Cathay Pacific

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Cathay Pacific
Cathay Pacific logo.svg
IATA ICAO Callsign
CXCPACATHAY
Founded24 September 1946;72 years ago (1946-09-24)
Hubs Hong Kong International Airport
Frequent-flyer program
  • Asia Miles
  • The Marco Polo Club
Alliance Oneworld
Subsidiaries
Fleet size 153
Destinations 77
Company sloganMove Beyond [1]
Parent company Swire Pacific
Traded as SEHK:  293
Headquarters Cathay City, Hong Kong International Airport, Chek Lap Kok, Hong Kong [2]
Key people
John Robert Slosar(Chairman)
Rupert Hogg(CEO)
Revenue Increase2.svg HK$111.060  billion (2018) [3] :58
Operating income Increase2.svg HK$003.595 billion (2018) [3] :58
Profit Increase2.svg HK$002.345 billion (2018) [3] :58
Total equity Increase2.svg HK$063.936 billion (2018) [3] :59
Employeesmore than 32,400 (2018, incl. subsidiaries) [3] :27
Website cathaypacific.com
Cathay Pacific Airways Limited
Traditional Chinese 國泰航空有限公司
Literal meaningGwok taai Aviation Limited Company
Cathay Pacific Airways
Traditional Chinese 國泰航空
Cantonese Yale Gwoktaai Hòhnghūng
Literal meaningGwok taai Aviation
Brand name in Chinese
Traditional Chinese 國泰
Literal meaningPeace and prosperity

Cathay Pacific Airways Limited (CPA), also known as Cathay Pacific or Cathay, is the flag carrier of Hong Kong, with its head office and main hub located at Hong Kong International Airport. The airline's operations and subsidiaries have scheduled passenger and cargo services to more than 190 [4] [5] destinations in more than 60 countries worldwide including codeshares and joint ventures. Cathay Pacific operates a fleet of wide-body aircraft, consisting of Airbus A330, Airbus A350 and Boeing 777 equipment. [6] Cathay Pacific Cargo operates three models of the Boeing 747. Wholly owned subsidiary airline Cathay Dragon operates to 44 destinations in the Asia-Pacific region from its Hong Kong base. In 2010, Cathay Pacific and Cathay Pacific Cargo, together with Cathay Dragon, carried nearly 27 million passengers and over 1.8 million tons of cargo and mail.

A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given sovereign state, enjoys preferential rights or privileges accorded by the government for international operations.

Hong Kong East Asian city

Hong Kong, officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With over 7.4 million people of various nationalities in a 1,104-square-kilometre (426 sq mi) territory, Hong Kong is the world's fourth-most densely populated region.

Airline hub airport that an airline uses as a transfer point to get passengers to their intended destination

Airline hubs or hub airports are used by one or more airlines to concentrate passenger traffic and flight operations at a given airport. They serve as transfer points to get passengers to their final destination. It is part of the hub-and-spoke system. An airline operates flights from several non-hub (spoke) cities to the hub airport, and passengers traveling between spoke cities need to connect through the hub. This paradigm creates economies of scale that allow an airline to serve city-pairs that could otherwise not be economically served on a non-stop basis. This system contrasts with the point-to-point model, in which there are no hubs and nonstop flights are instead offered between spoke cities. Hub airports also serve origin and destination (O&D) traffic.

Contents

The airline was founded on 24 September 1946 by Australian Sydney H. de Kantzow and American Roy C. Farrell. The airline made the world's first non-stop transpolar flight flying over the North Pole in July 1998 (originating from New York JFK airport), which was also the maiden flight to arrive at the then new Hong Kong International Airport.[ citation needed ] The airline celebrated its 70th anniversary in 2016; and as of March 2018, its major shareholders are Swire Pacific, Qatar Airways and Air China. It is reciprocally one of the major shareholders of Air China.

Sydney Hugh ("Syd") de Kantzow was the Australian co-founder of Cathay Pacific Airways with American Roy Farrell.

Roy Clinton Farrell was the American co-founder of Cathay Pacific Airways along with the Australian Sydney de Kantzow.

A non-stop flight is a flight by an aircraft with no intermediate stops.

Cathay Pacific is the world's tenth largest airline measured in terms of sales, and fourteenth largest measured in terms of market capitalisation. [7] In 2010, Cathay Pacific became the world's largest international cargo airline, along with main hub Hong Kong International Airport as the world's busiest airport in terms of cargo traffic. [8]

It is one of the founding members of the Oneworld alliance. Cathay Pacific's subsidiary Cathay Dragon is an affiliate member of Oneworld.

