Livermore, California

Last updated

Livermore
Downtown Livermore California.jpg
Downtown Livermore
City of Livermore logo.svg
Alameda County California Incorporated and Unincorporated areas Livermore Highlighted.svg
Location of Livermore in Alameda County, California
USA California location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Livermore
Location in California
Usa edcp location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Livermore
Livermore (the United States)
Coordinates: 37°40′55″N121°46′05″W / 37.68194°N 121.76806°W / 37.68194; -121.76806
Country Flag of the United States (23px).png  United States
State California
County Alameda
Established1869
Incorporated April 1, 1876 [1]
Named for Robert Livermore
Government
  Type Council–manager [2]
   Mayor John Marchand
   City manager Marianna Marysheva
   U.S. rep. Eric Swalwell
   State senator Steve Glazer
   State rep. Rebecca Bauer-Kahan
Area
[3]
   City 26.45 sq mi (68.50 km2)
  Land26.45 sq mi (68.49 km2)
  Water0.00 sq mi (0.01 km2)  0.010%
  Metro
2,474 sq mi (6,410 km2)
Elevation
[4]
495 ft (151 m)
Population
 (2020) [5]
   City 87,955
  Rank 93rd in California
  Density3,300/sq mi (1,300/km2)
   Urban
240,381 (US: 167th) [6]
  Urban density3,683.5/sq mi (1,422.2/km2)
Time zone UTC−8 (Pacific)
  Summer (DST) UTC−7 (PDT)
ZIP codes
94550, 94551
Area code 925
FIPS code 06-41992
GNIS feature IDs 277542, 2410848
Website www.cityoflivermore.net

Livermore (formerly Livermorès, Livermore Ranch, and Nottingham) [7] is a city in Alameda County, California. With a 2020 population of 87,955, [5] Livermore is the most populous city in the Tri-Valley, giving its name to the Livermore Valley. It is located on the eastern edge of California's San Francisco Bay Area, making it the easternmost city in the area. The current mayor is John Marchand. [8]

Contents

Livermore was platted and registered on November 4, 1869, as a railroad town by William Mendenhall and named for Robert Livermore, Mendenhall's friend and a local rancher who settled in the area in the 1840s. [9] It is the home of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, for which the chemical element livermorium is named (and thus, placing the city's name in the periodic table). [10] It is also the California site of Sandia National Laboratories, which is headquartered in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Its south side is home to local vineyards, and its downtown district is being redeveloped. [11]

The United States Census Bureau defines an urban area of Tri-Valley-area cities, with Livermore as the principal city: the Livermore–PleasantonDublin, CA urban area had a 2020 population of 240,381, making it the 167th largest in the United States. [6]

History

Jose Noriega (Mayor of San Jose).jpg
Robert Livermore.jpg
Livermore grew out of Rancho Las Positas, granted in 1839 to business partners Don José Noriega (left) and Don Roberto Livermore (right).

Pre-Contact

The valley and upland areas, where contemporary Livermore is located, was home to Chochenyo speaking peoples. [12] As a group, these people are considered Ohlone Costonoan with distinct cultural affiliation in contrast to and closely bordering the Bay Miwok to the north and the Valley Yokuts to the east. Four tribelets, the Yulien, Ssaoam, Ssouyn, and the Pelnen occupied the valley floor with territory extending into the hills. [13] Semi-permanent villages were located near water drainages at the valley floor within the current urban limits of Livermore with seasonal camps in the surrounding uplands. [14]

1700s

A Spanish expedition led by Pedro Fages skirted the western edge of Livermore Valley in 1772. Shortly afterwards, the Spanish Mission of San Jose was founded in 1797 on the slopes of what is modern day Fremont. Mission San Jose viewed the people and land stretching to the east as under their control. [12] :7 Livermore Valley was called the Valley of San Jose by the Friars and actively recruited native peoples of the valley into the mission system. In contrast, the valley was also used as a staging area for raids on Mission San Jose by neighboring tribes in this early period and beyond. [15] :184–186

1800s

During the first seven years of the 1800s, five hundred and two individuals were baptized at Mission San Jose from the four tribelets in the Livermore Valley. [15] In this time, Spanish military conducted raids throughout the East Bay using the valley as a natural corridor for movement. [15] Deaths from measles outbreaks were recorded in Mission San Jose in 1806 which forced recruiting beyond the Livermore Valley and into the Altamont range. [16] The Livermore-Amador Valley from 1800 to about 1837 was primarily used as grazing land for the Mission San Jose's growing herds of cattle, sheep and horses. The valley helped San Jose Mission emerge as one of the more wealthy Spanish enclaves. As a result of the secularization of the mission system, in 1839, two large ranchos were created that encompassed the Livermore Valley; Rancho Las Positas and Rancho Valle de San Jose. Many Native groups left the San Jose Mission during this period and reestablished themselves in communities in the East Bay, including the Livermore Valley. [17] Because indigenous food resources there were depleted, they tried to support themselves by working as laborers. But as the population grew thanks to the Gold Rush and the workers on the railroad, it became more and more difficult to find work;[ why? ] by 1906, there were only 28 individuals, and by 1914 most of the remaining population was gone. [18]

Rancho Las Positas

In 1822, Robert Livermore (1799-1858) [19] was a British citizen who had jumped from a British merchant sailing ship stopping in Monterey, California.[ citation needed ] In 1839, the 48,000-acre (19,000 ha) Rancho Las Positas grant, which includes most of Livermore, was made to ranchers Robert Livermore and Jose Noriega. [20] [21] Most land grants were given with little or no cost to the recipients.

In the early 1840s Livermore moved his family from the Sunol Valley to the Rancho Las Positas grant, as the second non-native family to settle in the Livermore valley area. [18] In 1847, after the Americans took control of California and gold was discovered in 1848, he started making money by selling California longhorn cattle to the thousands of hungry California Gold Rush miners who soon arrived. The non-Indian population skyrocketed, and cattle were suddenly worth much more than the $1.00-$3.00 their hides could bring. Livermore's ranch became a popular "first day" stopping point for prospectors and businessmen leaving San Francisco or San Jose and headed for Sacramento and the Mother Lode gold country. Most horse traffic went by way of Altamont Pass just east of Livermore. Because Livermore would offer food and shelter to those passing by, the valley eventually became known as Livermore's Valley. [18]

