California sound

Last updated
A young couple watching the sunset on a Los Angeles beach with surfboard in hand Venice, California Beach.jpg
A young couple watching the sunset on a Los Angeles beach with surfboard in hand

The California sound is a popular music aesthetic [nb 1] that originates with American pop and rock recording artists from Southern California in the early 1960s. At first, it was conflated with the California myth, an idyllic setting inspired by the state's beach culture that commonly appeared in the lyrics of commercial pop songs. Later, the sound was expanded outside its initial geography and subject matter [3] [4] and was developed to be more sophisticated, often featuring studio experimentation. [5]


The sound was originally identified for harnessing a wide-eyed, sunny optimism attributed to southern California teenage life in the 1960s. [6] Its imagery is primarily represented by Brian Wilson and the Beach Boys, who are credited for the sound's instigation via their debut single "Surfin'" in 1961. [7] [8] Along with Jan and Dean, the Beach Boys encapsulated surfing, hot rod culture, and youthful innocence within music which transformed a local lifestyle into American mythology. The style later had roots in the 1960s folk-rock scene, [9] represented by groups such as the Byrds, the Mamas and the Papas, the Buffalo Springfield, and Crosby, Stills, & Nash, who became associated with the Los Angeles neighborhood of Laurel Canyon. [10] [11] Other proponents included songwriters and/or record producers Gary Usher, Curt Boettcher, Bruce Johnston, Terry Melcher, and Roger Christian.

The California sound gradually evolved to reflect a more musically ambitious and mature worldview, becoming less to do with surfing and cars and more about social consciousness and political awareness. [12] Between 1964 and 1969, it fueled innovation and transition, inspiring artists to tackle largely unmentioned themes such as sexual freedom, black pride, drugs, oppositional politics, other countercultural motifs, and war. [13] [14] The California sound eventually saw its commercial peak in the 1970s hits of the Eagles. [9] A derivative form of the California sound was later classified as sunshine pop. [15] [16]


The Beach Boys in a promotional shot used for their 1964 single "I Get Around" The Beach Boys (1965).png
The Beach Boys in a promotional shot used for their 1964 single "I Get Around"

The genesis of the California sound is said to be the Beach Boys' debut single "Surfin'" in 1961. [18] [6] [19] [20] While the band's leader Brian Wilson then collaborated with Jan Berry for several hit singles written and produced for other artists, they recorded what would later be regarded as the California sound. [21] [22] University of Southern California history professor Kevin Starr has stated that the band was historically important for embodying the era of the Silent Generation, which he described as unpolitical. [23] He explained that the group "could not help but mythologize a landscape and way of life that was already so surreal, so proto-mythic, in its setting. Cars and the beach, surfing, the California Girl, all this fused in the alembic of youth: Here was a way of life, an iconography, already half-released into the chords and multiple tracks of a new sound." [8] The California sound was thus a musical translation of the California myth. [24] In the book Pioneers of Rock and Roll: 100 Artists Who Changed the Face of Rock, Harry Sumrall summarized:

[The Beach Boys] virtually defined the image of surfers, hot rods, sun, beaches, girls, and fun, fun, fun that became the California myth. The titles of their songs said it as well as anything: "Surfin' U.S.A.," "Little Deuce Coupe," "Surfer Girl," "Fun, Fun, Fun," "Dance, Dance, Dance," and "California Girls". With these hits and others, the group's bassist and songwriter, Brian Wilson, created a new sound in rock and roll. It was called the "surf sound", but in fact it was a combination of older rock verities set in entirely new lyrical and musical contexts. [25]

The Beach Boys' surf music was not entirely of their own invention, being preceded by artists such as Dick Dale. [26] However, previous surf musicians did not project a worldview as the Beach Boys did. [27] Wilson once said of its myth: "It's not just the surfing; it's the outdoors and cars and sunshine; it's the society of California; it's the way of California." [28] Al Jardine of the Beach Boys argued that "It's not entirely a myth. There are still some elements that are certainly true, especially for a first-time observer. But to be able to come here and to drive that coast on Route 1 ... you experience the water and the animals and the sea life, the whole thing. It's really magical. It really is." [29] Capitol Records staff producer Nick Venet, who worked with the group early on, believed that most of the group's lyrical inspiration was drawn from Hollywood films. [30]