Oneworld is an airline alliance founded on 1 February 1999. The alliance's stated objective is to be the first choice airline alliance for the world's frequent international travelers. Its central alliance office is in Manhattan, New York, United States. Its member airlines include American Airlines, British Airways, Cathay Pacific, Finnair, Iberia, SriLankan Airlines, Japan Airlines, LATAM Airlines, Malaysia Airlines, Qantas, Qatar Airways, Royal Air Maroc, Royal Jordanian, S7 Airlines, Fiji Airways plus some 30 affiliated airlines. As of October 2017, Oneworld is the third-largest global alliance in terms of passengers with more than 527.9 million passengers carried, behind SkyTeam (730M) and Star Alliance (727.67M).

Airline alliance cooperation agreement between two or more airlines

An airline alliance is an aviation industry arrangement between two or more airlines agreeing to cooperate on a substantial level. Alliances may provide marketing branding to facilitate travelers making inter-airline codeshare connections within countries. This branding may involve unified aircraft liveries of member aircraft.

Cathay Dragon international airline based in Hong Kong

Hong Kong Dragon Airlines Limited, branded as Cathay Dragon and previously as Dragonair, is a Hong Kong-based international regional airline, with its corporate headquarters, Cathay Dragon House, and main hub at Hong Kong International Airport. As of 30 October 2013, the airline operates a scheduled passenger network to 47 destinations in 14 countries and territories across Asia. Additionally, the airline has three codeshares on routes served by partner airlines. It has an all Airbus fleet of 48 aircraft, consisting of A320s, A321s and A330s. Cathay Dragon is a wholly owned subsidiary of Hong Kong's flag carrier, Cathay Pacific, and is an affiliate member of the Oneworld airline alliance. The airline was founded on May 24, 1985, by Chao Kuang Piu, the airline's present honorary chairman. Its maiden flight departed Hong Kong for Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia after being granted an air operator's certificate (AOC) by the Hong Kong Government in July 1985. In 2010, Dragonair, together with its parent, Cathay Pacific, operated over 138,000 flights, carried nearly 27 million passengers and over 1.80 billion kg of cargo and mail.

History

1946–1960: The early years

Douglas DC-3 Betsy, Cathay Pacific's first aircraft, in the Hong Kong Science Museum Cathay Pacific VR-HDB 1.jpg
Douglas DC-3 Betsy, Cathay Pacific's first aircraft, in the Hong Kong Science Museum
Niki, a DC-3 painted to imitate the appearance of the carrier's second aircraft, outside Cathay City CPANikki.jpg
Niki, a DC-3 painted to imitate the appearance of the carrier's second aircraft, outside Cathay City

Cathay Pacific Airways was founded on 24 September 1946 in Hong Kong, with Sydney "Syd" de Kantzow, Roy Farrell, [9] [10] [11] as well as Neil Buchanan, Donald Brittan Evans and Robert "Bob" Stanley Russell were the initial shareholders. [10] Buchanan and Russell already worked for de Kantzow and Farrell in the predecessor of Cathay Pacific, "Roy Farrell Import-Export Company", [12] [11] [13] which was initially headquartered in Shanghai. [9] [10] [14] Both de Kantzow and Farrell were ex-air force pilots who had flown the Hump, a route over the Himalayan mountains. [15] Farrell purchased the airline's first aircraft, a Douglas DC-3, nicknamed Betsy, in Bush Field, New York City in 1945. [12] :29 The company began freight services on 28 January 1946 from Sydney to Shanghai, after Farrell and Russell flew the plane to Australia and obtained a license to carry freight (but not passengers) services earlier that month. [12] :36–37 Its first commercial flight was a shipment of Australian goods. [12] :37 The profitable business soon attracted attention from the Republic of China government officials. [12] :44 After several instances where the company's planes were detained by authorities in Shanghai, [12] :44 on 11 May 1946 the company relocated, flying its two planes to Hong Kong. [16] Farrell and de Kantzow re-registered their business in Hong Kong on 24 September 1946 as "Cathay Pacific Airways Limited", [9] [10] while another sister company "The Roy Farrell Export Import Company (Hong Kong) Limited" was incorporated on 28 August 1946 [10] and chartered some flights of Cathay. [12] :58 According to International Directory of Company Histories, forming two companies are for tax purposes. [15] They named the airline Cathay , the ancient name given to China, and Pacific because Farrell speculated that they would one day fly across the Pacific [12] :56 (which happened in the 1970s). [17] Moreover, to avoid the name "Air Cathay" as it was already occurred in a comic. [12] :55 The Chinese name for the company ("國泰") was not settled on until the 1950s.[ citation needed ] It comes from a Chinese idiom meaning "peace and prosperity" [18] and was at the time often used by other businesses called "Cathay" in English.