Founding of Livermore

Robert Livermore died in 1858. [18] Livermore's founder, William Mendenhall, was another rancher who had set up in the Livermore valley. In 1869, he set aside 100 acres of his land for a townsite, creating a new town which he named Livermore, after his friend Robert Livermore. [22] By that time, the valley had already become known as Livermore's Valley. [18] He had first met Livermore while marching through the valley with John C. Fremont's California Battalion in 1846 as they were recruited to occupy the surrendering Californio towns captured by the U.S. Navy's Pacific Squadron. [23] He also donated 20 acres of this land to the Western Pacific Railroad, [22] which in September 1869 built rail nearby, placing a stop and a station on the land William Mendenhall had donated. The land for the tracks had already been signed over by Robert Livermore from bis ranch in 1855, as surveyors had determined it was the best place to build. [24] The original railroad tracks went from Alameda Terminal to Sacramento over the nearby Altamont Pass in the east and Niles Canyon on the west.[ citation needed ] The first significant settlement in the valley had been Laddsville, a small settlement of about 75 [25] that had grown up around the hotel established by Alponso Ladd in 1864 on what is now Junction Avenue. Because of the railroad and several fires, especially in 1871,[ citation needed ] Laddsville gradually merged into Livermore. [18] The whole time, the railroad greatly accelerated Livermore's growth, [9] and the town was officially incorporated by the state as a city on April 1, 1876. [26]

From 1851 to 1853, the Livermore Ranch post office, operated in Robert Livermore's home. [7] On Jan. 15, 1869, the official U.S. post office in Livermore opened. [27] [7] It was called Nottingham in the mistaken belief that Robert Livermore had been born in Nottingham, England. [28] (He was actually born in Springfield, Essex, England. [29] ) On 7 July 1870, the post office's name was changed to Livermore. [27]

Early Livermore

In the early days, the income of the town of Livermore mainly came from wheat. [18] Some other contributors to the town's prosperity were coal and oil deposits in the surrounding hills. [18] Extensive deposits of coal were mined near Corral Hollow by the Livermore Coal Company.[ citation needed ] Another contributor was wine. [18] Livermore's wine industry grew after the 1880s, and it became notable for wineries like Wente Vineyards, Concannon Vineyards, and Cresta Blanca Winery. [18] Since it has a Mediterranean climate, gravelly soil, warm days and cool nights, it was a good location to grow wine grapes. By 1880 the extensive winter wheat and hay crop lands were being replaced by vineyards.[ citation needed ] As well as the main products of the town, extensive chromite deposits were found nearby and exploited for a time.[ citation needed ] The Remillard Brick Company was also in Livermore in 1885, and was producing an extensive line of bricks and employing over 100 men.[ citation needed ]

Private grade schools were operating in Livermore from the 1860s on. The Livermore Collegiate Institute was founded in 1870, and Union High School (later called Livermore High School) graduated its first class of students in 1896. In September 1871 Laddsville mostly burned down, and the people rebuilt their homes and businesses nearer the railroad in what is now downtown Livermore. Until 1875 the townspeople enjoyed bull fights in a small bullring on many Sundays, and on other occasions a captured grizzly bear might be pitted against a longhorn bull. Apparently, roping a grizzly was thought then to be a great sport. By 1876 the town had grown and a fire company, churches, a bank, and a library were built. Livermore was officially incorporated by the state as a city on April 1, 1876. [26]

During Livermore's early years, before and after it was incorporated, it was well known for large hotels that graced the downtown street corners, before new buildings replaced them (for example, the Donut Wheel). A telephone line connected Livermore to Arroyo Valley by 1886, and electric lights were introduced by 1889. By 1890 Livermore had over 20 miles (32 km) of streets. [30] Livermore originally had a Boot Hill called the Old Knoll Cemetery. [31]

1900s

During the late 19th century and early 20th century, the Livermore Valley attracted the creation of sanitariums due to the warm climate. [18] [32] From 1894 to 1960, the Livermore Sanitarium was in operation for the treatment of alcoholism and mental disorders; and from 1918 to around 1960, the Arroyo del Valle Sanitarium was in operation in the town for the treatment of tuberculosis. [33]

In 1909, the Livermore Carnegie Library and Park opened after taking advantage of a Carnegie library grant. As the city grew and larger libraries were needed, other libraries were built, and the original site was converted into a historic center [34] and park.

In 1942, the U.S. government bought 692 acres (280 ha) of ranch land, and built the Livermore Naval Air Station. [35] The primary mission of the base was to train Navy pilots for World War II. [35] This facility operated until it was decommissioned in 1946 after the end of the war. On 5 January 1951, the Bureau of Yards and Docks, U.S. Navy, formally transferred the former NAS Livermore in its entirety to the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) for use by the University of California's Radiation Laboratory.[ citation needed ] In 1952, the government established Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), named after physicist Ernest O. Lawrence, as the site of a second laboratory for the study of nuclear energy like the research being done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.[ citation needed ] The laboratory was run by the University of California. Edward Teller was a co-founder of LLNL and was both its director and associate director for many years. [35] In 1956, the California campus of Sandia National Laboratories opened across East Avenue from LLNL. Both LLNL and Sandia are technically on U.S. government property just outside the city's jurisdiction limits, but with employment at LLNL at about 6,800 and Sandia/California at about 1,150 they are Livermore's largest employers.[ citation needed ]

Geography

Livermore from the southwest IMAG3052-livermore.jpg
Livermore from the southwest

The Livermore Valley is located within the Diablo Range, one of several parts of the California Coast Ranges that surround the San Francisco Bay Area. The Livermore Valley has an east–west orientation with mountain passes on the west and east connecting the Bay Area and the Central Valley. The passes are used by railroads and highways to connect the two regions. Livermore Valley is about 15 miles (24 km) long (east to west) and 10 miles (16 km) wide (north to south).

Watercourses draining the city of Livermore include Arroyo Mocho, Arroyo Valle, Arroyo Seco and Arroyo Las Positas. The principal aquifer underlying the city is the Mocho Subbasin. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 25.2 square miles (65 km2), over 99% of it land. Several local seismic areas of activity lie near the city, including the Greenville Fault, Tesla Fault and the Livermore Fault.

The soil is primarily gravel with excellent drainage. The gravel is used in several gravel extraction sites outside the city. The gravelly soil and Mediterranean climate increases the flavor concentration in the grapes planted in the soil.[ citation needed ]

Climate

Livermore has a Mediterranean climate, although it is close to a semi-arid climate because of its relatively low annual precipitation, due to being in the rain shadow of the western portions of the Diablo Range. Livermore features hot, dry summers and mild to cool winters with occasional rainfall (Köppen climate classification Csa). [36] The valley's passes direct the normal west to east flow of air through the valley. Usually there is a strong evening wind in the summer that brings cool air off the Pacific Ocean into the Livermore valley as it heads towards the much hotter Central Valley. This wind is strong enough with an average summer wind speed of about 9 miles per hour (14 km/h) and predictable enough to encourage the use of the wind turbines in the Altamont Pass between the cities of Livermore and Tracy. The period from June to September is extremely dry and is characterized by clear skies. On rare occasion, subtropical moisture occasionally surges into the Livermore Valley in the late summer. This can bring high humidity, monsoon clouds, and, much less commonly, thunderstorms.