AllMusic's review of the group's "All Summer Long" calls it a "potent example" of the California myth's "idyllic dream world of sun, surf, and fun" while containing qualities of sunshine pop. [31] Author Luis Sanchez believes that the entirety of the album All Summer Long (1964) was "the nearest the Beach Boys ever got to a perfect version of the California myth." [32] David Howard wrote that "Don't Worry Baby" was a "subtle harbinger for the growing dichotomy within the California sound. While 'I Get Around' symbolized the sunshine ideal in all its carefree splendor, 'Don't Worry Baby' suggested something entirely more pensive and even slightly dark underneath its pristine facade." [22]

Cultural expansion

The Beach Boys continued expanding their version of the California myth until it could no longer be confined to pop music terrain, transcending the limits of genre, commercial expectations, and geography. [3] Aiding this was Wilson's successes with collaborator Gary Usher. The duo helped create a major new market revolving around the California sound, allowing musicians Bruce Johnston and Terry Melcher to turn their attention to the Rip Chords, a group who then had hits with the hot-rod themed "Hey Little Cobra" and pseudo-surf "Summer Means Fun". [33] Historian Matthew Allan Ides wrote:

The writing duo of [Gary] Usher and [Roger] Christian, like that of Terry Melcher and Bruce Johnston, provided most of the lyrics, production and promotion to the vocal pop music that like instrumental surf music became associated with Southern California youth culture. Ironically, both Usher and Christian had come to California from the East Coast in the late 1950s, and neither had much experience with surfing or local youth. Nonetheless, Usher and Christian translated their impressions of teen life in Southern California into lyrics. Usher’s songs included "In My Room" and "The Lonely Surfer" and Christian’s hits numbered "Surf City", "Little Old Lady from Pasadena" and "Don’t Worry Baby". [34]

Historian Kirse Granat May describes the cultural reverberation of both surfing culture and the California sound:

By 1965, with the help of the California sound, the national diffusion of the surfing subculture was complete. It became a mainstream advertising image, keyed into California's youthfulness as "an element of the marketing picture." Pepsi used images of surfers and this pun, "Board Members of the Pepsi Generation". ... Surfing appeared on television sitcoms like Gidget and even entered the plots of shows like Dr. Kildare . ... In the wake of the surfing craze and the emergence of the California sound, American International Pictures (AIP) produced beach and surfing movies for appreciative teenage audiences, reinforcing marketable images. ... the Beach Party films exploited on the big screen what the Beach Boys set to music. [35]

Touching specifically on the difference between the Beach Boys' album Surfin' U.S.A. (1963) and others' exploitation of California themes, Luis Sanchez writes: "You could call The Beach Boys' version of Southern California cutesy or callow or whatever, but what matters is that it captured a lack of self-consciousness—a genuineness—that set them apart from their peers. And it was this quality that came to define Brian's oeuvre as he moved beyond and into bigger pop productions that would culminate in Smile ." [17]

Development and decline

Terry Melcher (left) with the Byrds' Gene Clark and David Crosby Terry Melcher Byrds in studio 1965.jpg
Terry Melcher (left) with the Byrds' Gene Clark and David Crosby

The California sound soon developed to incorporate the 1960s folk-rock innovations of the Byrds and the Mamas and the Papas. [10] Melcher soon worked with the Byrds, producing their 1965 folk rock single "Mr. Tambourine Man". [36] [37] Its recording was based on Brian Wilson's production approach to "Don't Worry Baby". [37] Melcher's "commercially golden formula" with the Byrds was immediately co-opted by many Los Angeles-based recording artists such as the Turtles, the Leaves, Sonny & Cher, and Barry McGuire. The Buffalo Springfield also helped to pioneer the California sound, begetting Crosby, Stills, & Nash and influencing the Eagles. [38] The lyricism behind the California sound gradually became less to do with surfing and cars and more about social consciousness and political awareness. [37] In Bill Flanagan's view, after the Beach Boys epitomized the California sound, Crosby, Stills, & Nash "ratified it". [20] Arnold Shaw summarized in The Rock Revolution (1969):

The California sound went from one extreme to another—from "Be true to your school!" to "Let's freak out!", from the Surf Sound to fuzztone and feedback, from celebration of the open road to a search for strange inner experiences, from the thrill of speed to liberation through sensory overload, from the excitement of bodily motion to the explosiveness of mind-expanding drugs, and from the Beach Boys to the Mothers of Invention—a process in which the Boys themselves underwent an audible, if not visible, transformation. [39]

