry built as Petaluma of Saucelito [8]
TamalpaisNPC / NS / NWP1901194116312451800side-wheel passenger ferry; sold to USN in 1941 as floating barracks at Mare Island [8]
TelephoneWP19121913 [37]
ThoroughfareCPRR / SP187119091012248400side-wheel freight car ferry (capacity 18 cars) [6]
Thoroughfare SP1912193526042731300side-wheel auto ferry
TiburonSF&NP / NWP188419251248240side-wheel passenger ferry [9]
TransitCPRR / SP187519341566314500side-wheel freight car ferry (capacity 20 cars) [6]
WashoeSF&O / CPRR18641878580250side-wheel passenger ferry
Yerba BuenaKeyrequisitioned for wartime shipyard service to Richmond yard 3 and then to United States Army
Yosemite SP1923193917822171400auto ferry

Relocated ferries

Several ferries that had seen service on San Francisco Bay were relocated after the bay bridges were built. Yosemite was sold to the Argentina-Uruguayan Navigation Touring Company, renamed Argentina, and served a route crossing the Rio de la Plata. Seventeen were purchased by the Puget Sound Navigation Company: [31]

Golden West was promptly resold to San Diego and renamed North Island for service between San Diego and Coronado. Golden Bear was salvaged for parts after being damaged when a towline parted off the Oregon coast on 15 November 1937. The others went on to serve in the waters of northwestern Washington and southwestern British Columbia. After serving seven years as Elwha, Golden Shore was sold to San Diego in 1944 and renamed Silver Strand on the San Diego-Coronado route. [31] The City of Sacramento operated on the Seattle-Bremerton route in the 1940s, then on the Horseshoe Bay-Nanaimo route from 1952 to 1963 as the MV Kahloke , and finally on the Horseshoe Bay-Langdale route from 1964 to 1976 as the MV Langdale Queen . The Peralta, rebuilt as the MV Kalakala, operated on various Puget Sound crossings and on the Seattle-Victoria-Port Angeles route. The City of Long Beach, renamed the City of Angeles, operated out of Port Angeles and the Stockton, which became the Klickitat , operated on the Keystone-Port Townsend route until 2007. Mendocino (renamed Quinault) and Redwood Empire (renamed Nisqually) were retired in 2003 and scrapped in 2009. Santa Rosa was renamed Enetai, returned to San Francisco Bay in 1968, and is preserved at Pier 3. [9]