The Hump airlift route in World War II

The Hump was the name given by Allied pilots in the Second World War to the eastern end of the Himalayan Mountains over which they flew military transport aircraft from India to China to resupply the Chinese war effort of Chiang Kai-shek and the units of the United States Army Air Forces (AAF) based in China. Creating an airlift presented the AAF a considerable challenge in 1942: it had no units trained or equipped for moving cargo, and no airfields existed in the China Burma India Theater (CBI) for basing the large number of transports that would be needed. Flying over the Himalayas was extremely dangerous and made more difficult by a lack of reliable charts, an absence of radio navigation aids, and a dearth of information about the weather.

Douglas DC-3 Airliner and military transport aircraft family

The Douglas DC-3 is a fixed-wing propeller-driven airliner that revolutionized air transport in the 1930s and 1940s. Its lasting effect on the airline industry and World War II makes it one of the most significant transport aircraft ever produced. It has a cruise speed of 207 mph (333 km/h), capacity of 21 to 32 passengers or 6,000 lbs of cargo and a range of 1,500 mi (2,400 km).

Republic of China (1912–1949) 1912–1949 country in Asia, when the Republic of China governed mainland China

The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign country that existed between 1912 and 1949 in what is now the People's Republic of China. It was established in January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan Shikai was the self-proclaimed Emperor of China before abdicating due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era.

According to legend, the airline's unique name was conceived by Farrell and some foreign correspondents at the bar of the Manila Hotel, [9] [12] :55 while another narrative was the name was taken in the Cathay Hotel in Shanghai Bund, during drinking and brainstorming, and choosing Cathay was to avoid the word China in the airline name. [12] :53 25 September, on Cathay Pacific's maiden voyage, de Kantzow and Peter Hoskins flew from Sydney to Hong Kong via Manila. [12] :53 The airline initially flew routes between Hong Kong, Sydney, Manila, Singapore, Shanghai, Saigon, Bangkok, [12] :58 with additional chartered destinations. [12] :59 The airline grew quickly. By 1947, it had added another 5 DC-3s and 2 Vickers Catalina seaplane to its fleet. [12] :234 [15]

Manila Hotel

The Manila Hotel is a 570-room, historic five-star hotel located along Manila Bay in Manila, Philippines. The hotel is the oldest premiere hotel in the Philippines built in 1909 to rival Malacañang Palace, the official residence of the President of the Philippines and was opened on the commemoration of American Independence on July 4, 1912. The hotel complex was built on a reclaimed area of 35,000 square metres (380,000 sq ft) at the northwestern end of Rizal Park along Bonifacio Drive in Ermita. Its penthouse served as the residence of General Douglas MacArthur during his tenure as the Military Advisor of the Philippine Commonwealth from 1935 to 1941.

Canadian Vickers Limited was an aircraft and shipbuilding company that operated in Canada during the early part of the 20th century until 1944. A subsidiary of the UK parent, it built its own aircraft designs as well as others under licence. Canadair absorbed the Canadian Vickers Ltd. aircraft operations in November 1944.

Consolidated PBY Catalina maritime patrol and transport flying boat

The Consolidated PBY Catalina, also known as the Canso in Canadian service, is an American flying boat, and later an amphibious aircraft of the 1930s and 1940s produced by Consolidated Aircraft. It was one of the most widely used seaplanes of World War II. Catalinas served with every branch of the United States Armed Forces and in the air forces and navies of many other nations.

In 1948, a new legal person of Cathay Pacific Airways was incorporated, [10] [15] with John Swire & Sons (now known as Swire Group), [10] [19] China Navigation Company, Australian National Airways being the new shareholders of the new entity, [10] acquiring the assets from the old legal person; [10] the old legal person, was renamed into Cathay Pacific Holdings, as well as retaining 10% shares of the new Cathay Pacific Airways. [10] de Kantzow, Farrell and Russell were the shareholders of Cathay Pacific Holdings at that time. [10] It was reported that the colonial British government of Hong Kong, required the airline was majority owned by British. Despite de Kantzow being a British subject through his Australian roots, Farrell was an American, thus forcing them to sell their majority stake. [12] :79 [15] Under Swire's management, de Kantzow remained in the airline until 1951, [12] :123 [15] while Farrell had sold his minority stake in Cathay Pacific soon after Swire's takeover in 1948, due to his wife's health problems. [12] :115 [15] He returned to Texas and became a successful businessman. [12] :115

Swire later acquired 52% of Cathay Pacific Airways.[ citation needed ]As of 31 December 2017, the airline is still 45% owned by Swire Group through its subsidiary Swire Pacific Limited, as the largest shareholder. [20] [21] However, Swire Group also formed a shareholders' agreement with the second largest shareholder Air China (which was controlled by state-owned China National Aviation Holding), which Cathay Pacific and Air China had a cross ownership. [21] :41, 104

