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politics and government of
the African Union
The African Central Bank (ACB) is one of the original five financial institutions and specialized agencies of the African Union. Over time, it will take over responsibilities of the African Monetary Fund.
The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of 55 member states located on the continent of Africa, with exception of various territories of European possessions located in Africa. The bloc was founded on 26 May 2001 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and launched on 9 July 2002 in South Africa. The intention of the AU is to replace the Organisation of African Unity (OAU), established on 25 May 1963 in Addis Ababa by 32 signatory governments. The most important decisions of the AU are made by the Assembly of the African Union, a semi-annual meeting of the heads of state and government of its member states. The AU's secretariat, the African Union Commission, is based in Addis Ababa.
The Africa Monetary Fund is a planned African Union financial institution, though in time its responsibilities will be transferred to the African Central Bank. This institution is one of the three financial institutions of the future African Union. It will be based in Yaoundé, Cameroon.
The creation of the ACB, due to be completed by 2020, a roll out pilot project began May, 2015 under the sole supervision of the AFRA Commission, the African Finance Regulatory Authority. The mandate of the AFRA Commission is guided by Article 19 of the OAU Constitutive Act, the 1991 Abuja Treaty and as agreed by the Assembly of Member States for the Single AFRA Payments Area (SAPA), the Common Economic and Monetary Systems and the creation of the African Central Bank (ACB), charged by the African Finance Regulatory Authority. The African Star Treaty Alliance Group, as declared by the FOURTH EXTRAORDINARY SESSION OF THE ASSEMBLY OF HEADS OF STATE AND GOVERNMENT of the Organisation of African Unity, 1999, in Sirte, Libya.
When it is fully implemented the ACB will be the sole issuer of the African Single Currency, will become the banker of the African Government, will be the banker to Africa's private and public banking institutions, will regulate and supervise the African banking industry, and will set the official interest and exchange rates; in conjunction with the African Government's administration.
The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank for the euro and administers monetary policy of the Eurozone, which consists of 19 EU member states and is one of the largest currency areas in the world. It is one of the world's most important central banks and is one of the seven institutions of the European Union (EU) listed in the Treaty on European Union (TEU). The capital stock of the bank is owned by the central banks of all 28 EU member states. The Treaty of Amsterdam established the bank in 1998, and it is headquartered in Frankfurt, Germany. As of 2015 the President of the ECB is Mario Draghi, former governor of the Bank of Italy, former member of the World Bank, and former managing director of the Goldman Sachs international division (2002–2005). The bank primarily occupied the Eurotower prior to, and during, the construction of the new headquarters.
The Economic Community of West African States, also known as ECOWAS, is a regional economic union of fifteen countries located in West Africa. Collectively, these countries comprise an area of 5,114,162 km2 (1,974,589 sq mi), and in 2015 had an estimated population of over 349 million.
The Central African CFA franc is the currency of six independent states in Central Africa: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon. These six countries have a combined population of 48.0 million people, and a combined GDP of US$88.2 billion.
For a quarter of a century following independence, Cameroon was one of the most prosperous countries in Africa. The drop in commodity prices for its principal exports —petroleum, cocoa, coffee, and cotton — in the mid-1980s, combined with an overvalued currency and economic mismanagement, led to a decade-long recession. Real per capita GDP fell by more than 60% from 1986 to 1994. The current account and fiscal deficits widened, and foreign debt grew. Yet because of its oil reserves and favorable agricultural conditions, Cameroon still has one of the best-endowed primary commodity economies in sub-Saharan Africa.
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is the institution that manages the currency, money supply, and interest rates of a state or formal monetary union, and oversees their commercial banking system. In contrast to a commercial bank, a central bank possesses a monopoly on increasing the monetary base in the state, and also generally controls the printing/coining of the national currency, which serves as the state's legal tender. A central bank also acts as a lender of last resort to the banking sector during times of financial crisis. Most central banks also have supervisory and regulatory powers to ensure the solvency of member institutions, to prevent bank runs, and to discourage reckless or fraudulent behavior by member banks.
The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) is an international financial institution owned by central banks which "fosters international monetary and financial cooperation and serves as a bank for central banks". The BIS carries out its work through its meetings, programmes and through the Basel Process – hosting international groups pursuing global financial stability and facilitating their interaction. It also provides banking services, but only to central banks and other international organizations. It is based in Basel, Switzerland, with representative offices in Hong Kong and Mexico City.