Notes

  1. Hogle, Gene NAC Green Book of Pacific Coast Touring (1931) National Automobile Club p.41
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Ford (1977) pp.18-19
  3. Port of Oakland-History Archived 2007-08-31 at the Wayback Machine
  4. Forgotten Pioneers: Irish Leaders in Northern California, Thomas F. Prendergast, The Minerva Group, Inc., 2001, p.261
  5. 1 2 Ford (1977) pp.22-27
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Graves, Roy (1954). "Railroading on San Francisco Bay". The Western Railroader. Francis A. Guido. 17 (175): 1–11.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 Stindt (1985) p.128
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Dickson (1974) p.139
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Stindt (1978) p.256
  10. 1 2 3 "San Francisco Bay Ferryboats - Yesterday". Joe Thompson. Retrieved 2011-07-22.
  11. Ford (1977) p.59
  12. Kneiss, Gilbert H. Redwood Railways (1956) Howell-North p.137
  13. Schmale, John & Kristina Petaluma and Santa Rosa Railway (2009) Arcadia Publishing ISBN   978-0-7385-5959-9 p.9
  14. Ford (1977) pp.201-209,284-285&289
  15. Ford (1977) pp.90,131,162-173&342
  16. "People and Planes - January '98 Aviation History Department - HistoryNet". www.historynet.com. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  17. "Last Ferry to San Francisco". cruiselinehistory.com. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  18. "Silver Anniversary for Golden Gate Ferry". sfgate.com. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  19. "Bay Crossings". www.baycrossings.com. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  20. "Jenny Lind ferry disaster commemoration". sfgate.com. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  21. "Short Range Transit Plan FY2012 – FY2021" (PDF). Water Emergency Transportation Authority. 2012. Appendix A. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 9, 2016. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
  22. "Meeting of the Board of Directors" (PDF). Water Emergency Transportation Authority. August 29, 2013. Attachment 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 9, 2016. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
  23. "Meeting of the Board of Directors" (PDF). Water Emergency Transportation Authority. July 10, 2014. Attachment 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 9, 2016. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
  24. "Meeting of the Board of Directors" (PDF). Water Emergency Transportation Authority. August 24, 2015. Attachment A (Total Passengers Current FY To Date). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 22, 2016. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
  25. "Meeting of the Board of Directors" (PDF). Water Emergency Transportation Authority. September 3, 2015. Attachment A (Total Passengers June 2015). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2016. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
  26. "Meeting of the Board of Directors" (PDF). Water Emergency Transportation Authority. August 4, 2016. Attachment A (Total Passengers Current FY To Date). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 7, 2017. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
  27. "Meeting of the Board of Directors" (PDF). Water Emergency Transportation Authority. September 1, 2016. Attachment A (Total Passengers June 2016). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 7, 2017. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
  28. "Meeting of the Board of Directors". Water Emergency Transportation Authority. September 6, 2018. Attachment A (Monthly Operating Statistics Report June 2018). Retrieved April 29, 2019.
  29. "Golden Gate Ferry Statistics". Golden Gate Ferry. Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
  30. "GGNRA is one of the Largest Urban Parks in the World". Hornblower. October 9, 2018. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  31. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Ford (1977) pp.340-348
  32. Scott, Erving M. and Others, Evolution of Shipping and Ship-Building in California, Part II, Overland Monthly and Out West Magazine, Volume 25, February 1895, pp.122-129; from quod.lib.umich.edu accessed March 10, 2015
  33. Pickens, Steve. "The Rogue's Gallery". www.evergreenfleet.com. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  34. History of the MV Langdale Queen, ex-MV Kahloke, ex-SS City of Sacramento, ex-SS Asbury Park
  35. Scott, Erving M. and Others, Evolution of Shipping and Ship-Building in California, Part I, Overland Monthly and Out West Magazine, Volume 25, January 1895, pp.5-16; from quod.lib.umich.edu accessed March 10, 2015
  36. 1 2 3 4 MacMullen, Jerry, Paddle-Wheel Days in California, Stanford University Press, Stanford, 1970.
  37. 1 2 Ford (1977) p.197
  38. "The Overland Monthly". Samuel Carson. 16 April 1899. Retrieved 16 April 2018 via Google Books.
  39. Ford (1977) p.20
  40. Demoro, Harre W. (1986). California's Electric Railways. Glendale, California: Interurban Press. p. 14. ISBN   0-916374-74-2.
  41. 1 2 Peter Fimrite (2005-04-28). "Ferry tale -- the dream dies hard: 2 historic boats that plied the bay seek buyer -- anybody". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2007-10-31.
  42. 1 2 "Bethlehem Steel Company, San Francisco CA". Tim Colton. Archived from the original on 2012-10-19. Retrieved 2011-07-22.

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<i>Eureka</i> (ferryboat)

Eureka is a side-wheel paddle steamboat, built in 1890, which is now preserved at the San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park in San Francisco, California. Originally named Ukiah to commemorate the railway's recent extension into the City of Ukiah, the boat was built by the San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad Company at their Tiburon yard. Eureka has been designated a National Historic Landmark and was listed in the National Register of Historic Places on April 24, 1973.

San Francisco Ferry Building Ferry terminal in San Francisco, California

The San Francisco Ferry Building is a terminal for ferries that travel across the San Francisco Bay, a food hall and an office building. It is located on The Embarcadero in San Francisco, California.

Alameda Terminal

Alameda Terminal was a railroad station and ferry wharf at the foot and west of present-day Pacific Avenue and Main Street in Alameda, California, on the eastern shore of San Francisco Bay with ferry service to San Francisco. It was built in 1864 and operated by the San Francisco and Alameda Railroad. In 1869, it served as the original west coast terminus of the U.S. First Transcontinental Railroad, until the opening of Oakland Pier two months later. The western terminus was inaugurated September 6, 1869, when the first Western Pacific through train from Sacramento reached the shores of San Francisco Bay at Alameda Terminal, thus completing the first transcontinental railroad to the Pacific coast.