The result of Wilson's increasingly artistic interpretations of pop music form helped transform the California sound into a more musically ambitious and mature worldview. [40] In September 1965, Wilson was quoted saying: "I HATE so-called 'surfin' music.' It's a name that people slap on any sound from California. Our music is rightfully 'the Beach Boy sound'—if one has to label it." [41] By 1966, Wilson had already begun moving away from the supposed lightweight themes that had established his group's image, [42] [43] expressing a willingness to "get out of the Eisenhower mindset" as told by collaborator Van Dyke Parks. [42] Meanwhile, Gary Usher was enlisted by the Byrds to helm their transitional 1967 release Younger Than Yesterday which incorporated folk rock, jazz-influenced pop, novelty space rock, and colorful psychedelia. [44] According to the Irish Mirror , singer-songwriter David Crosby, a founding member of both the Byrds and later Crosby, Stills, & Nash, helped shape the California sound which became popular in the 1970s. [45]

In Howard's description, "One can view the evolution of the California Sunshine Sound as a mirror of the evolution of the 1960s. Commencing with its post-Eisenhower narrative and insulated complacency, the early California sound was predicated on Wilson, Usher, and Melcher's simple fun-in-the-sun ideals." [40] It ran into decline by the end of the 1960s due to the West Coast's cultural shifts occurring in tandem with the psychological descent of Wilson and Melcher's associations with the Manson murders, with Howard calling it the "sunset of the original California Sunshine Sound ... [the] sweetness advocated by the California myth had led to chilling darkness and unsightly rot". [46]

1970s and revivals

According to Flanagan, by the 1970s, the "spirit" of the California sound was kept fresh by singer–songwriters such as Lowell George, Jackson Browne, Tom Waits and Rickie Lee Jones while avoiding what Flanagan called the sound's "clichés". [20] The Providence Journal credited the Eagles, formed in Los Angeles in the early 1970s, with "embodying the melodic California sound" that decade. [47] Robbie Woliver of The New York Times stated that Eagles co-founder Don Henley "defined the California sound of the 1970s." [48] According to Uncut , their country-rock debut album Eagles (1972) helped define the Southern California sound of the early 1970s. [49]

In November 2009, Pitchfork ran an editorial feature which mentioned the Beach Boys as a "looming figure" throughout that summer's indie music scene termed the "Summer of Chillwave" elaborating that it is "not to say that any of this music sounds like the Beach Boys, or even tries to. ... The Beach Boys exist in this music in an abstracted form-- an idea, rather than a sound, as it's often been ... Summertime now is about disorientation: 'Should Have Taken Acid With You'; 'The Sun Was High (And So Am I)'; You take the fantasy of [their] music-- the cars, the sand, the surf-- add a dollop of melancholy and a smudge of druggy haze, and you have some good music for being alone in a room with only a computer to keep you company." [50] The magazine Paste credited a 2010s revival of surf rock and the California sound to the success of bands like Best Coast, Dum Dum Girls and Wavves. [51]


Surf music

The California sound is sometimes referred to interchangeably with surf music. [18]

Folk rock

California folk rockers included the Byrds, Barry McGuire, and the Mamas & the Papas. [36]

Sunshine pop

Efforts by Curt Boettcher in 1966 created an offshoot of the California sound directed toward sunshine pop. [52]

Other California sounds

Some areas within the state of California are connected to their own distinguished "sounds" including the San Francisco sound (San Francisco, 1960s) [53] and the Bakersfield sound (Bakersfield, 1950s).[ citation needed ] Ides noted: "The Los Angeles sound as popularized in the mainstream obscured or disregarded the contributions made by the working-class, the nonwhite and women." [54]

In a Flavorwire article which asks "What is the quintessential California sound?", the journal lists 30 of what it considers "the most Californian albums ever made", elaborating that "the sound itself is important, but it's the lifestyles behind these scenes that come to define the music." [2] In alphabetical order, the artists mentioned are: Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young, Dead Kennedys, Fleetwood Mac, Germs, Green Day, Guns N' Roses, Jefferson Airplane, Joni Mitchell, Kendrick Lamar, Love, Mötley Crüe, N.W.A, No Doubt, Queens of the Stone Age, Red Hot Chili Peppers, Sly & the Family Stone, Snoop Dogg, the Beach Boys, the Doors, the Go-Go's, the Grateful Dead, the Offspring, Tupac Shakur, and X. [2]