In the late 1940s, the Hong Kong government divided the local aviation market between Cathay Pacific and its only local competitor, the Jardine Matheson-owned Hong Kong Airways: [12] :117–118 Cathay Pacific was allocated routes to the south (including South-East Asia and Australia), while Hong Kong Airways was allocated routes to the north (including mainland China, Korea and Japan). The situation changed with the establishment of the People's Republic of China and the Korean War, which reduced the viability of the northern routes. In 1959, Cathay Pacific acquired Hong Kong Airways, [15] and became the dominant airline in Hong Kong.

Under Swire, another important sister company, HAECO, was established in 1950. [12] :130 Nowadays, it is one of the major aeroplane repair service company of Hong Kong with division in other city of China.

1960–1990: Expansion

Cathay Pacific Convair 880 as operated from 1964 until 1974 Convair 880-22M VR-HGG Cathay MIA 04.10.75 (2).jpg
Cathay Pacific Convair 880 as operated from 1964 until 1974

The airline prospered in the late 1950s and into the 1960s, helped by buying its archrival, Hong Kong Airways, on 1 July 1959. [12] :118 Between 1962 and 1967, the airline recorded double digit growth on average every year and became one of the world's first airlines to operate international services to Fukuoka, Nagoya and Osaka in Japan. [9] In 1964, it carried its one millionth passenger [22] and acquired its first jet engine aircraft, the Convair 880. [15]

A Lockheed L-1011 TriStar at Osaka International Airport in 1970-1994 livery with the British Union Flag and the logo of parent company Swire Cathay Pacific L-1011 at Osaka Airport.jpg
A Lockheed L-1011 TriStar at Osaka International Airport in 1970-1994 livery with the British Union Flag and the logo of parent company Swire

In the 1970s, Cathay Pacific installed a computerised reservation system and flight simulators. In 1971, Cathay Pacific Airways received the first wide-body aircraft 707-320B produced by Boeing. The new aircraft sported a new lively green colour known as Brunswick green. [23] In 1974, Cathay Pacific almost purchased the McDonnell Douglas DC10 to open a new flight route. During the flight route application process with the British government, due to the pressure from the British government, Cathay Pacific Airways changed the application to apply for a route from Hong Kong to London using a Boeing 747. The application was ultimately rejected. [12] [ page needed ] [24] In 1979, the airline acquired its first Boeing 747 and applied for traffic rights to fly to London in 1980, with the first flight taking place on 16 July. By 1973, Cathay Pacific were carrying one million people every year. [25] Expansion continued into the 1980s. Due to the worldwide economic boom, more business travelers, tourists, and cargo were flying than ever before. Cathay Pacific kept its nonstop service to Vancouver in 1983, with continuing service on to San Francisco in 1986 when an industry-wide boom encouraged route growth to many European and North American centres including London, Brisbane, Frankfurt, Amsterdam, Rome, Paris, Zurich and Manchester. [22] In 1982, Cathay Pacific Airways set up Cathay Pacific Cargo, which provided cargo service to ingratiate the trend of Hong Kong becoming one of the largest re-export trading ports of the world. The airline's long-haul dedicated cargo services started a twice a week with Hong Kong-Frankfurt-London service operated jointly with Lufthansa. [26]

On 15 May 1986, the airline went public and was listed in the Main Board of the Stock Exchange of Hong Kong. [27]

1990–2000: Rebranding, renewal, and Oneworld

In January 1990, Cathay Pacific and its parent company, Swire Pacific, acquired a significant shareholding in Dragonair, and a 75% stake in cargo airline Air Hong Kong in 1994. [28] [29] During the early 1990s, the airline launched a program to upgrade its passenger service. The green and white striped livery was replaced with the current "brushwing" livery. [30] In 1994 the airline invested in a new corporate identity, with a 23 million Hong Kong dollar program to update its image. The fleet was expected to have the new logo within four years. [31]

A Cathay Pacific Boeing 747-400 (VR-HOR) in the green lettuce livery with Union Flag taxing at Paris Charles de Gaulle International Airport (CDG / LFPG) in May 1993. This was prior to the 1997 handover. Boeing 747-467, Cathay Pacific Airways AN0664170.jpg
A Cathay Pacific Boeing 747-400 (VR-HOR) in the green lettuce livery with Union Flag taxing at Paris Charles de Gaulle International Airport (CDG / LFPG) in May 1993. This was prior to the 1997 handover.