Snow is very rare, but light dustings do occur on the surrounding hills and occasionally in the valley.

Climate data for Livermore, California (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1903–present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)79
(26)
82
(28)
88
(31)
97
(36)
108
(42)
113
(45)
113
(45)
112
(44)
116
(47)
106
(41)
92
(33)
79
(26)
116
(47)
Mean maximum °F (°C)67.2
(19.6)
71.7
(22.1)
78.6
(25.9)
87.2
(30.7)
94.1
(34.5)
102.4
(39.1)
103.8
(39.9)
103.0
(39.4)
100.3
(37.9)
91.5
(33.1)
78.0
(25.6)
66.9
(19.4)
106.2
(41.2)
Mean daily maximum °F (°C)56.8
(13.8)
61.0
(16.1)
65.8
(18.8)
70.6
(21.4)
76.6
(24.8)
83.9
(28.8)
89.0
(31.7)
88.6
(31.4)
85.9
(29.9)
77.2
(25.1)
64.9
(18.3)
56.9
(13.8)
73.1
(22.8)
Daily mean °F (°C)47.9
(8.8)
51.0
(10.6)
54.6
(12.6)
58.1
(14.5)
63.3
(17.4)
68.8
(20.4)
72.8
(22.7)
72.6
(22.6)
70.3
(21.3)
63.5
(17.5)
53.8
(12.1)
47.9
(8.8)
60.4
(15.8)
Mean daily minimum °F (°C)39.0
(3.9)
41.0
(5.0)
43.3
(6.3)
45.7
(7.6)
50.0
(10.0)
53.8
(12.1)
56.6
(13.7)
56.6
(13.7)
54.7
(12.6)
49.7
(9.8)
42.8
(6.0)
38.8
(3.8)
47.7
(8.7)
Mean minimum °F (°C)28.9
(−1.7)
31.3
(−0.4)
34.5
(1.4)
37.4
(3.0)
42.9
(6.1)
47.2
(8.4)
51.2
(10.7)
51.2
(10.7)
47.0
(8.3)
41.3
(5.2)
33.3
(0.7)
28.8
(−1.8)
27.0
(−2.8)
Record low °F (°C)18
(−8)
21
(−6)
22
(−6)
29
(−2)
32
(0)
38
(3)
36
(2)
40
(4)
35
(2)
29
(−2)
22
(−6)
18
(−8)
18
(−8)
Average precipitation inches (mm)2.78
(71)
2.72
(69)
2.20
(56)
1.10
(28)
0.51
(13)
0.12
(3.0)
0.00
(0.00)
0.04
(1.0)
0.09
(2.3)
0.77
(20)
1.54
(39)
2.73
(69)
14.60
(371)
Average precipitation days (≥ .01 in)10.19.89.35.63.61.10.00.40.72.56.79.559.3
Source 1: NOAA [37]
Source 2: National Weather Service [38]

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.Note
1880 855
1890 1,39162.7%
1900 1,4937.3%
1910 2,03036.0%
1920 1,916−5.6%
1930 3,11962.8%
1940 2,885−7.5%
1950 4,36451.3%
1960 16,058268.0%
1970 37,703134.8%
1980 48,34928.2%
1990 56,74117.4%
2000 73,34529.3%
2010 80,96810.4%
2020 87,9558.6%
2023 (est.)84,793 [39] −3.6%
U.S. Decennial Census [40]

2020 Census

Livermore, California – Racial and ethnic composition
(NH = Non-Hispanic)
Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos may be of any race.
Race / EthnicityPop 2000 [41] Pop 2010 [42] Pop 2020 [43] % 2000% 2010% 2020
White alone (NH)54,58752,39748,44974.42%64.71%55.08%
Black or African American alone (NH)1,0941,5621,6041.49%1.93%1.82%
Native American or Alaska Native alone (NH)3152512030.43%0.31%0.23%
Asian alone (NH)4,1716,64312,6335.69%8.20%14.36%
Pacific Islander alone (NH)1892312090.26%0.29%0.24%
Other race alone (NH)1852025000.25%0.25%0.57%
Mixed race or Multiracial (NH)2,2632,7625,3793.09%3.41%6.12%
Hispanic or Latino (any race)10,54116,92018,97814.37%20.90%21.58%
Total73,34580,96887,955100.00%100.00%100.00%

2010 Census

The 2010 United States Census [44] reported that Livermore had a population of 80,968. The population density was 3,216.1 inhabitants per square mile (1,241.7/km2). The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.5%; the rental vacancy rate was 4.8%. 56,967 people (70.4% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 23,491 people (29.0%) lived in rental housing units.

According to the 2010 census information, Livermore is the third wealthiest midsize (between 65,000 and 249,999 people) city in the nation. In 2005, the median household income in Livermore was $96,632, which ranked it the third highest-income midsize city, behind only the California cities of Newport Beach ($97,428) and Livermore's western neighbor, Pleasanton ($101,022). [45]

As of October 2019, there were 53,792 registered voters in Livermore; of these, 21,158 (39.93%) are Democrats, 15,061 (28.00%) are Republicans, and 14,499 (26.95%) are independents/decline to state. [46]

Economy

Aerial view of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory LLNL Aerial View.jpg
Aerial view of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Laboratories

The Livermore area is the home of two US Department of Energy National Laboratories. The laboratories are known worldwide, and attract significant attention both for their scientific research and for their major roles in developing the United States nuclear arsenal.

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the largest employer in Livermore. LLNL's defining responsibility is to "ensure the safety, security and reliability of the nation’s nuclear deterrent," but it also does a wide variety of other research, including co-discovering livermorium. [47]

Livermore is also the California site of Sandia National Laboratories, the second largest employer in Livermore. It also describes itself as being focused on "national security". [48] It is managed and operated by a subsidiary of Honeywell International.

i-GATE

In 2010, [49] the two National Laboratories, along with other stakeholders, including the University of California, Berkeley, UC Davis, and regional cities, partnered to create the i-GATE (Innovation for Green Advanced Transportation Excellence) National Energy Systems Technology (NEST) Incubator, part of the Central Valley. The 15,000-square-foot (1,400 m2) i-GATE NEST campus was created to stimulate large-scale, high-tech business development drawn by the two labs. Initial focus of the campus was solar energy, fuel cells, biofuels, LED lighting, and other related technologies. [50] [51] i-GATE shares its facilities with the hackerspace Robot Garden, [52] which provides public access on weekends. [53]

Wine

Southeast Livermore neighborhood surrounded by vineyards Southeast Livermore vineyard neighborhood.jpg
Southeast Livermore neighborhood surrounded by vineyards