  1. A genre according to Michael Roffman [1] and a lifestyle according to Jillian Mapes. [2]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">The Beach Boys</span> American rock band

The Beach Boys are an American rock band that formed in Hawthorne, California, in 1961. The group's original lineup consisted of brothers Brian, Dennis, and Carl Wilson, their cousin Mike Love, and friend Al Jardine. Distinguished by their vocal harmonies, adolescent-themed lyrics, and musical ingenuity, they are one of the most influential acts of the rock era. They drew on the music of older pop vocal groups, 1950s rock and roll, and black R&B to create their unique sound. Under Brian's direction, they often incorporated classical or jazz elements and unconventional recording techniques in innovative ways.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Brian Wilson</span> American musician (born 1942)

Brian Douglas Wilson is an American musician, singer, songwriter, and record producer who co-founded the Beach Boys. Often called a genius for his novel approaches to pop composition, extraordinary musical aptitude, and mastery of recording techniques, he is widely acknowledged as one of the most innovative and significant songwriters of the 20th century. His best-known work is distinguished for its high production values, complex harmonies and orchestrations, layered vocals, and introspective or ingenuous themes. Wilson is also known for his formerly high-ranged singing and for his lifelong struggles with mental illness.

Surf music is a genre of rock music associated with surf culture, particularly as found in Southern California. It was especially popular from 1958 to 1964 in two major forms. The first is instrumental surf, distinguished by reverb-heavy electric guitars played to evoke the sound of crashing waves, largely pioneered by Dick Dale and the Del-Tones. The second is vocal surf, which took elements of the original surf sound and added vocal harmonies, a movement led by the Beach Boys.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bruce Johnston</span> American musician, songwriter, and record producer

Bruce Arthur Johnston is an American musician, singer, songwriter, and record producer who is a member of the Beach Boys. Johnston also collaborated on many records with Terry Melcher and composed the 1975 Barry Manilow hit, "I Write the Songs".

<i>Surfin Safari</i> 1962 studio album by The Beach Boys

Surfin' Safari is the debut album by the American rock band the Beach Boys, released October 1, 1962 on Capitol Records. The official production credit went to Nick Venet, though it was Brian Wilson with his father Murry who contributed substantially to the album's production; Brian also wrote or co-wrote nine of its 12 tracks. The album reached number 32 in the US during a chart stay of 37 weeks.

<i>Surfin U.S.A.</i> (album) 1963 studio album by the Beach Boys

Surfin' U.S.A. is the second album by the American rock band the Beach Boys, released March 25, 1963 on Capitol Records. It reached number 2 in the US during a chart stay of 78 weeks, eventually being certified gold by the RIAA, and brought the group newfound national success. It was led by one single, its title track with the B-side "Shut Down". In the UK, the album was released in late 1965 and reached number 17.

Sunshine pop is a subgenre of pop music that originated in Southern California in the mid-1960s. Rooted in easy listening and advertising jingles, sunshine pop acts combined nostalgic or anxious moods with "an appreciation for the beauty of the world". It largely consisted of lesser-known artists who imitated more popular groups such as the Mamas & the Papas and the 5th Dimension. While the Beach Boys are noted as prominent influences, the band's own music was rarely representative of the genre.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Terry Melcher</span> American record producer, singer, and songwriter (1942–2004)

Terrence Paul Melcher was an American record producer, singer, and songwriter who was instrumental in shaping the mid-to-late 1960s California Sound and folk rock movements. His best-known contributions were producing the Byrds' first two albums Mr. Tambourine Man (1965) and Turn! Turn! Turn! (1965), as well as most of the hit recordings of Paul Revere & the Raiders and Gentle Soul. He is also known for his collaborations with Bruce Johnston and for his association with the Manson Family.

