China National Space Administration

Last updated

China National Space Administration
CNSA logo 2.png
AbbreviationCNSA
Formation22 April 1993
Headquarters Haidian District, Beijing
Administrator
Zhang Kejian
Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center
Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center
Xichang Satellite Launch Center
Wenchang Satellite Launch Center
Parent organisation
Chinese Government
Website www.cnsa.gov.cn
China National Space Administration
Simplified Chinese 国家 航天
Traditional Chinese 國家 航天
Literal meaningNational Astronautics Bureau

China National Space Administration (CNSA) is the national space agency of China. It is responsible for the national space program [1] and for planning and development of space activities. CNSA and China Aerospace Corporation (CASC) assumed the authority[ when? ] over space development efforts previously held by the Ministry of Aerospace Industry. It is a subordinate agency of the State Administration for Science, Technology and Industry for National Defence (SASTIND), itself a subordinate agency of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT).

China Country in East Asia

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.

Chinese space program Space program of the Peoples Republic of China

The space program of the People's Republic of China is directed by the China National Space Administration (CNSA). Its technological roots can be traced back to the late 1950s, when China began a ballistic missile program in response to perceived American threats. However, the first Chinese crewed space program only began several decades later, when an accelerated program of technological development culminated in Yang Liwei's successful 2003 flight aboard Shenzhou 5. This achievement made China the third country to independently send humans into space. Plans currently include a permanent Chinese space station in 2020 and crewed expeditions to the Moon.

The Ministry of Aerospace Industry of the People's Republic of China was a government ministry responsible for its national space program. This ministry was split into the China National Space Administration and China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation in July 1993 as a part of government reforms and modernization efforts.

Contents

The headquarters are in Haidian District, Beijing.

History

CNSA is an agency created in 1993 when the Ministry of Aerospace Industry was split into CNSA and the China Aerospace Corporation (CASC). The former was to be responsible for policy, while the latter was to be responsible for execution. This arrangement proved somewhat unsatisfactory, as these two agencies were, in effect, one large agency, sharing both personnel and management. [1]

The China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC) is the main contractor for the Chinese space program. It is state-owned and has a number of subordinate entities which design, develop and manufacture a range of spacecraft, launch vehicles, strategic and tactical missile systems, and ground equipment. It was officially established in July 1999 as part of a Chinese government reform drive, having previously been one part of the former China Aerospace Corporation. Various incarnations of the program date back to 1956.

As part of a massive restructuring in 1998, CASC was split into a number of smaller state-owned companies. The intention appeared to have been to create a system similar to that characteristic of Western defense procurement in which entities which are government agencies, setting operational policy, would then contract out their operational requirements to entities which were government-owned, but not government-managed. [1]

Western world Countries that identify themselves with an originally European—since the Cold War, US American—shared culture

The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe, Australasia, and the Americas, with the status of Latin America in dispute. There are many accepted definitions, all closely interrelated. The Western world is also known as the Occident, in contrast to the Orient, or Eastern world.

Function

CNSA was established as a government institution to develop and fulfill China's due international obligations, with the approval by the Eighth National People's Congress of China (NPC). The Ninth NPC assigned CNSA as an internal structure of the Commission of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense (COSTIND). CNSA assumes the following main responsibilities: signing governmental agreements in the space area on behalf of organizations, inter-governmental scientific and technical exchanges; and also being in charge of the enforcement of national space policies and managing the national space science, technology and industry.

National Peoples Congress highest state body and legislature of the Peoples Republic of China

The National People's Congress is the national legislature of the People's Republic of China. With 2,980 members in 2018, it is the largest parliamentary body in the world. The National People's Congress meets in full session for roughly two weeks each year and votes on important pieces of legislation, and members are considered to be part-time legislators and are not paid to serve in the NPC.

Up to now, China has signed governmental space cooperation agreements with Brazil, Chile, France, Germany, India, Italy, Pakistan, Russia, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, the United States, and some other countries. Significant achievements have been scored in the bilateral and multilateral and technology exchanges and cooperation. [1]

Brazil Federal republic in South America

Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, and its most populated city is São Paulo. The federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, and the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas; it is also one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations, due to over a century of mass immigration from around the world.

Chile republic in South America

Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi) of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty.

