Transverse Ranges

Last updated
Transverse Ranges
Digital-elevation-map-so california.svg
The ellipse outlines the region of the California Transverse Ranges
Highest point
Peak San Gorgonio Mountain
Elevation 11,503 ft (3,506 m)
Coordinates 34°05′57″N116°49′29″W / 34.099162°N 116.824853°W / 34.099162; -116.824853 Coordinates: 34°05′57″N116°49′29″W / 34.099162°N 116.824853°W / 34.099162; -116.824853
Dimensions
Length300 mi (480 km)
Geography
CountryUnited States
Parent range Pacific Coast Ranges

The Transverse Ranges are a group of mountain ranges of southern California, in the Pacific Coast Ranges physiographic region in North America. The Transverse Ranges begin at the southern end of the California Coast Ranges and lie within Santa Barbara, Ventura, Los Angeles, San Bernardino, Riverside and Kern counties. The Peninsular Ranges lie to the south. The name Transverse Ranges is due to their east–west orientation, making them transverse to the general northwest–southeast orientation of most of California's coastal mountains. [1] [2] [3] [4]

Contents

The ranges extend from west of Point Conception eastward approximately 500 kilometers into the Mojave and Colorado Desert. The geology and topography of the ranges express three distinct segments that have contrasting elevations, rock types, and vegetation. The western segment extends to the San Gabriel Mountains and San Gabriel fault. The central segment includes mountains that range eastward to the San Andreas fault. The eastern segment extends from the San Andreas fault eastward to the Colorado Desert. [1] The central and eastern segments (near the San Andreas fault) have the highest elevations.

Most of the ranges lie in the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion. Lower elevations are dominated by chaparral and scrubland, while higher elevations support large conifer forests. Most of the ranges in the system are fault blocks, and were uplifted by tectonic movements late in the Cenozoic Era. West of Tejon Pass, the primary rock types are varied, with a mix of sedimentary, volcanic, and metamorphic rocks, while regions east of the pass are dominated by plutonic granitic and metasedimentary rocks. [1]

Geography

The Ranges rise steeply above major urban areas such as Los Angeles LA Skyline Mountains2.jpg
The Ranges rise steeply above major urban areas such as Los Angeles
Snowy Mt. Baden-Powell in the San Gabriel Mountains Mt. Baden-Powell.jpg
Snowy Mt. Baden-Powell in the San Gabriel Mountains

The western and central segments of the Transverse Ranges are bounded to the north and east by the San Andreas Fault, which separates those segments from the Mojave Desert. [1] [2] The eastern segment bounds the southern Mojave Desert. Notable passes along the San Andreas fault include Tejon Pass, Cajon Pass, and San Gorgonio Pass. Components of Transverse Ranges to the north and east of the fault include the San Bernardino Mountains, Little San Bernardino Mountains, Pinto and Eagle Mountains. The western and southern boundaries are acknowledged to be the Pacific Ocean and the northern Channel Islands. Onshore the Los Angeles Basin lies at the southern boundary of the western and central segments of the ranges. Major passes not along the San Andreas Fault include Gaviota Pass, San Marcos Pass, the Conejo Grade, Newhall Pass, and Cahuenga Pass.

The Transverse Ranges manifest themselves as a series of roughly parallel ridges with an average height of 3,000–8,000 feet (910–2,440 m). The ranges are dissected by young, steep streams of relatively low flow rate; as a result, there is high topographic relief throughout the range, and other than in marginal areas (e.g. the San Fernando Valley) and a few river valleys (such as Lockwood Valley and Big Bear Valley), there are no large, flat basins within the ranges.

The mountains are notable for being steep and difficult to traverse. There are few passes that are sufficiently low or wide enough to accommodate significant volumes of traffic. This has resulted in situations where major cities are linked to the rest of the state by relatively few roads; for example, the vast majority of traffic between the Central Valley and the Los Angeles area is routed through Tejon Pass. This results in significant traffic issues throughout Southern California when a pass has to be shut down due to heavy snow or construction. Occasionally, major cities, such as Santa Barbara during the 2005 La Conchita landslide, may be cut off from timely road access to the rest of Southern California.