The airline began a US$9 billion fleet replacement program during the mid-1990s that gave it one of the youngest fleets in the world. [30] In 1996, CITIC Pacific increased its holdings in Cathay Pacific from 10% to 25%, while the Swire Group holding was reduced to 44% as two other Chinese companies, CNAC(G) and CTS, also bought substantial holdings. [32] According Cathay Pacific's entry in the volume 1 of International Directory of Company Histories, the disinvestment of 12.5% stake of Cathay Pacific by Swire Pacific, to a Chinese state-owned company, was regard "as evidence of China's sincerity in maintaining the prosperity of Hong Kong." [19]

On 1 July 1997, the administration of Hong Kong was transferred from the UK to the People's Republic of China as part of the Hong Kong handover. Most of the airline's aircraft were registered in Hong Kong with a registration beginning with "VR". Under the terms of an agreement within the Sino-British Joint Liaison Group (JLG), all registrations were changed by December 1997 to the prefix "B" used by the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China (Taiwan). [33] Cathay Pacific aircraft formerly carried a painted UK Union Flag on the tail, but these were removed several years before the 1997 takeover. [34] [35]

On 21 May 1998, Cathay Pacific took the first delivery of the Boeing 777-300 at a ceremony in Everett. [36] On 21 September 1998, Cathay Pacific, together with American Airlines, British Airways, Canadian Airlines, and Qantas, co-founded the Oneworld airline alliance. [37] [38] Cathay Pacific temporarily took over the domestic and international operations of Philippine Airlines during its fourteen-day shutdown from 26 September to 7 October 1998. [39] The airline was hurt by the Asian financial crisis of the late 1990s, but recorded a record HK$5 billion profit in 2000. [40]

New Hong Kong International Airport and transpolar flights

On Monday, 6 July 1998, at 00:00 HKT, Kai Tak International Airport saw its last commercial departure, Cathay Pacific Flight 251 (a Boeing 747-400 with reg B-HOW) to London Heathrow Airport, after over 73 years of operation. The next day, Cathay Pacific Flight 889 (a Boeing 747-400 from New York John F. Kennedy International Airport piloted by Captain Paul Horsting with reg B-HUJ), was the first arrival to the new Hong Kong International Airport at Chek Lap Kok, Hong Kong. Also on board were Captain Mike Lowes and First Officer Kelvin Ma. [41] This flight was also the world's first nonstop transpolar flight from New York to Hong Kong. The flight, dubbed Polar One, takes about 16 hours between Hong Kong and New York Kennedy, saving about three to four hours compared to the one stop flight via Vancouver. It is one of the longest in the world at 8,055 mi (12,963 km). [42]

2000–2010: Industrial troubles and acquisitions

Cathay Pacific operated three A340-600 from 2002 to 2009 Cathay.pacific.a340-600.b-hqb.arp.jpg
Cathay Pacific operated three A340-600 from 2002 to 2009

The 2000s saw Cathay Pacific experience labour relations issues, while completing the acquisition of Dragonair.

On 28 November 2002, the airline took delivery of its first Airbus A340-600 aircraft at a ceremony at the Airbus factory in Toulouse. Cathay Pacific was the launch customer in Asia for the A340-600 and the aircraft was the first of three leased from International Lease Finance Corporation (ILFC). [43] On 1 December 2005, Cathay Pacific ordered 16 Boeing 777-300ER aircraft, four on lease from ILFC, to be delivered between September 2007 and July 2010, plus options on 20 more of the type, two of which were converted to orders on 1 June 2006. The airline also ordered 3 more A330-300 on the same day, with the delivery of the aircraft scheduled for 2008. [44] [45] [46] On 7 August 2007, Cathay Pacific ordered five more wide-body Boeing 777-300ER aircraft for a total price of about US$1.4 billion, increasing its commitment to a total of 23 of the aircraft type. [47]

The 49ers – employment dispute

In 2001, the Hong Kong Aircrew Officers Association (HKAOA) launched a "work to rule" campaign to further its campaign for pay improvements and changes to roster scheduling practices. The action involved pilots refusing to work flights that were not scheduled on their roster. Although this alone did not cause extensive disruption, rostered pilots began to call in sick for their flights. Combined with the work to rule campaign, the airline was unable to cover all of its scheduled flights, and cancellations resulted. Cathay Pacific steadfastly refused to negotiate with the HKAOA under threat of industrial action. [48]

Airbus A330-300 at Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport CX333 TPE.JPG
Airbus A330-300 at Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport

On 9 July 2001, reportedly following a comprehensive review of the employment histories of all its pilots, the company fired 49 of its 1,500 pilots. This group became known colloquially as "the 49ers". Nearly half of the fired pilots were captains, representing five percent of the total pilot group. Of the 21 officers of the HKAOA, nine were fired, including four of the seven union negotiators. [49]

Then-HKAOA president Captain Nigel Demery took the view that "the firing was pure intimidation, a union-bust straight up, designed to be random enough to put the fear in all pilots that they might be next, no reason given". [49] The dismissals were challenged in a number of legal proceedings, but none were reinstated. The airline later offered the 49 pilots it terminated in 2001 the chance to reapply for pilot positions with its cargo division, guaranteeing such applicants first interviews, subject to passing psychometric testing. Nineteen former employees applied and twelve were offered jobs.

