Colma, California

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Colma, California
Town of Colma
Section of Holy Cross Cemetery, Colma 5.JPG
A cemetery in Colma
Seal of Colma, California.png
Seal
Motto(s): 
"It's great to be alive in Colma"
San Mateo County California Incorporated and Unincorporated areas Colma Highlighted 0614736.svg
Location of Colma in San Mateo County, California
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Colma, California
Location of Colma
United States San Francisco Bay Area location map.svg
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Colma, California
Colma, California (San Francisco Bay Area)
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Colma, California
Colma, California (California)
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Colma, California
Colma, California (the United States)
Coordinates: 37°40′44″N122°27′20″W / 37.67889°N 122.45556°W / 37.67889; -122.45556 Coordinates: 37°40′44″N122°27′20″W / 37.67889°N 122.45556°W / 37.67889; -122.45556
Country United States
State California
County San Mateo
Incorporated as "Lawndale"August 5, 1924 [1]
Name changed to "Colma"November 17, 1941
Government
   Mayor [2] Joanne F. del Rosario
   City Manager [3] Brian Dossey
Area
[4]
  Total1.89 sq mi (4.90 km2)
  Land1.89 sq mi (4.90 km2)
  Water0.00 sq mi (0.00 km2)  0%
Elevation
121 ft (37 m)
Population
 (2010)
  Total1,792
  Estimate 
(2019) [5]
1,489
  Density787.00/sq mi (303.84/km2)
 United States Census Bureau
Time zone UTC−8 (PST)
  Summer (DST) UTC−7 (PDT)
ZIP Code
94014
Area code(s) 650
FIPS code 06-14736
GNIS feature ID1658303
Website www.colma.ca.gov

Colma is a small incorporated town in San Mateo County, California, on the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area. The population was 1,792 at the 2010 census. The town was founded as a necropolis in 1924. [6]

Contents

With most of Colma's land dedicated to cemeteries, the population of the dead—not specifically known but speculated to be around 1.5 million [7] —outnumbers that of the living by a ratio of nearly a thousand to one. This has led to Colma's being called "the City of the Silent" and has given rise to a humorous motto, formerly featured on the city's website: "It's great to be alive in Colma". [6] [8]

Etymology

The origin of the name Colma is widely disputed. Before 1872, Colma was designated as "Station" or "School House Station", the name of its post office in 1869. Currently, there seem to be seven possible sources of the town's being called Colma: [9]

History

The community of Colma was formed in the 19th century as a collection of homes and small businesses along El Camino Real and the adjacent San Francisco and San Jose Railroad line. Several churches, including Holy Angels Catholic Church, were founded in these early years. The community founded its own fire district, which serves the unincorporated area of Colma north of the town limits, as well as the area that became a town in 1924.

Heinrich (Henry) von Kempf moved his wholesale nursery here in the early part of the 20th century, from the land where the Palace of Fine Arts currently sits. The business was growing, and thus required more space for von Kempf's plants and trees. von Kempf then began petitioning to turn the Colma community into an agricultural township. He succeeded and became the town of Colma's first treasurer.

In the early 20th century, Colma was the site of many major boxing events. Middleweight world champion Stanley Ketchel fought six bouts at the Mission Street Arena in Colma, including two world middleweight title bouts against Billy Papke and a world heavyweight title bout against Jack Johnson. [12]

San Francisco cemetery relocations

Colma became the site for numerous cemeteries after San Francisco outlawed new interments within city limits in 1900, then evicted all existing cemeteries in 1912. Approximately 150,000 bodies were moved between 1920 and 1941 at a cost of $10 per grave and marker. Those for whom no one paid the fee were reburied in mass graves, and the markers were recycled in various San Francisco public works. [13] The completion of the relocation was delayed until after World War II. The main rail line between San Francisco and San Jose running through Colma had been bypassed in 1907 for a route closer to the San Francisco Bay shoreline, and the former main line was repurposed as a branch line to move coffins to Colma. Decades later, the right-of-way for the rail line through Colma was purchased by BART for use in the San Francisco International Airport extension project. [13]

The Town of Lawndale was incorporated in 1924, [13] primarily at the behest of the cemetery owners with the cooperation of the handful of residents who lived closest to the cemeteries. The residential and business areas immediately to the north continued to be known as Colma. Because another California city named Lawndale already existed, in Los Angeles County, the post office retained the Colma designation, and the town changed its name back to Colma in 1941. [13]