Peaks

Major peaks of the Transverse Ranges with at least 500 feet (150 m) of prominence, listed by height:

  1. Mount San Gorgonio, 11,503 feet (3,506 m), San Bernardino Mountains.
  2. Anderson Peak, 10,840 feet (3,300 m), San Bernardino Mountains.
  3. Mount San Antonio (Old Baldy), 10,068 feet (3,069 m), San Gabriel Mountains.
  4. Sugarloaf Mountain, 9,952 feet (3,033 m), San Bernardino Mountains.
  5. Mount Baden-Powell, 9,407 feet (2,867 m), San Gabriel Mountains.
  6. Galena Peak, 9,324 feet (2,842 m), San Bernardino Mountains.
  7. Throop Peak, 9,142 feet (2,786 m), San Gabriel Mountains.
  8. Telegraph Peak, 8,985 feet (2,739 m), San Gabriel Mountains.
  9. Cucamonga Peak, 8,862 feet (2,701 m), San Gabriel Mountains.
  10. Mount Pinos, 8,847 feet (2,697 m).
  11. Ontario Peak, 8,693 feet (2,650 m), San Gabriel Mountains.
  12. Delamar Mountain, 8,402 feet (2,561 m), San Bernardino Mountains.
  13. Cerro Noroeste, 8,280 feet (2,520 m).
  14. Mount Islip, 8,254 feet (2,516 m), San Gabriel Mountains.
  15. Gold Mountain, 8,239 feet (2,511 m), San Bernardino Mountains.
  16. Bertha Peak, 8,205 feet (2,501 m), San Bernardino Mountains.
  17. Frazier Mountain, 8,017 feet (2,444 m).
  18. Iron Mountain #1, 8,010 feet (2,440 m), San Gabriel Mountains.
  19. Reyes Peak, 7,510 feet (2,290 m), Pine Mountain Ridge.
  20. Haddock Mountain, 7,431 feet (2,265 m), Pine Mountain Ridge.

Ranges

Western segment

This segment begins at Point Conception in Santa Barbara County, and include the Santa Ynez Mountains that run parallel to the coast behind Santa Barbara. The western Transverse Ranges also include the Topatopa Mountains and the Santa Susana Mountains of Ventura County and Los Angeles County, the Simi Hills, the Santa Monica Mountains that run along the Pacific coast behind Malibu, and whose eastern portion are known as the Hollywood Hills, and the Chalk Hills. The northern Channel Islands of California are also part of the Transverse Ranges; San Miguel, Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz and Anacapa Islands are a westward extension of the Santa Monica Mountains.

Central segment

The Ranges include the steep San Gabriel Mountains northeast of Los Angeles, the Tehachapi Mountains southeast of Bakersfield, the Verdugo Mountains, the Liebre-Sawmill Mountains, the San Rafael Hills, Puente Hills, San Jose Hills, and Chino Hills.

Eastern segment

The San Bernardino Mountains, Little San Bernardino Mountains, and the Pinto, Eagle, and Orocopia Mountains are within the eastern segment. The Mojave Desert and California's low desert, including the Coachella Valley, are at the eastern end of the ranges.

Ranges north of the western segment that are nearly transverse but are part of the California Coast Ranges include the San Rafael Mountains and the Sierra Madre Mountains. Likewise, the Tehachapi Mountains north of the Mojave Desert, although nearly transverse, are the southern end of the Sierra Nevada.

Component ranges

Climate

The climate in most of the range is Csb (Warm-summer Mediterranean) under the Köppen climate classification; the upper reaches of San Gorgonio Mountain have an alpine tundra climate (ET), while the lower northern slopes of the range have a desert (BW) or steppe (BS) climate; most of the nearby lowlands to the south and west have a Hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Csa). [5]

Snow falls above 6,000 feet (1,800 m) most winters, and above 3,000 feet (910 m) every few years. It is rare for elevations above 8,000 feet (2,400 m) to go multiple winters without snow, even during severe droughts. Due to relatively low humidity, the regional snow line lies at about 14,000–16,000 feet (4,300–4,900 m), above the highest elevation of the range; as such, snow does not persist year-round except in the form of snow patches.