One of California's oldest wine regions, the Livermore Valley American Viticultural Area (AVA) played a pivotal role in shaping California's wine industry. In the 1840s, California pioneers looking for outstanding vineyard sites began planting grapes in the region. Robert Livermore planted the first commercial vines in the 1840s. After California joined the union as the 31st state in 1850, pioneer winemakers C. H. Wente, a first-generation immigrant from Germany [54] (founder of Wente Vineyards), James Concannon, a first generation Irishman [55] (founder of Concannon Vineyard), and Charles Wetmore, a Portland, Maine-born pioneer of California [56] (founder of Cresta Blanca Winery), recognized the area's winegrowing potential and bought land, planted grapes and founded their wineries in the 1880s. [57]

Charles Wetmore went to France in 1878 when he was appointed a delegate for the California Viticultural Association to the Paris Exposition. Wetmore was able in 1882 to obtain Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc, and Muscat de Bordelais cuttings from one of the most prestigious vineyards in France, Chateau Yquem. These superior clones helped revitalize the California wine industry. In 1889 Wetmore won the grand prize for his first pressing (1884) in the 1889 Paris Exposition. Wetmore shared these cuttings with other growers, including C. H. Wente, who used the Chateau Yquem grape cuttings to eventually produce their Chateau Wente wine.[ citation needed ]

Top employers

According to the city's 2022 Annual Comprehensive Financial Report, the top employers in Livermore are: [58]

#Employer# of employees
1 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 8,100
2 Sandia National Laboratories 1,770
3 Livermore Valley Joint Unified School District 1,351
4 Lam Research 1,205
5 Form Factor 950
6 Kaiser Permanente 935
7 Gillig Corporation 920
8 US Foodservice 690
9 Topcon Positioning Systems 500
10 Las Positas College 478

Gillig Corporation, a large manufacturer of buses, moved its factory to Livermore in May 2017 and, at the time of the move, the company estimated its employment at the new facility to be 800 initially and 850 after the filling of then-open positions. [59]

Livermore's largest employers, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratory are United States Department of Energy National Laboratories, located inside the city limits since 2011, and are included in the above table.

Architectural Glass and Aluminum moved its headquarters to Livermore in 2013, with 80 employees. [60] They expanded and changed to 100% employee ownership in 2015. [61]

Arts and culture

Livermore Carnegie Library and Park is one of five landmarks listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Livermore Carnegie Library Front View.JPG
Livermore Carnegie Library and Park is one of five landmarks listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
First Presbyterian Church of Livermore's chapel FirstPresLivermore.JPG
First Presbyterian Church of Livermore's chapel
Livermore Hindu Temple Sa livermore temple.jpg
Livermore Hindu Temple
Livermore's Farmer's Market at Carnegie Park downtown LivermoreFarmersMarket.JPG
Livermore's Farmer's Market at Carnegie Park downtown

Livermore's culture retains some vestiges of the farming, winegrowing and ranching traditions that have existed in the valley since the time of Robert Livermore, but now largely reflects a suburban population. Since 1918, Livermore has each June hosted the Livermore Rodeo, [62] called the "World's Fastest Rodeo", that claims it has more riders per hour than any other event of its type. There are several wine-tasting tours of the many Livermore area wineries that occur periodically throughout the summer. This culture was documented in the photoessay Suburbia in 1973 by then-native photographer Bill Owens, with the photos shown in numerous exhibits. [63]

Livermore has a strong blue-collar element,[ citation needed ] as well as many professionals who work at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and other work sites in the high tech industries within the Bay Area. Recent housing development has included the addition of hundreds of million-dollar homes set among the southside's vineyards, as well as a multimillion-dollar renovation of the downtown area. Renovations included office buildings, the Livermore Cinemas, the Bankhead Theatre, [64] and a multistory parking structure. The Livermore Civic Center includes a state-of-the-art library that opened in 2004, with a front mosaic by Maria Alquilar.

One of the largest districts in Livermore is Springtown, the northeast area of the city north of Interstate 580. Originally conceived as a retirement community in the early 1960s, Springtown has slowly transformed into a community of young families and commuters from the greater Bay Area. The North Livermore district is north of the Union Pacific Railroad that cuts through downtown. The South Livermore district, including areas of unincorporated land, has over 40 wineries.[ citation needed ]

The first Camp Wonder, a summer camp for children with special medical needs, was opened in Livermore in 2001. In 2019, a local LGBT organization, Livermore Pride, [65] was founded. [66] On its leadership team is Brittni Kiick, the city's vice mayor and first openly LGBTQ+ councilmember. Livermore was one of 10 cities to be awarded an All-America City Award during the annual National Civic League ceremony for 2021. The theme of the 2021 awards was "Building Equitable and Resilient Communities." [67]

World's longest-lasting light bulb

The city is noted for one world record. A 120+ year old 4-watt light bulb, called the Centennial Light, housed in the Livermore-Pleasanton Fire Department main station, is still burning. Originally installed by Augustus Donner Wilson, the bulb has been maintained through successive generations until his great-great-granddaughter Alissa Wilson. [68] It glows dimly, but still functions as a light bulb. [69] The Guinness Book of World Records , Ripley's Believe It or Not! , and General Electric have concluded that the bulb has been burning continuously since 1901 with the exception of power failures and the three times it was disconnected for moves to new stations. The light bulb was manufactured by the Shelby Electric Company and was hand blown with a carbon filament.

Parks and recreation

Casa Real at Ruby Hill Winery. Casa Real at Ruby Hill Winery, Livermore, California (14533159001).jpg
Casa Real at Ruby Hill Winery.

The Livermore Area Recreation and Park District (LARPD) is a special independent park district that was created by the vote of the public in 1947 and runs the parks and other facilities in the city of Livermore and most of the unincorporated areas of eastern Alameda County. LARPD has its own, five-person board of directors [70] that is elected by the citizens to staggered four-year terms.

As of 2013, LARPD operates 42 facilities [71] over 1,842 acres (745 ha), with 1,432 acres (580 ha) open space. It runs an extensive selection of classes on a wide variety of subjects. The 2012-2013 operating budget of LARPD was $16,393,564 plus a capital budget of $3,870,971. LARPD serves an area that encompasses about 115,000 people.

The extensive gravel deposits around Livermore have led to extensive gravel extraction that is still ongoing. Shadow Cliffs Park along Stanley Boulevard west of Livermore is a popular 266-acre (108 ha) park that includes an 80-acre (32 ha) lake in an old Kaiser Industries gravel pit and is used extensively today for swimming, boating, and fishing. [72] [73]

Government

Livermore City Budget
FY 2013-14 [74]

General Fund Operating Budget$76,472,540
All Other Funds Operating Budget$123,213,745
Sub-total Operating Budgets$199,686,285
Capital Improvement Program$44,907,470
-------------------------------------------------------------
Total All Funds Budget$244,593,755

Livermore is run by a council–manager government with a four-member City Council, a Mayor, and a City Manager chosen by the city council. The City Manager is “hired” by the City Council, and can, in principle, be fired by them. Twice a month, the City Council hears citizen input and relays this information to the City Manager, who actually runs the city from day to day.