On 11 November 2009, 18 of the 49ers succeeded in the Hong Kong Court of First Instance concerning their joint claims for breach of contract, breach of the Employment Ordinance, and defamation.

Judge Anselmo Reyes ruled that the airline had contravened the Employment Ordinance by dismissing the pilots without a valid reason, adding that they had been sacked primarily because of union activities. He also held that remarks by then chief operating officer Philip Chen Nanlok and current chief executive Tony Tyler after the sackings were defamatory. The judge handed the pilots a victory in their long-running legal battle, with individual awards of HK$3.3 million for defamation together with a month's pay and HK$150,000 for the sackings.

On 24 December 2010, judges Frank Stock, Susan Kwan and Johnson Lam of the Court of Appeal overturned the judgment of the lower court to the extent that the claim for wrongful termination of contract was dismissed. The finding that Cathay Pacific wrongly sacked the 18 pilots for their union activities was upheld. The court upheld the defamation claim, but reduced the damages for the defamatory comments made by Cathay Pacific management. The judges also modified the judgment awarding payment of legal costs to the pilots and instead said that they should now pay some of Cathay's costs. [50]

The leader of the 49er Plaintiffs, Captain John Warham, launched a book titled The 49ers – The True Story on 25 March 2011. [51]

The pilots were awarded leave on 26 October 2011 to take their case to the Court of Final Appeal. The matter was heard before Hon. Mr. Justices Bokhary, Chan and Ribeiro who are all Permanent Judges of the Court of Final Appeal. The matters to be decided upon by the Court concerned wrongful termination of contract and the level of damages for defamation. The case was heard by the Court of Final Appeal on 27 August 2012.

On 26 September 2012, 11 years after they were sacked, the 49ers were finally judged [52] to have won the 3 prime issues of their legal case: breach of contract, breach of the Employment Ordinance, and defamation. The Court of Final Appeal agreed with the Court of Appeal's methodology for reducing the defamation damages. However, it reinstated one month's salary for each of the 49ers.

Regarding breach of contract, [53] the overall picture leading to dismissal and events immediately after were analysed by the courts, not just the dismissal letter. Regarding the Employment Ordinance, an important aspect was that the judgment defined the scope of "union activities" and its protection for workers in Hong Kong. The Court concluded: "Accordingly, most (possibly all) union-sponsored action is potentially protected by s 21B(1)(b), but if the action is not carried out “at [an] appropriate time”, it is excluded from the provision". There was no challenge by Cathay Pacific to the Court of Appeal's decision to uphold the original Judge's conclusion that the statements made by Cathay Executives were defamatory of the plaintiffs.

John Warham, referring to the effect the fight has had on pilots' families, said: "In terms of human life, three people are dead because of what Cathay Pacific did to us. That's on their conscience, I hope they can live with that." [54]

Acquisition and downsizing of Dragonair

On 28 September 2006, the airline underwent a shareholding realignment under which Dragonair became a wholly owned subsidiary but continued to operate under its own brand. Acquiring Dragonair meant gaining more access to the restricted, yet rapidly growing, Mainland China market and more opportunities for sharing of resources. CNAC, and its subsidiary, Air China, acquired a 17.5 percent stake in Cathay Pacific, and the airline doubled its shareholding in Air China to 17.5 percent. CITIC Pacific reduced its shareholding to 17.5 percent and Swire Group reduced its shareholding to 40 percent. [55] [56] [57]

A Dragonair Airbus A320-200 Dragon Air A320-200.JPG
A Dragonair Airbus A320-200

Dragonair had originally planned significant international expansion. It was already operating services to Bangkok and Tokyo, and was to have a dedicated cargo fleet of nine Boeing 747-400BCF aircraft by 2009 operating to New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, San Francisco and Columbus. [58] It had also acquired three Airbus A330-300 aircraft to commence services to Sydney and Seoul. [59]

Following the acquisition by Cathay Pacific, Dragonair's proposed expansion plans underwent a comprehensive route compatibility analysis with the Cathay network, in an effort to reduce duplication. Dragonair services to Bangkok and Tokyo were terminated, and new services launched to Sendai, Phuket, Manila and Kathmandu. With the merging of similar departments at the two previously separate airlines, some Dragonair staff have had their employment contracts transferred to Cathay Pacific, with the exception of Dragonair Pilots and Cabin Crew and others made redundant due to the efficiencies gained in the merger. This resulted in an approximately 37 percent decrease in the number of staff contractually employed by Dragonair.[ citation needed ]