The tree line lies at about 11,000 feet (3,400 m); San Gorgonio Mountain is the only peak with an alpine environment.

Climate data for Big Bear Lake, California (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1960–present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)71
(22)
72
(22)
80
(27)
82
(28)
87
(31)
98
(37)
94
(34)
92
(33)
87
(31)
85
(29)
74
(23)
70
(21)
98
(37)
Mean maximum °F (°C)60.1
(15.6)
60.3
(15.7)
65.1
(18.4)
72.2
(22.3)
78.4
(25.8)
85.8
(29.9)
88.7
(31.5)
86.5
(30.3)
82.1
(27.8)
75.5
(24.2)
68.3
(20.2)
61.8
(16.6)
89.8
(32.1)
Average high °F (°C)46.1
(7.8)
45.7
(7.6)
51.2
(10.7)
57.3
(14.1)
65.8
(18.8)
75.1
(23.9)
79.7
(26.5)
78.7
(25.9)
73.0
(22.8)
63.4
(17.4)
53.5
(11.9)
46.2
(7.9)
61.3
(16.3)
Average low °F (°C)23.6
(−4.7)
23.7
(−4.6)
27.0
(−2.8)
31.0
(−0.6)
37.2
(2.9)
43.5
(6.4)
50.5
(10.3)
49.5
(9.7)
44.0
(6.7)
35.0
(1.7)
27.8
(−2.3)
23.5
(−4.7)
34.7
(1.5)
Mean minimum °F (°C)9.1
(−12.7)
9.8
(−12.3)
14.1
(−9.9)
20.1
(−6.6)
27.0
(−2.8)
33.4
(0.8)
40.2
(4.6)
39.3
(4.1)
32.5
(0.3)
24.5
(−4.2)
15.4
(−9.2)
10.1
(−12.2)
4.9
(−15.1)
Record low °F (°C)−9
(−23)
−10
(−23)
−8
(−22)
3
(−16)
18
(−8)
22
(−6)
28
(−2)
29
(−2)
19
(−7)
10
(−12)
−15
(−26)
−14
(−26)
−15
(−26)
Average precipitation inches (mm)4.51
(115)
4.39
(112)
2.37
(60)
0.78
(20)
0.42
(11)
0.15
(3.8)
0.69
(18)
0.82
(21)
0.40
(10)
0.79
(20)
1.35
(34)
3.31
(84)
19.98
(508.8)
Average snowfall inches (cm)13.4
(34)
14.3
(36)
11.7
(30)
3.0
(7.6)
0.6
(1.5)
trace0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1.2
(3.0)
3.4
(8.6)
11.0
(28)
58.6
(148.7)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)6.66.85.53.72.00.72.62.82.02.22.95.543.3
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)3.53.52.71.20.30.10000.31.13.316.0
Source: NOAA [6] [7]

Geology

View west of the eastern portion of the San Bernardino and San Gabriel Mountains, with the Mojave Desert on the right and Silverwood Lake near the boundary. The San Andreas Fault runs straight up the middle toward the horizon. Traverse Ranges, Mojave Desert, Silverwood Lake.jpg
View west of the eastern portion of the San Bernardino and San Gabriel Mountains, with the Mojave Desert on the right and Silverwood Lake near the boundary. The San Andreas Fault runs straight up the middle toward the horizon.
The San Andreas Fault trends more east-west where it cuts through the Transverse Ranges. Sanandreas.jpg
The San Andreas Fault trends more east-west where it cuts through the Transverse Ranges.

Tectonics

The Transverse Ranges result from a complex of tectonic forces and faulting stemming from the interaction of the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate along the dextral (right slip) San Andreas Fault system. Their orientation along an east–west axis as opposed to the general northwest–southeast trend of most California ranges results from a pronounced left step in the San Andreas Fault that occurred in the Pliocene (c.4 million years ago) when southern reaches of the fault moved east to open the Gulf of California. [8] The crust within the Pacific Plate south of the ranges can not easily make the left turn westward as the entire plate moves northwestward, forcing pieces of the crust to compress and lift.