Originally, Colma's residents were primarily employed in occupations related to the many cemeteries in the town. Since the 1980s, however, Colma has become more diversified, and a variety of retail businesses and automobile dealerships has brought more sales tax revenue to the town government. [6] [14] In 1986, 280 Metro Center opened for business in Colma; it is now recognized as the world's first power center. [15] [16]

Colma-california-panoramic1w.jpg
A panoramic view of Colma, California, looking down from San Bruno Mountain

Notable interments

Many, if not most, of the well-known people who died in San Francisco since the first cemeteries opened there have been buried or reburied in Colma, with an additional large number of such burials in Oakland's Mountain View Cemetery. Some notable people interred in Colma include:

Geography and geology

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.9 sq mi (4.9 km2), all land. The town's 17 cemeteries comprise approximately 73% of the town's land area. [6]

Colma is situated on the San Francisco Peninsula at the highest point of the Merced Valley, a gap between San Bruno Mountain and the northernmost foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountain Range. [19] [20] The foothills and eastern flanks of the range are composed largely of poorly consolidated Pliocene-Quaternary freshwater and shallow marine sediments that include the Colma and Merced Formations, recent slope wash, ravine fill, colluvium, and alluvium. These surficial deposits unconformably overlay the much older Jurassic to Cretaceous-aged Franciscan Assemblage. An old landfill about 135 deep existed at the site developed by the 260,000 sq ft (24,000 m2) mixed-use Metro Center. [21]

Colma Creek flows through the city as it makes its way from San Bruno Mountain to San Francisco Bay.

Transportation

Colma station on BART and SamTrans buses serve the city.

Education

Colma has one private school, Holy Angels School, a Catholic school for preschool through 8th grade. [22]

Colma belongs to the Jefferson Elementary School District, which has two schools in Colma: Garden Village Elementary (grades K–5) and Benjamin Franklin Intermediate (grades 6–8). High school students typically attend Westmoor High School in the Jefferson Union High School District.

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1880 188
1930 369
1940 354−4.1%
1950 297−16.1%
1960 50068.4%
1970 5377.4%
1980 395−26.4%
1990 1,103179.2%
2000 1,1918.0%
2010 1,79250.5%
2019 (est.)1,489 [5] −16.9%
U.S. Decennial Census [23]

Informally, as of 2006 Colma had "1,500 aboveground residents ... and 1.5 million underground". [6]

2010

The 2010 United States Census [24] reported that Colma had a population of 1,792. The population density was 938.6 people per square mile (362.4/km2). The racial makeup of Colma was 620 (34.6%) White, 59 (3.3%) African American, 7 (0.4%) Native American, 619 (34.5%) Asian, 9 (0.5%) Pacific Islander, 366 (20.4%) from other races, and 112 (6.3%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 708 persons (39.5%).

The Census reported that 1,763 people (98.4% of the population) lived in households, 0 (0%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 29 (1.6%) were institutionalized.

There were 564 households, out of which 217 (38.5%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 271 (48.0%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 110 (19.5%) had a female householder with no husband present, 42 (7.4%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 44 (7.8%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 8 (1.4%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 91 households (16.1%) were made up of individuals, and 31 (5.5%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.13. There were 423 families (75.0% of all households); the average family size was 3.45.

The population was spread out, with 390 people (21.8%) under the age of 18, 178 people (9.9%) aged 18 to 24, 532 people (29.7%) aged 25 to 44, 488 people (27.2%) aged 45 to 64, and 204 people (11.4%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.4 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.9 males.

There were 586 housing units at an average density of 306.9 per square mile (118.5/km2), of which 224 (39.7%) were owner-occupied, and 340 (60.3%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.7%; the rental vacancy rate was 2.3%. 738 people (41.2% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 1,025 people (57.2%) lived in rental housing units.

2000

In the census [25] of 2000, there were 1,191 people, 329 households, and 245 families residing in the town. The population density was 624.6 people per square mile (240.8/km2). There were 342 housing units at an average density of 179.4 per square mile (69.1/km2).

There were 329 households, out of which 36.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.1% were married couples living together, 11.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 25.5% were non-families. 17.3% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.47 and the average family size was 3.92.