France Republic with mainland in Europe and numerous oversea territories

France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.

Administrators of CNSA are appointed by the State Council.

State Council of the Peoples Republic of China chief administrative authority of the Peoples Republic of China

The State Council, constitutionally synonymous with the Central People's Government since 1954, is the chief administrative authority of the People's Republic of China. It is chaired by the premier and includes the heads of each of the cabinet-level executive departments. Currently, the council has 35 members: the premier, one executive vice premier, three other vice premiers, five state councilors, and 25 additional ministers and chairs of major agencies. In the politics of the People's Republic of China, the Central People's Government forms one of three interlocking branches of power, the others being the Communist Party of China and the People's Liberation Army. The State Council directly oversees the various subordinate People's Governments in the provinces, and in practice maintains membership with the top levels of the Communist Party of China.

Taikonauts

As of 2013, eleven Chinese people have traveled to space (alphabetical order):

Administrators

The most recent administrator is Zhang Kejian. Wu Yanhua is vice-administrator and Tian Yulong is secretary general. [2]

Departments

There are four departments under the CNSA:

CNSA's logo is a similar design to that of China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation. [5] The arrow in the middle is similar to the Chinese character 人 which means 'human' or 'people', to state that humans are the center of all space exploration. The three concentric ellipses stand for three types of Escape Velocity (minimum speed needed to reach sustainable orbits, to escape the earth system, and to escape the solar system) which are milestones of space exploration. The second ring is drawn with a bold line, to state that China has passed the first stage of exploration (earth system) and is undergoing the second stage exploration (within the solar system). The 人 character stands above the three rings to emphasize humanity's capability to escape and explore. Olive branches were added to state that China's space exploration is peaceful in nature.[ citation needed ]

Some have pointed out a resemblance to the Starfleet and United Federation of Planets logos from Star Trek , though it's not clear if this was intentional. [6]

See also

Related Research Articles

Aerospace engineering effort to fly in the atmosphere of Earth (aeronautics) and surrounding space (astronautics)

Aerospace is the human effort in science, engineering, and business to fly in the atmosphere of Earth (aeronautics) and surrounding space (astronautics). Aerospace organizations research, design, manufacture, operate, or maintain aircraft or spacecraft. Aerospace activity is very diverse, with a multitude of commercial, industrial and military applications.

The Commission for Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense was a civilian ministry within the State Council of the People's Republic of China, responsible for setting policy for defense procurement. It was considered as the Chinese counterpart of DARPA of the USA. The ministry was formed in 1982 to centralize Chinese defense procurement and technology whose responsibility had been distributed among several agencies. In March 2008 COSTIND was merged into a new super bureaucracy called the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) and renamed as the State Administration for Science, Technology and Industry for National Defence (SASTIND). Former COSTIND deputy director, Chen Qiufa, was named as the head of SASTIND.

Huazhong University of Science and Technology Research University in Wuhan, Hubei, China

The Huazhong University of Science and Technology is a public research university located in Guanshan Subdistrict, Hongshan District, Wuhan, Hubei province, China. As a national key university directly affiliated to the Ministry of Education of China, HUST is a Project 985 and Class A Double First Class University. HUST manages Wuhan National Laboratories for Opto-electronics (WNLO), which is one of the five national laboratories in China. HUST is also one of four Chinese universities eligible to run the national laboratory and the national major science and technology infrastructure. Huazhong University of Science and Technology was one of two Chinese universities awarded with the University Leadership Award by the Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME), and elected as "China's Top Ten Research Institutions" by the academic journal Nature, called "The epitome of the higher education development of People's Republic of China".

Sun Laiyan is a Chinese scientist who served as the Administrator of the China National Space Administration (CNSA) from 2004 to 2010, when he was succeeded by Chen Qiufa.

The Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) is an inter-governmental forum whose aim is to co-ordinate efforts to deal with debris in orbit around the Earth founded in 1993.