Prior to this shift of the fault to create the left bend, northwest–southeast trending rock belts in all of the Transverse Ranges began to rotate clockwise in the right shear of Pacific Plate – North American Plate motion. [9] [10] [11] This tectonic rotation began in Early Miocene Time and continues today. [12] The total rotation is about 90° in the Western Transverse Ranges and less (about 40°) in the eastern ranges. [13] Catalina Island shows the most rotation: almost 120°. [10]

A mechanism proposed for the rotation event is capture of the subducting Monterey plate by the outboard Pacific plate. Because the Monterey plate was then beneath southern California, the capture resulted in pulling of the overlying crust out and northward from the rest of California. [14]

Rocks

Rocks of the Transverse Ranges exhibit extreme differences in geologic age and composition, varying from sedimentary rocks in the western Santa Ynez and volcanic rocks in the Santa Monica Mountains to primarily granitic and metamorphic rock in the central and eastern segments, including the San Gabriel and San Bernardino Mountains.

The oldest basement (deepest) rocks are of Proterozoic age, and are found in the San Gabriel Mountains and the San Bernardino Mountains. The Jurassic-Cretaceous Franciscan Assemblage is found in the western section of the ranges and is the presumed basement in this segment. Exposed plutonic rocks from the Mesozoic, mostly granites, can be found on Mount Pinos and generally in regions east of Tejon Pass. The youngest rocks are Cenozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks that can be found throughout the ranges.

The western segment is distinctive for the large thickness of Cretaceous and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks, estimated to be up to 10 kilometers. [1] The thickest deposits of these are in the Santa Barbara Channel and Ventura basin. These are mostly marine in origin with a marked change to red beds of river systems of Oligocene age in the western and central segments.

Limestones and dolomites of the marine Miocene Monterey Formation are found in the Santa Ynez Mountains and in the Coast Ranges to the north.

Faults

Transverse Ranges segments shown as shaded with bordering faults. Catalina not usually included in the province but it has similar geologic faults. SoCal Transverse Ranges.svg
Transverse Ranges segments shown as shaded with bordering faults. Catalina not usually included in the province but it has similar geologic faults.

The distinctive feature of the Transverse Ranges besides their anomalous orientation is that they are bounded by east-west trending faults. Most are left slip, strike slip faults. In the western and central segments many of the faults are thrust faults. [1] [2] Faults in the Coast Ranges and Peninsular Ranges trend northwest-southeast and butt into the east-west trending faults of the Transverse Ranges. Because all of these faults are considered active and seismic but they do to cut each other, the only geometry that satisfies that observation is if the east-west faults and Transverse Ranges are rotating clockwise with respect to the faults outside that province. [9]

Between the western segment and the Peninsular Ranges to the south is the complex Malibu Coast—Santa Monica—Hollywood fault, which exists as the border between these two mostly geologically unitary provinces. [15] These faults are part of the same thrust fault system south of the northern Channel Islands of San Miguel, Santa Rosa, and Anacapa Islands. [1] North of the western segment the bounding faults are left slip Santa Ynez and Pine Mountain Faults. The San Gabriel Fault and San Andreas bound the central segment. The eastern segment is bounded by the Pinto Mountain Fault in the north and the Salton Creek Fault in the south.