The Monetary Authority of Singapore is Singapore's central bank and financial regulatory authority. It administers the various statutes pertaining to money, banking, insurance, securities and the financial sector in general, as well as currency issuance. The acronym is a play on words, as "mas" means "gold" in Malay.
Monetary reform is any movement or theory that proposes a system of supplying money and financing the economy that is different from the current system.
The State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) is the central bank of Pakistan. While its constitution, as originally laid down in the State Bank of Pakistan Order 1948, remained basically unchanged until January 1, 1974, when the bank was nationalized, the scope of its functions was considerably enlarged. The State Bank of Pakistan Act 1956, with subsequent amendments, forms the basis of its operations today. The headquarters are located in the financial capital of Pakistan, Karachi whereas the bank has a fully owned subsidiary with the name SBP Banking Services Corporation (SBP-BSC) which is the operational arm of the central bank and has branch offices in 15 cities across Pakistan, including the capital city, Islamabad and the four provincial capitals and has head office in Karachi. State bank has other fully owned subsidiaries as well namely, I) National Institute of Banking and Finance (NIBAF) which is the training arm of the bank and also provides training to commercial banks, 2) Deposit Protection Corporation (DPC) and recently SBP was given ownership of 3) Pakistan Security Printing Corporation (PSPC) as well.
The Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas is the central bank of the Philippines. It was established on 3 July 1993, pursuant to the provision of Republic Act 7653 or the New Central Bank Act of 1993.
Bangladesh Bank is the central bank of Bangladesh and is a member of the Asian Clearing Union.
The Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis is one of 12 regional Reserve Banks that, along with the Board of Governors in Washington, D.C., make up the United States' central bank. Missouri is the only state to have two main branches of Federal Reserve Banks.. Located in downtown St. Louis, the St. Louis Fed is the headquarters of the Eighth Federal Reserve District, which includes the state of Arkansas and portions of Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Mississippi, the eastern half of Missouri and West Tennessee. It has branches in Little Rock, Louisville and Memphis. Its building, at 411 Locust Street, was designed by St. Louis firm Mauran, Russell & Crowell in 1924. The Eighth District serves as a center for local, national and global economic research, and provides the following services: supervisory and regulatory services to state-member banks and bank holding companies; cash and coin-handling for the District and beyond; economic education; and community development resources.
The Central Bank Iran (CBI), also known as Bank Markazi, officially the Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran is the central bank of Iran. Established under the Iranian Banking and Monetary Act in 1960, it serves as the banker to the Iranian government and has the exclusive right of issuing banknote and coinage. CBI is tasked with maintaining the value of Iranian rial and supervision of banks and credit institutions. It acts as custodian of the Crown Jewels, as well as foreign exchange and gold reserves of Iran.
The Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) is the Central bank and apex monetary authority of Nigeria established by the CBN Act of 1958 and commenced operations on July 1, 1959.
The Commercial Bank of Ethiopia (CBE) is the largest commercial bank in Ethiopia As of June 2015, it had about 303.6 billion Birr in assets and held approximately 67% of deposits and about 53% of all bank loans in the country. The bank has around 22,908 employees, who staff its headquarters and its over 1000+ branches positioned in the main cities and regional towns. The latter include 120 branches in the national capital Addis Ababa. With the opening of a branch in the Gechi in the Illubabor Zone of the Oromia Region, CBE's banking network has reached online 783 branches. The bank has reached 1284 branches as of August 10, 2018.
The Central Bank of Armenia is the central bank of Armenia with its headquarters in Yerevan. The CBA is an independent institution responsible for issuing all banknotes and coins in the country, overseeing and regulating the banking sector and keeping the government's currency reserves. The CBA is also the sole owner of the Armenian Mint.
The Central Bank of Montenegro is the central bank of Montenegro. The mission of the central bank is to establish and maintain a sound banking system and monetary policy.
The Central Bank of the Bahamas is the reserve bank of the Bahamas based in the capital Nassau.
The Central Bank of the United Arab Emirates is the state institution responsible for managing the currency, monetary policy and banking regulation in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
The African Monetary Union is the proposed creation of an economic and monetary union for the countries of the African Union, administered by the African Central Bank. Such a union would call for the creation of a new unified currency, similar to the euro; the hypothetical currency is sometimes referred to as the afro or afriq.
The African Finance Regulatory Authority (AFRA) Commission is the statutory body mandated by the legal instruments of the Treaty by the Heads of States and Government of the African Union called ASTAG since its creation in 1999 Sirte declaration following the Abuja Treaty of 1991 for the economic and monetary union.
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.
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