The China Aerospace Science & Industry Corporation Limited is a large state-owned hi-tech company which is under the direct administration of the central government, is the main contractor for the Chinese space program. It is state-owned and has a number of subordinate entities which design, develop and manufacture a range of spacecraft, launch vehicles, strategic and tactical missile systems, and ground equipment. In recent years, CASIC makes substantial progress in its commercial aerospace projects, namely Feiyun (F-Cloud), Kuaiyun (K-Cloud), Xingyun (X-Cloud), Hongyun (H-Cloud), Tengyun (T-Cloud) and T-Flight. CASIC has made outstanding contributions to many major national projects such as manned spaceflight and lunar exploration. CASIC has ranked 'Class A' in the operation and performance assessment for leaders of central enterprises by State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission (SASAC) for 10 consecutive years, and been honored “Awards for Enterprises with Outstanding Performance” and “Awards for Enterprises with Technical Innovation”, both for three terms of office. CASIC ranks the 346th among the Fortune 500 in the world, and the 80th among the Top 500 Enterprises in China and the 27th among the Top 500 Manufacturers in China. It also become for the first time one of the Top 500 Brands with the Greatest Value in China with a rank of 46th.

Space policy is the political decision-making process for, and application of, public policy of a state regarding spaceflight and uses of outer space, both for civilian and military purposes. International treaties, such as the 1967 Outer Space Treaty, attempt to maximize the peaceful uses of space and restrict the militarization of space.

The Politics of Henan Province in the People's Republic of China is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.

The Politics of Hunan Province in the People's Republic of China is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.

Zhang Qingwei is a Chinese politician, business executive, and aerospace engineer. He is the Communist Party Secretary of Heilongjiang, former Governor of Hebei, and former chairman of the Commission for Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense (COSTIND). Prior to his government career he was president of China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC) and chairman of Comac, an aerospace manufacturer.

The Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology (SAST) is a Chinese space agency and subordinate of China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC), it is referred to as The Eighth Academy of CASC. The agency was established in August 1961 as Shanghai Second Bureau of Electromechanical Industry, but was later renamed to Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology in 1993.

Belarus Space Agency, officially known as National Agency for Space Research is a governmental body that coordinates all Belarus space research programs with scientific and commercial goals. It was established in 2009. It is closely associated with the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, which was responsible for Belarusian space travel until the foundation of the Belarus Space Agency.

The State Administration for Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense is a civilian ministry within the State Council of the People's Republic of China and is a subordinate agency of the Chinese Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and the superseding agency of the Commission for Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense (COSTIND). It was created by the Plan for Restructuring the State Council passed by the First Session of the Eleventh National People's Congress in 2008.

Xu Dazhe is a Chinese aerospace engineer and politician. He is currently the Governor of Hunan province. Previously, he was the chief administrator of the China National Space Administration, and the head of the State Administration for Science, Technology and Industry for National Defence.

National Aerospace Development Administration North Korea space agency

National Aerospace Development Administration is the official space agency of North Korea, succeeding the Korean Committee of Space Technology. It was founded on April 1, 2013.

Ma Xingrui Chinese aerospace engineer and politician who is the Governor of Guangdong

Ma Xingrui is a Chinese aerospace engineer and politician who is the Governor of Guangdong. Prior to his governorship, he had served as the head of the Political and Legal Affairs Commission of Guangdong, then as the Communist Party Secretary of Shenzhen, and Deputy Party Secretary of Guangdong. Ma is a full member of the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China.

Chen Qiufa is a Chinese aerospace engineer and politician of Miao ethnic heritage. He is the Communist Party Secretary and the Governor of Liaoning province. He formerly served as Director of the China Atomic Energy Authority, Director of the China National Space Administration (CNSA), and Vice-Minister of Industry and Information Technology.

School of Astronautics, HIT

School of Astronautics, HIT is the Engineering school of Harbin Institute of Technology. The school is the first-ever school to initiate college education in astronautics discipline in China.

Zhang Kejian is the Director of the China National Space Administration.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 28 February 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2008.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  2. 1 2 Resume of Administrator
  3. 陈求发任辽宁省代省长 [Chen Qiufa appointed acting governor of Liaoning]. People's Daily (in Chinese). 2015-05-08.
  4. Dr. MA Xingrui was appointed as administrator of China National Space Administration Archived 23 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  5. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 June 2009. Retrieved 14 May 2009.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  6. "The Actual Chinese National Space Administration Logo is Also the Starfleet Logo". 2011-09-30. "China performs space walk, rips off Star Trek". 2008-09-27.