<i>All Summer Long</i> (album) 1964 album by the Beach Boys

All Summer Long is the sixth album by American rock band the Beach Boys, released July 13, 1964 on Capitol Records. Regarded as their first artistically unified collection of songs, as well as one of the first true concept albums, it marked the Beach Boys' first LP that was not focused on themes of cars or surfing. Instead, the songs are semi-autobiographical and relate to the experiences of a typical Southern Californian teenager, a theme encapsulated by the title track, "All Summer Long", and the often-imitated front cover, a modernist style photo collage depicting the band members fraternizing with young women on a beach.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">The Honeys</span> American girl group

The Honeys were an American girl group, formed in Los Angeles in 1958, that initially comprised sisters Marilyn, Diane, and Barbara Rovell. Barbara was later replaced by their cousin, Ginger Blake. After 1962, the Rovell Sisters were rechristened "the Honeys" by the Beach Boys' Brian Wilson, who envisioned the group as a female counterpart to his band. Wilson served as the Honeys' record producer and chief songwriter, and later married Marilyn in late 1964.

Gary Lee Usher was an American rock musician, songwriter, and record producer, who worked with numerous California acts in the 1960s, including the Byrds, the Beach Boys, and Dick Dale. Usher also produced fictitious surf groups or hot rod groups, mixing studio session musicians with his own troops. These bands included the Super-Stocks, with the hot-rod song "Midnight Run", and the Kickstands.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Surfin' Safari (song)</span> 1962 single by the Beach Boys

"Surfin' Safari" is a song by American rock band the Beach Boys, written by Brian Wilson and Mike Love. Released as a single with "409" in June 1962, it peaked at number 14 on the Billboard Hot 100. The song also appeared on the 1962 album of the same name.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Surfin'</span> 1961 single by the Beach Boys

"Surfin'" is a song by American rock band the Beach Boys that was written by Brian Wilson and Mike Love. It was released as the debut record by the Beach Boys in November 1961 on Candix Records and was included on the October 1962 album Surfin' Safari.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Surf City (song)</span> 1963 single by Jan and Dean

"Surf City" is a 1963 song recorded by American music duo Jan and Dean about a fictitious surf spot where there are "two girls for every boy". Written by Brian Wilson and Jan Berry, it was the first surf song to become a national number-one hit.

<i>Made in U.S.A.</i> (The Beach Boys album) 1986 greatest hits album by The Beach Boys

Made in U.S.A. is a 1986 double vinyl album compilation of some of The Beach Boys' biggest successes. Released by their original record label, Capitol Records, it marked a brief return to the label, with whom The Beach Boys released one further album, 1989's Still Cruisin'.

<i>Live – The 50th Anniversary Tour</i> 2013 live album by The Beach Boys

Live – The 50th Anniversary Tour is a live album by the Beach Boys released on May 21, 2013. The album was recorded during the band's 50th anniversary reunion tour.

California Music was an American rock supergroup that formed in Los Angeles, California in 1974. It was originally a loose collective of studio musicians, with participation from Bruce Johnston, Terry Melcher, Gary Usher, Curt Boettcher, Dean Torrence, and Brian Wilson. Equinox Records released three singles by the group from 1974 to 1976, after which the band went inactive. In 2021, the group was reformed by members of the Beach Boys and their children. Omnivore Recordings released their first album: California Music Presents Add Some Music.

<i>Inside Pop: The Rock Revolution</i> 1967 film

Inside Pop: The Rock Revolution is a 1967 American television documentary by David Oppenheim about young pop and rock musicians producing music as "a symptom and generator" of social unrest and generation gaps. Hosted by Leonard Bernstein, it was commissioned by CBS and broadcast on April 25, 1967. Musicians who appeared in the documentary included singer-songwriter Janis Ian, who performed her song "Society's Child", and Beach Boys leader Brian Wilson, who performed his song "Surf's Up".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Brian Wilson is a genius</span> Promotional campaign for the Beach Boys leader

"Brian Wilson is a genius" is a line that became part of a media campaign spearheaded in 1966 by the Beatles' former press officer Derek Taylor, who was then employed as the Beach Boys' publicist. Although there are earlier documented expressions of the statement, Taylor frequently called Brian Wilson a "genius" as part of an effort to rebrand the Beach Boys and legitimize Wilson as a serious artist on par with the Beatles and Bob Dylan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Surfin' U.S.A.</span> Single by the Beach Boys

"Surfin' U.S.A." is a song by the American rock band the Beach Boys, credited to Chuck Berry and Brian Wilson. It is a rewritten version of Berry's "Sweet Little Sixteen" set to new lyrics penned by Wilson and an uncredited Mike Love. The song was released as a single on March 4, 1963, backed with "Shut Down". It was then placed as the opening track on their album of the same name.