The city council members are elected every 4 years, with one council member being elected to represent one of the 4 districts. [75] The mayor is elected at large every 2 years, [75] and the city manager is chosen by the city council every 5 years[ citation needed ].

The mayor of Livermore is John Marchand, who was elected in 2022 and previously served as mayor from 2011 to 2020. The four councilmembers are Evan Branning, (District 1), Ben Barrientos (District 2), Brittni Kiick (the district 3), and Bob Carling (District 4). The vice mayor is a member of the council, Brittni Klick. The City Manager is Marianna Marysheva, and the City Attorney is Jason Alcala.

In the California State Legislature, Livermore is in the 7th Senate District , represented by Democrat Steve Glazer, [76] and in the 16th Assembly District , represented by Democrat Rebecca Bauer-Kahan. [77]

In the United States House of Representatives, Livermore is in California's 14th congressional district, represented by Democrat Eric Swalwell [78]

Unions and bargaining units representing the 451 Livermore City include the Livermore Management Group, the Association of Livermore Employees (ALE), the Police Management, the Police Officers Association, and the Livermore-Pleasanton Firefighters (IAFF). [79]

General Plan Update: Imagine Livermore 2045

In September 2021, the City of Livermore began its General Plan update process. [80] Also known as Imagine Livermore 2045, this is a multi-year update to the General Plan that includes public outreach and a General Plan Advisory Committee appointed by City Council. [81]

Education

The public schools in Livermore are part of the Livermore Valley Joint Unified School District (LVJUSD). [82] The district has 11 elementary (K-5 and K-8) schools, three middle schools (grades 6–8), two comprehensive high schools, and three alternative high schools.

LVJUSD's Board of Education has five members, who are elected to alternating four year terms by the voters of the community. Each December, the board reorganizes itself by selecting a board president and clerk of the board.

The Hertz Foundation for scholarships is based in Livermore.

Charter schools shutdown

There were two charter schools in Livermore, one K-8 and one high school, both operated by the Tri-Valley Learning Corporation, a local 501(c)3 not-for-profit organization formed by the parents and teachers who founded the two charter schools.

Both schools were effectively shut down by the beginning of the 2018 school year amidst accusations of embezzlement, exchange student fraud, and the loss of their UC accreditation. The displaced students were absorbed by the new Lawernce Elementary school and Las Positas Community College Middle College.

Media

Radio station KKIQ is licensed in Livermore and broadcasts in the Tri-Valley area.

The Independent is a local newspaper founded in September 1963. It is located in the Bank of Italy Building. [84]

Infrastructure

Transportation

A sign on the I-580 freeway in Livermore Livermore freeway sign.JPG
A sign on the I-580 freeway in Livermore

Interstate 580 is Livermore's primary east–west freeway. I-580 passes the outskirts of Livermore before it heads east through the Altamont Pass to the Central Valley and Interstate 5. I-580 and I-5 are the main route of San Francisco Bay Area to Los Angeles truck shipping traffic. Interstate 680 lies about 10 miles (16 km) west of Livermore. Highway 84 heads southwest from I-580 to Fremont. Vasco Road, an unnumbered highway that is maintained by Alameda and Contra Costa counties, connects Livermore to Brentwood and the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta area.

Livermore Municipal Airport (LVK) [85] is located 3 miles (5 km) northwest of Livermore and is a division of the Public Works Department; it is owned and operated by the City of Livermore. It is the main airport in the Tri-Valley area. Approximately 600 aircraft are based on Livermore Airport, which has over 150,000 annual aircraft landings and take-offs each year. The airport serves private, business, and corporate tenants and customers and covers about 650 acres (260 ha). The main lighted runway is 5,250 feet (1,600 m) long. [86] The main terminal building covers 2,400 square feet (220 m2). The airfield is accessible 24 hours a day and is attended by city employees during the hours listed under "Airport Services". The staffed air traffic control tower is operated by Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) employees daily from 7:00 A.M. until 9:00 P.M. There is an open airshow which is held annually on the first Saturday of October from 10:00 AM to 4:00 PM showing vintage World War II aircraft and other displays.

The WHEELS bus system operates in Livermore, Pleasanton, Dublin, and the surrounding unincorporated areas of Alameda County. It has connections to Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) stations in Dublin and Pleasanton. [87]

Livermore has two stations for the Altamont Corridor Express (ACE), a commuter train which runs from Stockton to the San Jose area. One station is at Vasco Road, and the other is in downtown Livermore at its Transit Center. The Transit Center has a free multistory parking garage and connections to the WHEELS bus system.

There was[ when? ] a petition drive to bring the Bay Area Rapid Transit system to Livermore led by a group founded by Linda Jeffery Sailors, the former mayor of Dublin who was successful in extending BART to Dublin/Pleasanton (the closest station to Livermore at that time). [88] In May 2018, the BART board of directors voted against extending BART to Livermore. [89] As a result, the Tri-Valley-San Joaquin Valley Regional Rail Authority was formed to establish a rail connection between the existing BART system and the Altamont Corridor Express. The service, known as Valley Link, intends to build new rail stations at Isabel Avenue and Greenville Road for service.

Police

The Livermore Police Department (LPD) [90] was established in 1876, at that time the only law enforcement agency in the San Francisco Bay Area besides the San Francisco Police Department. The LPD has 135 members including 90 sworn officers and 45 non-sworn full-time personnel who operate on a $25 million budget each year.

Fire department

The Livermore-Pleasanton Fire Department provides fire and advanced life support services to the cities of Livermore and Pleasanton. It serves an estimated population of 150,000 (78,000 in Livermore, and 71,000 in Pleasanton) over 44 square miles (114 km2) (23 square miles (60 km2) in Livermore, and 21 square miles (54 km2) in Pleasanton) with an operating budget of $28 million. In 2008 the LPFD responded to approximately 11,000 calls for service. The International Association of Fire Fighters (IAFF) Local 1974 represents its 112 members.