Petroleum

The large thickness of marine sediments in the western segment have made it a habitat for oil. Several dozen fields are found onshore and offshore, particularly in the Santa Barbara Channel and Ventura Basin. Much oil has pooled in the Monterey Formation, which is produced onshore and offshore. In the eastern Santa Barbara Channel oil is held in younger sedimentary rocks. The Los Angeles Basin south of the western segment, formed during rotation of that segment away from the Peninsular Ranges. [9] It is also a site of prolific oil production. The California Geologic Survey states:

Great thicknesses of Cenozoic petroleum-rich sedimentary rocks have been folded and faulted, making California one of the most important oil-producing areas in the United States. [16]

Ecology

Savannah-like oak woodlands are typical of the westernmost ranges; shown here is the north slope of the Santa Ynez Mountains North Slope Santa Ynez Mtns.jpg
Savannah-like oak woodlands are typical of the westernmost ranges; shown here is the north slope of the Santa Ynez Mountains

The plant place of the Transverse ranges include coastal sage scrub, oak woodland and savanna, and pinyon-juniper woodland at lower elevations, and yellow pine forest, Lodgepole Pine, and subalpine forest at higher elevations. [17] The Angeles and Los Padres National Forests cover portions of the Transverse ranges. The ranges are part of the WWF-designated California montane chaparral and woodlands ecoregion, but the eastern points of the range touch two desert regions, the Mojave Desert and the Colorado Desert section of the Sonoran Desert. The Carrizo Plain adjoins the northern edge of the Transverse Range.[ citation needed ]

Chaparral is a common feature of the Transverse Ranges. Common plant associates in chaparral, especially in the transition between coastal chaparral and coastal sage scrub, include California sagebrush and Toyon, the latter shrub having its southern distribution limit defined by the Transverse Ranges. [18]

Pinyon-juniper woodland is common on the north slopes of the San Gabriel and San Bernardino Mountains. This ecosystem is easily visible in the well-travelled Soledad Pass region, between Pearblossom and Santa Clarita.[ citation needed ]

Urban impact

A number of densely populated coastal plains and interior valleys lie between the mountain ranges, including the Oxnard Plain of coastal Ventura County, the Santa Clarita Valley north of Los Angeles, the San Fernando Valley, which is mostly included in the City of Los Angeles. The Los Angeles Basin, which includes the portion of Los Angeles County south of the Santa Monica Mountains and most of Orange County, and the Inland Empire basin, which includes the cities of San Bernardino and Riverside, lie between the Transverse Ranges and the Peninsular Ranges to the south.[ citation needed ]

Transportation

View looking westward at the western portion of the San Bernardino and San Gabriel Mountains, with the San Bernardino Valley to the left, with San Bernardino itself in the foreground. The Foothill Freeway (I-210) runs toward the horizon, while I-15 runs through Cajon Pass to the right. San Bernardino Valley, San Gabriel, SB Mountains, I-215.jpg
View looking westward at the western portion of the San Bernardino and San Gabriel Mountains, with the San Bernardino Valley to the left, with San Bernardino itself in the foreground. The Foothill Freeway (I-210) runs toward the horizon, while I-15 runs through Cajon Pass to the right.

There are a number of important freeways that cross the Transverse Ranges, such as (from west to east) US-101, I-5 at Tejon Pass, SR 14 at Soledad Pass, and I-15 at Cajon Pass. These highways link Southern California with places to the north and northeast like San Francisco and Las Vegas, respectively. With the exception of several high passes on less-traveled SR 33, SR 2, SR 330. SR 18 and SR 38, none of these passes are at high elevations, with Cajon Pass being at a modest 4,190 ft (1,277 m) above mean sea level; this means that snow is less of a factor here than in the moderate to high mountain passes to the north like Donner Pass. Still sometimes, heavy snowfall can snarl traffic on Tejon and Cajon Pass, the higher two of the three freeway passes. I-5 and I-15 commonly experience heavy traffic over their mountainous route across these mountains.[ citation needed ]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Geography of California</span> Overview of the geography of California

California is a U.S. state on the western coast of North America. Covering an area of 163,696 sq mi (423,970 km2), California is among the most geographically diverse states. The Sierra Nevada, the fertile farmlands of the Central Valley, and the arid Mojave Desert of the south are some of the major geographic features of this U.S. state. It is home to some of the world's most exceptional trees: the tallest, most massive, and oldest. It is also home to both the highest and lowest points in the 48 contiguous states. The state is generally divided into Northern and Southern California, although the boundary between the two is not well defined. San Francisco is decidedly a Northern California city and Los Angeles likewise a Southern California one, but areas in between do not often share their confidence in geographic identity. The US Geological Survey defines the geographic center of the state at a point near North Fork, California.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Southern California</span> American geographic and cultural region