In January 2016, Cathay Pacific announced it was rebranding Dragonair as Cathay Dragon. [60]

Economic challenges

Cathay Pacific Boeing 777-300ER arrives London Heathrow Airport (2015) Cathay Pacific Boeing 777-300ER (B-KQC) arrives London Heathrow 7Jun2015 arp.jpg
Cathay Pacific Boeing 777-300ER arrives London Heathrow Airport (2015)

To celebrate the airline's 60th anniversary in 2006, a year of road shows named the "Cathay Pacific 60th Anniversary Skyshow" was held where the public could see the developments of the airline, play games, meet some of the airline staff, and view vintage uniforms. Cathay Pacific also introduced anniversary merchandise and in-flight meals served by restaurants in Hong Kong in collaboration with the celebrations. [61]

In June 2008, Cathay Pacific entered into a plea bargain with the United States Department of Justice in respect of antitrust investigations over air cargo price fixing agreements. It was fined US$60 million. The airline has subsequently set up an internal Competition Compliance Office, reporting to chief operating officer John Slosar, to ensure that the Group complies with all relevant competition and antitrust laws in the jurisdiction in which it operates. The breaches for which Cathay Pacific Cargo were being investigated in the US were not illegal under Hong Kong competition law. [62] [63]

In September 2008, three of Cathay Pacific's top ten global accounts, Lehmann Brothers, AIG and Merrill Lynch, hit financial trouble. [64]

Cathay Pacific Boeing 747-400 at Singapore Changi Airport Cathay Pacific, Boeing 747-400, SIN.jpg
Cathay Pacific Boeing 747-400 at Singapore Changi Airport

In March 2009, the airline reported a record full-year loss of HK$8.56 billion for 2008, which was also the carrier's first since the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis. The record loss included fuel-hedging losses of HK$7.6 billion and a HK$468 million charge for a price-fixing fine in the US It had to scrap its final dividend. The hedging losses were a result of locking in fuel prices at higher than prevailing market price. As of the end of 2008, Cathay Pacific has hedged about half of its fuel needs until the end of 2011. The airline at the time estimated that it would face no further cash costs from the hedges if the average market price stood at US$75, enabling it recoup provisions it made in 2008. [65]

The flattening out of fuel prices resulted in Cathay Pacific recording a paper fuel hedging gain for its half-year reports for 2009. However, as a result of the global economic situation, the Group reported an operating loss. Given the current economic climate, and in line with the steps being taken by other major airlines around the world, the airline has undertaken a comprehensive review of all its routes and operations. This has resulted in frequencies being reduced to certain destinations, ad hoc cancellations on other routes, deferred capital expenditure, parked aircraft and introduced a Special Leave Scheme for staff to conserve money. [66] According to CEO Tony Tyler, the yield from passengers was "hugely down" and the airline had lost "a lot of premium traffic". He noted that it could take 20 passengers in economy to make up for the lost revenue of one fewer first class passenger flying to New York from Hong Kong. [67]

Current developments

Cathay Pacific and Cathay Dragon's aircraft at Hong Kong International Airport 201805 Cathay's aircrafts at HKG.jpg
Cathay Pacific and Cathay Dragon's aircraft at Hong Kong International Airport

In 2010, the airline set another record high profit, amounting to HK$14.05 billion despite record losses set in the same decade. At the same time, Cathay Pacific had taken delivery of several new aircraft types, including the Airbus A330-300 and Boeing 777-300 ER. [68] Tony Tyler left his position as CEO at the airline on 31 March 2010 to pursue his new job at the IATA. Chief operating officer John Slosar had succeeded as the new CEO. [69] In addition, New Zealand's Commerce Commission had dropped charges against Cathay Pacific concerning the air cargo price fixing agreements. [70] In 2014, the airline underwent the largest network expansion in recent years which included the addition of links to Manchester, Zurich and Boston.