Niles Canyon Railway

The Niles Canyon Railway (NCRy) is a heritage railway running through Niles Canyon, between Sunol and the Niles district of Fremont in the East Bay of the San Francisco Bay Area, in California, United States. The railway is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the Niles Canyon Transcontinental Railroad Historic District. The railroad is operated and maintained by the Pacific Locomotive Association which preserves, restores and operates historic railroad equipment. The NCRy features public excursions with both steam and diesel locomotives along a well-preserved portion of the First Transcontinental Railroad.

<i>Berkeley</i> (ferryboat)

Berkeley was one of several ferryboats of the Southern Pacific Railroad that for sixty years operated on San Francisco Bay between the Oakland Pier and the San Francisco Ferry Building. Built in 1898 by the Union Iron Works of San Francisco, she served after the 1906 earthquake, ferrying refugees across the bay to Oakland.

The California Pacific Railroad Company was incorporated in 1865 at San Francisco, California as the California Pacific Rail Road Company. It was renamed the California Pacific Railroad Extension Company in the spring of 1869, then renamed the California Pacific Railroad later that same year. The railroad from Vallejo to Sacramento was constructed six months prior to the May 1869 golden spike ceremony of the Central Pacific/Union Pacific Transcontinental Railway.

Northwestern Pacific Railroad

The Northwestern Pacific Railroad is a railroad covering the 62 mi (100 km) stretch between Schellville and Windsor with freight and Sonoma–Marin Area Rail Transit (SMART) commuter trains. Formerly, it was a regional railroad that served the entire North Coast of California, with a main line running 271 miles (436 km) from Schellville to Eureka, along with an additional portion of the line running from the Ignacio Wye to the edge of San Rafael. The portion of the NWP main line between the Ignacio Wye in Marin County and the depot in Healdsburg is owned by SMART. The Schellville–Ignacio and Healdsburg–Eureka portions are owned by the North Coast Railroad Authority (NCRA). Private contractor NWPco operates freight service under NCRA lease. California's 2018 Great Redwood Trail Act repurposes the abandoned railroad right-of-way from Eureka to the San Francisco Bay in Marin County for future use as the "Great Redwood Trail" rail-trail.

Hyde Street Pier

The Hyde Street Pier, at 2905 Hyde Street, is a historic ferry pier located on the northern waterfront of San Francisco, California.

Oakland Long Wharf

The Oakland Long Wharf was an 11,000-foot railroad wharf and ferry pier along the east shore of San Francisco Bay located at the foot of Seventh Street in West Oakland. The Oakland Long Wharf was built, beginning 1868, by the Central Pacific Railroad on what was previously Oakland Point. Beginning November 8, 1869, it served as the west coast terminus of the First Transcontinental Railroad. In the 1880s, Southern Pacific Railroad took over the CPRR, extending it and creating a new ferry terminal building with the official station name Oakland Pier. The entire structure became commonly and popularly called the Oakland Mole.

South Pacific Coast Railroad

The South Pacific Coast Railroad (SPC) was a 3 ft narrow gauge steam railroad running between Santa Cruz, California and Alameda, with a ferry connection in Alameda to San Francisco. The railroad was created as the Santa Clara Valley Railroad, founded by local strawberry growers as a way to get their crops to market in San Francisco and provide an alternative to the Southern Pacific Railroad. In 1876, James Graham Fair, a Comstock Lode silver baron, bought the line and extended it into the Santa Cruz Mountains to capture the significant lumber traffic coming out of the redwood forests. The narrow-gauge line was originally laid with 52-pound-per-yard (26 kg/m) rail on 8-foot (2.44 m) redwood ties; and was later acquired by the Southern Pacific and converted to 4 ft 8+12 instandard gauge.

Blue & Gold Fleet

Blue & Gold Fleet is a privately owned company in the United States providing ferry services in the San Francisco Bay Area of California. Blue & Gold Fleet primarily operates tourist and excursion services from Pier 41 in San Francisco, with service to Sausalito, Tiburon, and Angel Island. The company also operates the San Francisco Bay Ferry commuter service under contract to WETA.

Golden Gate Ferry

Golden Gate Ferry is a commuter ferry service operated by the Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District in the Bay Area of Northern California. Regular service is run to the Ferry Building in San Francisco from Larkspur, Sausalito, and Tiburon in Marin County, with additional service from Larkspur to Oracle Park for San Francisco Giants games. The ferry service is funded primarily by passenger fares and Golden Gate Bridge tolls.