  1. Michael, Roffman (June 2, 2015). "Film Review: Love & Mercy". Consequence of Sound .
  2. 1 2 3 Mapes, Jillian (May 7, 2015). "30 of the Most Californian Albums Ever Made". Flavorwire .
  3. 1 2 Sanchez 2014, pp. 13–14.
  4. 1 2 Howard 2004, p. 61.
  5. Howard 2004, p. 49–50.
  6. 1 2 Howard 2004, p. 49.
  7. Howard 2004, p. 51.
  8. 1 2 Starr 2009.
  9. 1 2 Morris, Chris (June 15, 1996). "Rhino Chronicles 'California Sound'". Billboard. Retrieved 27 January 2023.
  10. 1 2 Vasudevan, Varsha. "'Echo in the Canyon' chronicles the birth of the iconic California Sound in the Mecca of folk-rock music". Media Entertainment Arts WorldWide. Retrieved 27 January 2023.
  11. Goggans & Difranco 2004, p. 358–59.
  12. Howard 2004, pp. 61–62, 83.
  13. Shuker 1994, p. 35.
  14. McAfee, Ward M.; R. Reginald (1 September 2007). Never an Island: A History of California. Wildside Press LLC. pp. 169–. ISBN   978-0-89370-909-9.
  15. Wheadon, Bret. "The California Sound". The Beach Boys: The Complete Guide.
  16. Howard 2004, p. 69.
  17. 1 2 Sanchez 2014, p. 32.
  18. 1 2 Browne & Browne 1986, p. 194.
  19. Massey 2000, p. 47.
  20. 1 2 3 Flanagan 2010.
  21. Priore 2005, p. 24.
  22. 1 2 Howard 2004, p. 57.
  23. "Giving the Beach Boys a permanent address". The Sun. Baltimore. March 28, 2004.
  24. Howard 2004, p. 50.
  25. Sumrall 1994, p. 15.
  26. Sanchez 2014, p. 13.
  27. Miller 1992, p. 193.
  28. 1 2 Bisbort & Puterbaugh 2009, p. 172.
  29. "Al Jardine And The Myth Of California". American Songwriter. February 6, 2013.
  30. May 2002, p. 114.
  31. "All Summer Long song review". Allmusic.
  32. Sanchez 2014, p. 30.
  33. Howard 2004, pp. 59–60.
  34. Ides 2009, pp. 264–265.
  35. May 2002, pp. 114–115.
  36. 1 2 Gilliland 1969, show 33.
  37. 1 2 3 Howard 2004, pp. 61–62.
  38. Bradley, William. "The Eagles' Hotel California at 40, Buffalo Springfield at 50". Huffington Post. Retrieved 27 January 2023.
  39. Shaw 1969, p. 147.
  40. 1 2 Howard 2004, p. 83.
  41. The Beach Boys (September 1965). "The Things We LOVE and the Things We HATE". 16 Magazine . Vol. 7, no. 4.
  42. 1 2 Priore 2005, pp. 28, 39.
  43. Reid, Darren R. (2013). "Deconstructing America: The Beach Boys, Brian Wilson, and the Making of SMiLE". Open Access History and American Studies.
  44. Howard 2004, p. 70.
  45. Goodall, Sophie. "Graham Nash and Stephen Stills pen tributes to former band's 'glue' David Crosby". Irish Mirror. Retrieved 27 January 2023.
  46. Howard 2004, p. 84.
  47. Italie, Hillel. "Eagles co-founder Glenn Frey, who sang 'Take It Easy,' dies". The Providence Journal. Retrieved 27 January 2023.
  48. Woliver, Robbie. "MUSIC; Former Eagles Drummer Is Back, Making His Own Way". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 January 2023.
  49. Hasted, Nick. "The Eagles: "I came to look at bands as young businesses"". Uncut Magazine. Retrieved 27 January 2023.
  50. Richardson, Mark, ed. (November 12, 2009). "In My Room (The Best Coast Song): Nine Fragments on Lo-fi's Attraction to the Natural World". Pitchfork .
  51. Sedghi, Sarra (July 20, 2015). "Musical Road Trip: Route 101". Paste .
  52. Howard 2004, pp. 50, 69.
  53. Gilliland 1969, shows 41–42.
  54. Ides 2009, p. 253.


Further reading