Southern California is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises the southern portion of the U.S. state of California. It includes the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second most populous urban agglomeration in the United States. The region generally contains ten of California's 58 counties: Imperial, Kern, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo and Ventura counties.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">San Andreas Fault</span> Geologic feature in California

The San Andreas Fault is a continental transform fault that extends roughly 1,200 kilometers (750 mi) through California. It forms the tectonic boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate, and its motion is right-lateral strike-slip (horizontal). The fault divides into three segments, each with different characteristics and a different degree of earthquake risk. The slip rate along the fault ranges from 20 to 35 mm per year. It was formed by a transform boundary.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">San Gabriel Mountains</span> Mountain range of the Transverse Ranges in California, United States

The San Gabriel Mountains are a mountain range located in northern Los Angeles County and western San Bernardino County, California, United States. The mountain range is part of the Transverse Ranges and lies between the Los Angeles Basin and the Mojave Desert, with Interstate 5 to the west and Interstate 15 to the east. The range lies in, and is surrounded by, the Angeles and San Bernardino National Forests, with the San Andreas Fault as its northern border.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Peninsular Ranges</span> Group of mountain ranges in Southern California and northern Mexico

The Peninsular Ranges are a group of mountain ranges that stretch 1,500 km (930 mi) from Southern California to the southern tip of the Baja California peninsula; they are part of the North American Coast Ranges, which run along the Pacific Coast from Alaska to Mexico. Elevations range from 150 to 3,300 m.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tehachapi Mountains</span> Mountain range of the Transverse Ranges in California, United States

The Tehachapi Mountains are a mountain range in the Transverse Ranges system of California in the Western United States. The range extends for approximately 40 miles (64 km) in southern Kern County and northwestern Los Angeles County and form part of the boundary between the San Joaquin Valley and the Mojave Desert.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Los Angeles Basin</span> Sedimentary basin located along the coast of southern California

The Los Angeles Basin is a sedimentary basin located in Southern California, in a region known as the Peninsular Ranges. The basin is also connected to an anomalous group of east-west trending chains of mountains collectively known as the Transverse Ranges. The present basin is a coastal lowland area, whose floor is marked by elongate low ridges and groups of hills that is located on the edge of the Pacific Plate. The Los Angeles Basin, along with the Santa Barbara Channel, the Ventura Basin, the San Fernando Valley, and the San Gabriel Basin, lies within the greater Southern California region. The majority of the jurisdictional land area of the city of Los Angeles physically lies within this basin.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">San Bernardino Mountains</span> Mountain range of the Transverse Ranges in California, United States

The San Bernardino Mountains are a high and rugged mountain range in Southern California in the United States. Situated north and northeast of San Bernardino and spanning two California counties, the range tops out at 11,503 feet (3,506 m) at San Gorgonio Mountain – the tallest peak in all of Southern California. The San Bernardinos form a significant region of wilderness and are popular for hiking and skiing.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">San Jacinto Mountains</span> Mountain range in Riverside County, in southern California

The San Jacinto Mountains are a mountain range in Riverside County, located east of Los Angeles in southern California in the United States. The mountains are named for one of the first Black Friars, Saint Hyacinth, who is a popular patron in Latin America.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vasquez Rocks</span> Natural area park in Agua Dulce, California

Vasquez Rocks Natural Area Park is a 932-acre (377-hectare) park located in the Sierra Pelona in northern Los Angeles County, California. It is known for its rock formations, the result of sedimentary layering and later seismic uplift. It is located near the town of Agua Dulce, between the cities of Santa Clarita and Palmdale. The area is visible from the Antelope Valley Freeway. It has been used as a location for films and television programs on many occasions.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Santa Ynez Mountains</span> Mountain range of the Transverse Ranges in California, United States