San Francisco Bay Ferry

San Francisco Bay Ferry is a public transit passenger ferry service in the San Francisco Bay, administered by the San Francisco Bay Area Water Emergency Transportation Authority (WETA). San Francisco Bay Ferry is a different system from Golden Gate Ferry, which provides passenger ferry service from San Francisco to Marin County.

SS <i>Asbury Park</i>

Asbury Park was a high-speed coastal steamer built in Philadelphia, and intended to transport well-to-do persons from New York to summer homes on the New Jersey shore. This vessel was sold to West Coast interests in 1918, and later converted to an automobile ferry, serving on various routes San Francisco Bay, Puget Sound and British Columbia. This vessel was known by a number of other names, including City of Sacramento, Kahloke, Langdale Queen, and Lady Grace.

The San Francisco and Oakland Railroad (SF&O) was built in 1862 to provide ferry-train service from a San Francisco ferry terminal connecting with railroad service through Oakland to San Antonio. In 1868 Central Pacific Railroad decided that Oakland would be the west coast terminus of the First transcontinental railroad and bought SF&O. Beginning November 8, 1869, part of the SF&O line served as the westernmost portion of the transcontinental railroad. It subsequently was absorbed into the Southern Pacific Railroad (SP). The track in Oakland was electrified in 1911 and extended across the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge in 1939. Service was abandoned in 1941.

The San Francisco and Alameda Railroad (SF&A) was a short-lived railroad company in the East Bay area of the San Francisco Bay Area. The railroad line opened 1864–1865 from Alameda Terminal on Alameda Island to Hayward, California, with ferry service between Alameda Terminal and San Francisco started in 1864. After being bankrupted by the 1868 Hayward earthquake, it was acquired by a subsidiary of the Central Pacific Railroad in August 1869. Part of the SF&A line between Alameda Terminal and San Leandro served as a portion of the First Transcontinental Railroad starting in September 1869, while the southern section was abandoned in 1873.

The Western Pacific Railroad (1862-1870) was formed in 1862 to build a railroad from Sacramento, California, to the San Francisco Bay, the westernmost portion of the First Transcontinental Railroad. After the completion of the railroad from Sacramento to Alameda Terminal on September 6, 1869, and then the Oakland Pier on November 8, 1869, which was the Pacific coast terminus of the transcontinental railroad, the Western Pacific Railroad was absorbed in 1870 into the Central Pacific Railroad.

Sierra Nevada was a steel-hulled steam-powered passenger ferry operated on San Francisco Bay. The ferry was built for the Western Pacific Railroad as Edward T. Jeffery in 1913 and subsequently renamed Feather River. The ferry offered connecting service to San Francisco for Western Pacific train passengers arriving in Oakland, California. The ferry was sold to Southern Pacific Transportation Company when Western Pacific began using Southern Pacific's Oakland ferry facilities in May, 1933. Southern Pacific renamed the ferry Sierra Nevada and placed it in commuter service between San Francisco and Alameda, California until that route was discontinued in 1939. The ferry was leased to the Key System for the Golden Gate International Exposition on Treasure Island from 1939 through 1940. In 1942, the ferry was requisitioned by the federal government to carry shipyard workers from San Francisco to Richmond Yard 1 through World War II. The Richmond-San Rafael Ferry Company purchased the ferry in 1947 and rebuilt it to carry automobiles between Richmond and San Rafael until the Richmond–San Rafael Bridge opened on 1 September 1956. The ferry was then towed to San Pedro, Los Angeles where she sank in 1978.

Sausalito Ferry Terminal

Sausalito Ferry Terminal is a ferry terminal in Sausalito, California, connecting Marin County and San Francisco. The station is served by Golden Gate Ferry and Blue & Gold Fleet ferries as well as Golden Gate Transit and Marin Transit bus routes.

Golden Gate Ferry Company was a private company which operated automobile ferries between San Francisco, Berkeley and Sausalito before the opening of the Bay Bridge and the Golden Gate Bridge. The company was incorporated in November of 1920. The ferry went bankrupt at the completion of the Golden Gate Bridge, but with the start of World War 2 the demand for service was so great it started again. Ferry service started just one year after closing to ferry shipyard workers to the Marinship and Kaiser Shipyards shipyard in San Francisco. But after the war, service was discontinued again. In early 1929, the Golden Gate Ferry Company merged with the ferry system of the Southern Pacific railroad, becoming the Southern Pacific-Golden Gate Ferries, Ltd.

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