Notable people

General

Sports

Sister cities

Livermore has three sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International: [95]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Alameda County, California</span> County in California, United States

Alameda County is a county located in the U.S. state of California. As of the 2020 census, the population was 1,682,353, making it the 7th-most populous county in the state and 21st most populous nationally. The county seat is Oakland. Alameda County is in the San Francisco Bay Area, occupying much of the East Bay region.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pleasanton, California</span> City in the San Francisco Bay Area

Pleasanton is a city in Alameda County, California, United States. Located in the Amador Valley, it is a suburb in the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area. The population was 79,871 at the 2020 census. In 2005 and 2007, Pleasanton was ranked the wealthiest middle-sized city in the United States by the Census Bureau. Pleasanton is home to the headquarters of Safeway, Workday, Ellie Mae, Roche Molecular Diagnostics, Blackhawk Network Holdings, and Veeva Systems. Other major employers include Kaiser Permanente, Oracle and Macy's. Although Oakland is the Alameda County seat, a few county offices are located in Pleasanton. The Alameda County Fairgrounds are located in Pleasanton, where the county fair is held during the last week of June and the first week of July. Pleasanton Ridge Regional Park is located on the west side of town.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tri-Valley</span> Area of the East Bay

The Tri-Valley area is grouping of three valleys in the East Bay region of California's Bay Area. The three valleys are Amador Valley, San Ramon Valley, and Livermore Valley. The Tri-Valley encompasses the cities of Dublin, Livermore, Pleasanton and San Ramon, the town of Danville and the CDPs of Alamo, Blackhawk and Diablo. The area is known for its Mediterranean climate, wineries, and nature. It is primarily suburban in character. The United States Census Bureau defines an urban area centered in the cities of Livermore, Pleasanton, and Dublin with a 2020 population of 240,381, ranked 167th in the United States in terms of population. The total population of the area is estimated to be 361,000. It offers more affordable living accommodations than the cities of San Francisco and San Jose.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wheels (California)</span>

Wheels is a public bus service in the Tri-Valley region (southeast Alameda County) of the San Francisco Bay Area in California, United States. It is operated by the Livermore Amador Valley Transit Authority (LAVTA). Wheels operates local and limited-stop service in Dublin, Pleasanton, and Livermore, with limited service into Contra Costa County along Interstate 680. The LAVTA was formed in 1985; service began in Dublin and Pleasanton in 1986. In 1987, it took over the 1978-opened Rideo service in Livermore. In 2022, the system had a ridership of 1,019,400, or about 4,500 per weekday as of the third quarter of 2023.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Altamont Pass</span> Mountain pass through the Diablo Range in Northern California

Altamont Pass, formerly Livermore Pass, is a low mountain pass in the Diablo Range of Northern California between Livermore in the Livermore Valley and Tracy in the San Joaquin Valley. The name is actually applied to two distinct but nearby crossings of the range. The lower of the two, at an elevation of 741 ft (226 m), carries two railroad rights-of-way (ROWs) and Altamont Pass Road, part of the old Lincoln Highway and the original alignment of US 50 before it was bypassed c. 1937. The bypass route travels over the higher summit, at 1,009 ft (308 m), and now carries Interstate 580, a major regional highway heavily congested by Central Valley suburbanization.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">East Bay</span> Eastern region of the San Francisco Bay Area, California, US

The East Bay is the eastern region of the San Francisco Bay Area and includes cities along the eastern shores of the San Francisco Bay and San Pablo Bay. The region has grown to include inland communities in Alameda and Contra Costa counties. With a population of roughly 2.5 million in 2010, it is the most populous subregion in the Bay Area.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Niles Canyon</span> Geographic feature in California, United States

Niles Canyon is a canyon in the San Francisco Bay Area formed by Alameda Creek, known for its heritage railroad and silent movie history. The canyon is largely in an unincorporated area of Alameda County, while the western portion of the canyon lies within the city limits of Fremont and Union City. The stretch of State Route 84 known as Niles Canyon Road traverses the length of the canyon from the Niles district of Fremont to the unincorporated town of Sunol. Two railroads also follow the same route down the canyon from Sunol to Niles: the old Southern Pacific track along the north side, now the Niles Canyon Railway, and the newer Union Pacific track a little to the south. At the west end of the canyon are the ruins of the Vallejo Flour Mill, which dates to 1853.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Livermore Valley AVA</span> Wine grape–growing region in California, U.S.

The Livermore Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area in Alameda County, California, surrounding the city of Livermore in the Tri-Valley region. Both the AVA and the city are named after Robert Livermore, a landowner whose holdings encompassed the valley. The groundwater basin underlying the valley is the Livermore Basin, the largest sub-unit of which is the Mocho Subbasin. The Livermore Basin is one of five aquifers in the San Francisco Bay Area that supply most of the metropolitan Bay Area population. The entire Livermore Basin aquifer faces a concern over elevated total dissolved solids by the year 2020 due to an expanding human population leading to higher rates of return water flows to the aquifer containing certain salts.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Murray Township, Alameda County, California</span>

Murray Township was a township located in what is now the Livermore Valley portion of Alameda County, California, including the present day cities of Livermore, Dublin, and Pleasanton, and the census-designated place of Sunol.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Niles Canyon Railway</span> Heritage railroad in California

The Niles Canyon Railway (NCRy) is a heritage railway running on the first transcontinental railroad alignment through Niles Canyon, between Sunol and the Niles district of Fremont in the East Bay of the San Francisco Bay Area, in California, United States. The railway is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the Niles Canyon Transcontinental Railroad Historic District. The railroad is operated and maintained by the Pacific Locomotive Association which preserves, restores and operates historic railroad equipment. The NCRy features public excursions with both steam and diesel locomotives along a well-preserved portion of the first transcontinental railroad.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Arroyo Seco (Alameda County)</span> Stream in Northern California

Arroyo Seco is an 11.7-mile-long (18.8 km) watercourse in Alameda County, California, that traverses through the city of Livermore, emptying into Arroyo Las Positas. Arroyo Seco means "dry stream" in Spanish. Arroyo Seco lies above the Arroyo Seco watershed, which includes the eastern part of the city of Livermore and also the Sandia National Laboratory. The Mocho Subbasin is the largest of the subbasins in the Livermore Valley watershed. This subbasin is bounded to the west by the Livermore Fault Zone and to the east by the Tesla Fault. Some groundwater flow occurs across these fault boundaries, but flows are discontinuous below a depth of 50 feet (15 m) across the Tesla Fault and south of the Arroyo Mocho channel across the Livermore Fault. A number of threatened and endangered species reside in this watershed.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Arroyo Mocho</span> River in California, United States

Arroyo Mocho is a 34.7-mile-long (55.8 km) stream which originates in the far northeastern corner of Santa Clara County and flows northwesterly into eastern Alameda County, California. After traversing the cities of Livermore and Pleasanton it joins South San Ramon Creek to become Arroyo de la Laguna, which in turn flows to Alameda Creek and thence to San Francisco Bay.

Livermore Valley Joint Unified School District (LVJUSD) is a public school district located in Livermore, California, United States. It is located in Alameda County. As of July 2023, the superintendent is Chris van Schaak.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Livermore Valley</span> Valley in Alameda County, California, US

The Livermore Valley, historically known as the Valle de San José, is a valley in Alameda County, California, located in the East Bay region. The city of Livermore is located in the valley.

Throughout the history of Bay Area Rapid Transit, there have been plans to extend service to other areas.