The Santa Ynez Mountains are a portion of the Transverse Ranges, part of the Pacific Coast Ranges of the west coast of North America. It is the westernmost range in the Transverse Ranges.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Verdugo Mountains</span> Mountain range of the Transverse Ranges in California, United States

The Verdugo Mountains, also known as the Verdugo Hills or simply The Verdugos, are a small, rugged mountain range of the Transverse Ranges system in Los Angeles County, California. Located just south of the western San Gabriel Mountains, the Verdugo Mountains region incorporates the cities of Glendale, Pasadena, and La Cañada Flintridge; the unincorporated communities of Altadena and La Crescenta-Montrose; as well as the City of Los Angeles neighborhood of Sunland-Tujunga.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">San Bernardino Valley</span> Valley in California, United States

The San Bernardino Valley is a valley in Southern California located at the south base of the Transverse Ranges. It is bordered on the north by the eastern San Gabriel Mountains and the San Bernardino Mountains; on the east by the San Jacinto Mountains; on the south by the Temescal Mountains and Santa Ana Mountains; and on the west by the Pomona Valley. Elevation varies from 590 feet (180 m) on valley floors near Chino to 1,380 feet (420 m) near San Bernardino and Redlands. The valley floor is home to over 80% of the more than 4 million people of the Inland Empire region.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sierra Pelona Ridge</span> Mountain range of the Transverse Ranges in California, United States

The Sierra Pelona, also known as the Sierra Pelona Ridge or the Sierra Pelona Mountains, is a mountain ridge in the Transverse Ranges in Southern California. Located in northwest Los Angeles County, the ridge is bordered on the north by the San Andreas fault and lies within and is surrounded by the Angeles National Forest.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Forest Falls, California</span> Unincorporated community in California, United States

Forest Falls is an unincorporated community in San Bernardino County, California, 75 miles (121 km) due east of Los Angeles. The community has a population of 1,102 and contains 712 houses. Forest Falls is best known for the waterfalls on Vivian and Falls creeks and as a point of access for recreation in the San Bernardino National Forest, particularly the San Gorgonio Wilderness Area, which lies directly north of the community.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Geography of southern California</span> Overview of the geography of southern California

The geography of southern California refers to the geography of southern California in the United States.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Coldwater Sandstone</span> Eocene geologic unit in Southern California

The Coldwater Sandstone is a sedimentary geologic unit of Eocene age found in Southern California, primarily in and south of the Santa Ynez Mountains of Santa Barbara County, and east into Ventura County. It consists primarily of massive arkosic sandstone with some siltstone and shale. Being exceptionally resistant to erosion, outcrops of the Coldwater form some of the most dramatic terrain on the south slope of the Santa Ynez Mountains, with immense white sculpted slabs forming peaks, hogback ridges, and sheer cliff faces.

The 1991 Sierra Madre earthquake occurred on June 28 at 07:43:55 local time with a moment magnitude of 5.6 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of VII. The thrust earthquake resulted in two deaths, around 100 injuries, and damage estimated at $33.5–40 million. The event occurred beneath the San Gabriel Mountains on the Clamshell–Sawpit Fault, which is a part of the Sierra Madre–Cucamonga Fault System. Instruments captured the event at a number of strong motion stations in Southern California.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pasadena orogeny</span>

Pasadena orogeny is a mountain building event in the Western United States. Conventionally it refers to the formation of mountains in mainly Southern California during the Pleistocene and lasting until the present day; originally it referred to the uplift of the San Gabriel Mountains.