In the town the population was spread out, with 24.7% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 31.7% from 25 to 44, 19.1% from 45 to 64, and 15.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.9 males.

The median income for a household in the town was US$58,750, and the median income for a family was US$60,556. Males had a median income of US$32,059 versus US$29,934 for females. The per capita income for the town was US$20,241. About 3.4% of families and 5.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.8% of those under age 18 and 3.7% of those age 65 or over.

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References

  1. "California Cities by Incorporation Date". California Association of Local Agency Formation Commissions. Archived from the original (Word) on November 3, 2014. Retrieved August 25, 2014.
  2. . Colma.ca.gov. Retrieved on 2019-01-20.
  3. City Manager Home. Colma.ca.gov. Retrieved on 2013-07-21.
  4. "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
  5. 1 2 "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". United States Census Bureau. May 24, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Pogash, Carol (3 December 2006). "Colma, Calif., Is a Town of 2.2 Square Miles, Most of It 6 Feet Deep". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 February 2011.
  7. "Why are there so many dead in Colma? And so few living". kqed.org. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  8. Smookler, Michael (2007). Colma. Charleston: Arcadia Publishing. p. 7. ISBN   9780738547275 . Retrieved 22 December 2020.
  9. Gudde, Erwin G. California Place Names: The Origin and Etymology of Current Geographical Names (4th ed.). University of California Press. p. 86.
  10. "And Just How Are Things in Colma, Calif.? Awfully Quiet, Night and Day". New York Times. April 21, 1996. Retrieved July 21, 2013.
  11. "Colima Origin", nationsencyclopedia.com, Thomson Gale, 4 July 2006, ColimaPronunciation: koh-LEE-mah. Origin of state name: From the Náhuatl (Amerindian) word collimaitl. Colli means either ancestors or volcano, and maitl means domain of. Capital: Colima.CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  12. "Stanley Ketchel - Boxer". Boxrec.com. October 15, 1910. Archived from the original on May 18, 2015. Retrieved July 21, 2013.
  13. 1 2 3 4 Branch, John (February 5, 2016). "The Town of Colma, Where San Francisco's Dead Live". The New York Times. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  14. Boudreau, John (12 June 1994). "Couldn't you just die? Necropolis USA: One town's underground economy". The Washington Post. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  15. Laird, Gordon (2009). The Price of a Bargain: The Quest for Cheap and the Death of Globalization. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart. p. 68. ISBN   9781551993287 . Retrieved 28 October 2019.
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  18. Roisman, Jon. "Local Jewish history comes to life at cemetery walk". J. The Jewish News of Northern California. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2014. Actors, many of them professional, portrayed a number of local Jewish luminaries, such as Levi Strauss, Alice B. Toklas and Joshua Abraham Norton, a late 1800s San Francisco celebrity better known as “Emperor Norton.” [...] notable Jews buried there, including Julie Rosewald (America’s first female cantor) and Josephine Earp (wife of famed lawman Wyatt Earp, who is buried at her side).
  19. Colma Cardroom Project, Environmental Impact Report, Environmental Science Associates, prepared for the city of Colma (1993); IV.B. "Geology and Soils" Archived 2015-07-25 at the Wayback Machine .
  20. About the Mountain: Topography and Climate Archived 2015-07-25 at the Wayback Machine , San Bruno Mountain Watch (nd).
  21. M.Papineau, B.George, J.Buxton et al., Environmental Impact Report for the Metro Center, Colma, California, Earth Metrics report 10062, prepared for the city of Colma and the California State Clearinghouse (1989)
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  26. "Harold and Maude Bay Area Filming Locations". Harold and Maude homepage. Archived from the original on 15 September 2019. Retrieved 26 April 2018. Bay Area Location: Holy Cross Cemetery on Old Mision[sic] Road in Colma.
  27. "Colma - Buckethead — Listen and discover music at Last.fm". www.last.fm. Archived from the original on 10 March 2016. Retrieved 15 February 2016. The album was recorded for Buckethead's mother as she was ill with colon cancer and he wanted to make an album she would enjoy listening to whilst recovering. The title of the album makes reference to the small town of Colma near San Francisco, California, where "the dead population outnumber the living by thousands to one".
  28. Manohla Dargis (July 6, 2007). "Big Teenage Dreams, Small-Town Doldrums". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-05-28.
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