The Western Pacific Railroad (1862–1870) was formed in 1862 to build a railroad from Sacramento, California, to the San Francisco Bay, the westernmost portion of the First transcontinental railroad. After the completion of the railroad from Sacramento to Alameda Terminal on September 6, 1869, and then the Oakland Pier on November 8, 1869, which was the Pacific coast terminus of the transcontinental railroad, the Western Pacific Railroad was absorbed in 1870 into the Central Pacific Railroad.

Amador Valley is a valley in eastern Alameda County, California and is the location of the cities of Dublin and Pleasanton. Part of Tri-Valley, the valley is bounded by the foothills of the Diablo Range on the north and south, Pleasanton Ridge to the west, and Livermore Valley to the east.

Rancho Santa Rita was a 8,894-acre (35.99 km2) Mexican land grant in the Amador Valley and western Livermore Valley, which is in present day Alameda County, California.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Valley Link</span> Proposed commuter rail service in northern California

Valley Link is a proposed 26-mile-long (42 km) commuter rail service in Northern California, which seeks to connect the rapid transit Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system in the San Francisco Bay Area with the northern San Joaquin Valley via the Tri-Valley region. Since 1997, BART's Blue Line's eastern terminus is at Dublin/Pleasanton station on the border of Dublin and Pleasanton. Valley Link seeks to extend rail service east from here into the northern San Joaquin Valley over Altamont Pass and to help alleviate traffic congestion and reducing greenhouse gas emissions on Interstate 580 (I-580). The project resulted from various failed proposals to extend the Blue Line east to Livermore.

Southfront Road is a planned railway station in Livermore, California. It is a stop on the planned Valley Link system. Rush hour short turn Valley Link trains would operate from here to Dublin/Pleasanton. Service is expected to start as early as 2028.