The geology of California is highly complex, with numerous mountain ranges, substantial faulting and tectonic activity, rich natural resources and a history of both ancient and comparatively recent intense geological activity. The area formed as a series of small island arcs, deep-ocean sediments and mafic oceanic crust accreted to the western edge of North America, producing a series of deep basins and high mountain ranges.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Dibblee Jr, T.W., 1982. Regional geology of the Transverse Ranges Province of southern California. Geology and mineral wealth of the California Transverse Ranges, 10, pp.7-26.
  2. 1 2 3 Norris, R. M.; Webb, R. W. (1990). Geology of California. Wiley.
  3. Ingram, Scott (2002). California: The Golden State. Gareth Stevens. pp.  21. ISBN   978-0-8368-5282-0.
  4. "California's Coastal Mountains". California Coastal Commission. Archived from the original on 2007-12-22. Retrieved 2007-12-25.
  5. "Redlands Biology". Archived from the original on 2017-05-25. Retrieved 2014-10-21.
  6. "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved 2013-07-03.
  7. "Summary of Monthly Normals 1991-2020". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2022-08-20.
  8. Larson, Roger L.; Menard, H. W.; Smith, S. M. (1968-08-23). "Gulf of California: A Result of Ocean-Floor Spreading and Transform Faulting". Science. 161 (3843): 781–784. Bibcode:1968Sci...161..781L. doi:10.1126/science.161.3843.781. ISSN   0036-8075. PMID   17802622. S2CID   31863250.
  9. 1 2 3 LUYENDYK, BRUCE P.; KAMERLING, MARC J.; TERRES, RICHARD (1980-04-01). "Geometric model for Neogene crustal rotations in southern California". GSA Bulletin. 91 (4): 211. Bibcode:1980GSAB...91..211L. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1980)91<211:gmfncr>2.0.co;2. ISSN   0016-7606.
  10. 1 2 Luyendyk, Bruce P.; Kamerling, Marc J.; Terres, Richard R.; Hornafius, J. Scott (1985). "Simple shear of southern California during Neogene time suggested by paleomagnetic declinations". Journal of Geophysical Research. 90 (B14): 12454. Bibcode:1985JGR....9012454L. doi:10.1029/jb090ib14p12454. ISSN   0148-0227.
  11. LUYENDYK, BRUCE P. (1991-11-01). "A model for Neogene crustal rotations, transtension, and transpression in southern California". GSA Bulletin. 103 (11): 1528. Bibcode:1991GSAB..103.1528L. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1991)103<1528:amfncr>2.3.co;2. ISSN   0016-7606.
  12. HORNAFIUS, J. SCOTT; LUYENDYK, BRUCE P.; TERRES, R. R.; KAMERLING, M. J. (1986-12-01). "Timing and extent of Neogene tectonic rotation in the western Transverse Ranges, California". GSA Bulletin. 97 (12): 1476. Bibcode:1986GSAB...97.1476S. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1986)97<1476:taeont>2.0.co;2. ISSN   0016-7606.
  13. CARTER, JAMES N.; LUYENDYK, BRUCE P.; TERRES, RICHARD R. (1987-02-01). "Neogene clockwise tectonic rotation of the eastern Transverse Ranges, California, suggested by paleomagnetic vectors". GSA Bulletin. 98 (2): 199. Bibcode:1987GSAB...98..199C. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1987)98<199:nctrot>2.0.co;2. ISSN   0016-7606.
  14. Nicholson, Craig; Sorlien, Christopher C.; Atwater, Tanya; Crowell, John C.; Luyendyk, Bruce P. (1994-06-01). "Microplate capture, rotation of the western Transverse Ranges, and initiation of the San Andreas transform as a low-angle fault system". Geology. 22 (6): 491. Bibcode:1994Geo....22..491N. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1994)022<0491:mcrotw>2.3.co;2. ISSN   0091-7613.
  15. Meigs, Andrew J.; Oskin, Michael E. (2002). "Convergence, block rotation, and structural interference across the Peninsular-Transverse Ranges boundary, eastern Santa Monica Mountains, California". In Barth, Andrew (ed.). Contributions to Crustal Evolution of the Southwestern United States. Geological Society of America. pp. 281–7. ISBN   978-0-8137-2365-5.
  16. ‘’California Geologic Provinces,’’ Note 36, page 2 Archived 2016-12-22 at the Wayback Machine
  17. Schoenherr, Allan A. (1992). A Natural History of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  18. C. Michael Hogan, (2008) Toyon (Heteromeles arbutifolia), GlobalTwitcher, ed. N. Stromberg Archived 2009-07-19 at the Wayback Machine

Further reading