References

  1. "California Cities by Incorporation Date". California Association of Local Agency Formation Commissions . Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  2. "City Manager's Office". City of Livermore. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  3. "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
  4. "City of Livermore". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior.
  5. 1 2 "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Livermore city, California". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved September 26, 2021.
  6. 1 2 "List of 2020 Census Urban Areas". census.gov. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 7, 2023.
  7. 1 2 3 Durham, David L. (1998). California's Geographic Names: A Gazetteer of Historic and Modern Names of the State. Clovis, Calif.: Word Dancer Press. p. 655. ISBN   1-884995-14-4.
  8. "Livermore Web - City Council". Archived from the original on January 26, 2021. Retrieved March 12, 2023.
  9. 1 2 Frank, Alan M (2019). Depot: A history of the railroad in Livermore. Livermore Heritage Guild.
  10. "'Livermorium' is new atomic element name". May 31, 2012. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  11. "Community Development: Downtown Livermore". City of Livermore. Retrieved March 12, 2023.
  12. 1 2 "2009 - Ohlone/Costanoan Indians of the San Francisco Peninsula and their Neighbors, Yesterday and Today by Randall Milliken, Laurence H. Shoup, and Beverly R. Ortiz". National Park Service; Golden Gate National Recreation Area, San Francisco, California. July 4, 2017.
  13. J, Farris, Glenn (July 1, 1996). Milliken: A Time of Little Choice: The Disintegration of Tribal Culture in the San Francisco Bay Area, 1769-1810. eScholarship, University of California. OCLC   1034721884.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  14. Kathryn., Jones, Terry L. Klar (2010). California prehistory : colonization, culture, and complexity. AltaMira Press. ISBN   978-0-7591-1960-4. OCLC   503243818.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  15. 1 2 3 milliken, Randall (1995). A time of little choice: The Disintegration of tribal Culture in the San Francisco Bay Area 1769-1810. Novato, Ca: Ballena Press. pp. 184–186. ISBN   0879191325.
  16. Lightfoot, Kent G. (2005). Indians, missionaries, and merchants : the legacy of colonial encounters on the California frontiers. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 75. ISBN   0-520-20824-2. OCLC   54974329.
  17. Johnson, Keith L.; Bean, Lowell John; Caughey, John Walton (1997). "The Ohlone, Past and Present: Native Americans of the San Francisco Bay Region". Ethnohistory. 44 (3): 308. doi:10.2307/483052. ISSN   0014-1801. JSTOR   483052.
  18. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
  19. Robert Livermore Picture accessed 28 Mar 2013
  20. Map of Rancho Los Positas accessed 28 Mar 2013
    • There is conflicting information as to the size of Livermore and Noreiga's grant. The 1884 California surveyors report lists 8,880 acres (3,594 ha) as being approved--this is probably what the Livermore family ended up with of their original grant when it was finally patented 1872. The rancho map (circa 1840?) seems to show a larger grant than 8,880 acres (3,594 ha).
    • "Surveyor General Report for 1884 - 1886" (PDF). slc.ca.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 20, 2013. Retrieved October 14, 2010. accessed 28 Mar 2013
  21. 1 2 "Livermore History - William Mendenhall - eLivermore.com". www.elivermore.com. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  22. Degan, Ryan (November 4, 2019). "Livermore commemorates 150 years with a look back in time: City dedicates new community room to William M. Mendenhall". Pleasanton Weekly. Retrieved December 30, 2020.
  23. Newton, Janet. "Railroad Land Grants and the Early Railroad History of the Livermore Valley" (PDF). Livermore Valley History Center.
  24. Baker, Joseph Eugene; Past and Present of Alameda County, California, Volume 1;p.441;
  25. 1 2 "Livermore, Mission San Jose. - David Rumsey Historical Map Collection". www.davidrumsey.com. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  26. 1 2 "Robert Livermore". Oakland Tribune. March 19, 1961. Retrieved May 31, 2021.
  27. "The Livermore Story". Oakland Tribune. May 12, 1935. Retrieved May 31, 2021.
  28. "Short History of Robert Livermore". Livermore Heritage Guild. Archived from the original on January 5, 2007. Retrieved September 8, 2005.
  29. Baker, Joseph Eugene; Past and Present of Alameda County, California, Volume 1;p.442;
  30. "Locations and Vistas with Daffodils". www.daffodil.org. Archived from the original on August 19, 2018. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  31. "Livermore Sanitarium". California Digital Newspaper Collection (CDNC), Center for Biographical Studies and Research, University of California, Riverside . Livermore Herald, Volume 19, Number 13. January 25, 1896. p. 14.
  32. Early Livermore. Images of America. Livermore Heritage Guild. Arcadia Publishing. 2006. pp. 88–89. ISBN   978-0-7385-3099-4.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  33. Livermore Heritage Guild site Archived October 27, 2012, at the Wayback Machine accessed 28 Mar 2013
  34. 1 2 3 "Livermore Naval Air Station - eLivermore.com". www.elivermore.com. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  35. Average Livermore weather accessed 20 Apr 2013
  36. "U.S. Climate Normals Quick Access – Station: Livermore, CA". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved October 31, 2022.
  37. "NOAA Online Weather Data – NWS San Francisco". National Weather Service. Retrieved October 31, 2022.
  38. (PDF) https://dof.ca.gov/wp-content/uploads/sites/352/Forecasting/Demographics/Documents/E-1_2023PressRelease.pdf.{{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  39. "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  40. "P004: Hispanic or Latino, and Not Hispanic or Latino by Race – 2000: DEC Summary File 1 – Livermore city, California". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 26, 2024.
  41. "P2: Hispanic or Latino, and Not Hispanic or Latino by Race – 2010: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) – Livermore city, California". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 26, 2024.
  42. "P2: Hispanic or Latino, and Not Hispanic or Latino by Race – 2020: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) – Livermore city, California". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 26, 2024.
  43. "2010 Census Interactive Population Search: CA - Livermore city". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 15, 2014. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
  44. "Livermore income rank" . Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  45. https://elections.cdn.sos.ca.gov/ror/154day-presprim-2020/politicalsub.pdf [ bare URL PDF ]
  46. "About | Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory". www.llnl.gov. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  47. "About Sandia". About Sandia. Retrieved March 19, 2023.
  48. "i-GATE". i-GATE. Retrieved March 19, 2023.
  49. "Campus an incubator for innovation", Jeanine Benca (Hayward) Daily Review, July 8, 2011
  50. "California selects Livermore Valley's i-GATE as state innovation hub – Sandia Labs News Releases". Archived from the original on October 15, 2011. Retrieved July 10, 2011.
  51. Robot Garden
  52. "Workshop - Robot Garden". www.robotgarden.org. January 10, 2015. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  53. Wente family Archived March 25, 2013, at the Wayback Machine accessed 25 Mar 2013
  54. Concannon family Archived November 25, 2012, at the Wayback Machine accessed 25 Mar 2013
  55. Charles Wetmore Archived August 2, 2014, at the Wayback Machine accessed 25 Mar 2013
  56. "Livermore Valley Winegrowers Association | History & Terroir". Livermore Valley Winegrowers Association. Retrieved March 19, 2023.
  57. "City of Livermore ACFR FY2022". City of Livermore. p. 151. Retrieved March 11, 2023.
  58. Ruggiero, Angela (May 19, 2017). "Final day in Hayward as bus manufacturing titan Gillig heads to Livermore". East Bay Times . Retrieved June 18, 2017.
  59. "AGA expands and moves to new headquarters in Livermore, Calif. | Glass Magazine". glassmagazine.com. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018.
  60. Alan Dorich, "Architectural Glass & Aluminium" Archived April 27, 2015, at the Wayback Machine , Management Today Magazine, Retrieved April 20, 2015
  61. Livermore Rodeo Archived January 22, 2013, at archive.today
  62. "suburbia by bill owens". Archived from the original on August 29, 2011. Retrieved July 10, 2011.
  63. Bankhead Theatre accessed 28 Mar 2013
  64. Livermore Pride
  65. Livermore Pride Day Proposed accessed 25 July 2021
  66. Archived December 6, 2021, at the Wayback Machine National Civic League
  67. "Livermore's Centennial Light 110th Celebration". www.centennialbulb.org. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
  68. "Little lightbulb burns 110 years - The Manila Bulletin Newspaper Online". Manila Bulletin . Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  69. LARPD Board of Directors Archived May 12, 2013, at the Wayback Machine Accessed 6 Apr 2013
  70. LARPD activities 2013 accessed 6 Apr 2013
  71. Shadow Cliffs Park accessed 23 Apr 2013
  72. Shadow Cliffs Park Recreation Area accessed 23 Apr 2013
  73. Livermore Budget 2013-2014 Archived April 1, 2013, at the Wayback Machine accessed 6 Apr 2013
  74. 1 2 "About the Council | Livermore, CA". www.livermoreca.gov. Retrieved April 1, 2023.
  75. "Senators". State of California. Retrieved March 18, 2013.
  76. "Members Assembly". State of California. Retrieved March 18, 2013.
  77. "California's 15th Congressional District - Representatives & District Map". Civic Impulse, LLC. Retrieved March 14, 2013.
  78. Livermore Unions Archived April 1, 2013, at the Wayback Machine accessed 6 Apr 2013
  79. Imagine Livermore 2045 accessed 20 Oct 2021
  80. Livermore council selects General Plan Advisory Committee members accessed 20 Oct 2021
  81. "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: Alameda County, CA" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau . Retrieved December 15, 2022.
  82. Livermore Valley Charter School accessed 23 Apr 2013
  83. "About Us - The Independent: Site". www.independentnews.com. Retrieved February 10, 2016.
  84. Livermore Municipal Airport Archived June 24, 2013, at the Wayback Machine accessed 5 Apr 2013
  85. Livermore Municipal Airport Archived January 20, 2013, at the Wayback Machine accessed 6 Apr 2013
  86. For details on routes, times, schedules see: WHEELS Archived November 18, 2012, at the Wayback Machine accessed 5 Apr 2013
  87. "LivermoreBART.org". Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved April 20, 2007.
  88. "BART rejects Livermore expansion; mayor vows rail connection". The Mercury News. May 25, 2018. Retrieved June 26, 2018.
  89. Livermore Police Department Archived February 19, 2012, at the Wayback Machine accessed 20 February 2019
  90. [founder of Oakland chapter of Hells Angels https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/lifestyle/1979/10/26/the-case-against-harleys-angels/c58e8ea6-8fcf-49c1-b6b8-b3ee5f62ccf3/ founder of Oakland chapter of Hells Angels https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/lifestyle/1979/10/26/the-case-against-harleys-angels/c58e8ea6-8fcf-49c1-b6b8-b3ee5f62ccf3/].{{cite web}}: Check |url= value (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  91. Bernstein, Adam (January 16, 2013). "Conrad Bain, 'Diff'rent Strokes' dad, dies at 80". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 14, 2023.
  92. Jenkins, Jack (February 24, 2023). "'Christian patriots' are flocking from blue states to Idaho". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 14, 2023.
  93. Graham, Carol. "Livermore Gymnast Inducted into the Hall of Fame". The Independent. Retrieved May 14, 2023.
  94. "Livermore Sister Cities". City of Livermore. Archived from the original on October 1, 2020. Retrieved November 16, 2020.
  95. Pimentel, Benjamin (July 4, 2020). "From Enemies to Sisters / Livermore bonds with Russian city, also home to nuclear lab". San Francisco Chronicle . Retrieved October 10, 2020.
  96. "Livermore, sister city exchanging students". East Bay Times. March 23, 2008. Retrieved October 10, 2020.

Print, photo and film resources on Livermore