On 8 October 2016, Cathay Pacific retired their last passenger Boeing 747, a 747-400, with a farewell scenic flight around Hong Kong after over 35 years of service of the type. Cathay operated the 747 since August 1979, when it was inaugurated on services to Australia. [71]

During the first half of 2016, Cathay Pacific's passenger yields fell 10 per cent, to the lowest in seven years as competing airlines from Mainland China increased direct service to the U.S. and Europe, hurting the company's revenue from its Hong Kong hub. [72] In October, Cathay Pacific scrapped its profit forecast for the second half of the year, less than two months after its issuance. [73]

From 15 September 2016, Cathay Pacific decided to reintroduce fuel surcharge on many flights after its half-year net profits dropped over 80% and it suffered HK$4.5 billion loss from wrong bets on fuel prices. [74] As of September 2016, Oil prices were halved from 2014 and stayed below US$50 a barrel. [74]

2018 Data Breach

The airline had a data breach in 2018. [75] Data of around 9.4 million passengers was compromised during the breach, with 860,000 passport numbers, 245,000 Hong Kong identity card numbers, 403 expired credit card numbers and 27 credit card numbers without CVV being accessed. However, no passwords were stolen. The breach was suspected in March 2018, but was confirmed only in May 2018. [76] [77]

2017–2019 Transformation

Under new leadership, the airline started to transform its business after suffering from 2 years of consecutive loss. The strategy focuses on 5Ps - Places, Planes, Product, People and Productivity to find new sources of revenue, deliver more value to its customers and improve efficiency and productivity. [78] [79]

The airline restructured its organization to be more agile and faster in decision making as well as responding to customers' needs. It has also launched 13 new routes since 2017, introduced a wide range of changes to its service, including bringing back hot meals on its most busy route between Hong Kong and Taipei, [80] designed an inflight menu that features famous Hong Kong dishes [81] served in all cabins, and revamped its Business Class service proposition [82] to provide more choice, more personalization, better presentation and improved quality in its food and beverages offerings.

The airline has also invested significantly in other hard product and digital offerings such as an upgraded website, new or refurbished lounges across its network, including the first airline lounge yoga studio [83] at The Pier - Business in Hong Kong. Wifi was introduced in 2017 and will be retrofitted across its fleet by 2020. [84]

In February 2019, the airline issued a profit alert to the Hong Kong Stock Exchange indicating a profit of HK$ 2.3 billion for the 2018 financial year, signalling early signs of success of its transformation. [85]

Acquisition of HK Express

On 27 March 2019, Cathay Pacific officially announced to acquire full stake of HK Express, the only low-cost carrier in Hong Kong, citing to "expect synergis in generating a new business model and is a practical way to support long-term development and to enhance competitiveness". The transaction takes Cathay Pacific HK $4.93 billion total. The transaction is expected to be closed by December 2019 and by that time HK Express will become Cathay Pacific's wholly owned subsidiary. [86] [87]

Corporate affairs and identity

Cathay City, the head office at Hong Kong International Airport CathayCitynew.jpg
Cathay City, the head office at Hong Kong International Airport

Cathay Pacific's head office, Cathay City, is located at Hong Kong International Airport. [2] Cathay City was scheduled to be built in increments between April and September 1998. [88] The headquarters opened in 1998. [89] Previously the airline's headquarters were at the Swire House, which was a complex in Central named after the airline's parent company. [90]

The company has taken a more down-to-earth approach in public relations under its transformation strategy since 2017. Its witty and proactive way of communicating new products and responding to issues has often been highly commended and lauded as 'God-like PR' in its home market. [91]

Subsidiaries and associates

Cathay Pacific has diversified into related industries and sectors, including ground handling, aviation engineering, inflight catering. [92]

Companies with Cathay Pacific Group stake include:

CompanyTypePrincipal activitiesIncorporated inGroup's Equity Shareholding
Air China CorporateAirlineChina20% [93]
Air China Cargo Joint Venture Cargo airline China49%** [93]
AHK Air Hong Kong Limited Subsidiary Cargo airline Hong Kong100% [93]
Airline Property LimitedSubsidiaryProperty InvestmentHong Kong100% [93]
Airline Store Property LimitedSubsidiaryProperty InvestmentHong Kong100% [93]
Asia Training Property LimitedSubsidiaryProperty InvestmentHong Kong100% [93]
Asia Miles LimitedSubsidiaryTravel RewardHong Kong100% [93]
Cathay Holidays LimitedSubsidiaryTour OperatorHong Kong100% [93]
Cathay Pacific Aero LimitedSubsidiaryFinancial ServicesHong Kong100% [93]
Cathay Pacific Aircraft Lease Finance LimitedSubsidiaryAircraft LeasingHong Kong100% [93]
Cathay Pacific Aircraft Services LimitedSubsidiaryAircraft AcquisitionIsle of Man100% [93]
Cathay Pacific Catering Services (HK) LimitedSubsidiaryCatering servicesHong Kong100% [93]
Cathay Pacific MTN Financing LimitedSubsidiaryFinancial servicesCayman Islands100% [93]
Cathay Pacific Services LimitedSubsidiaryCargoHong Kong100% [93]
Cebu Pacific Catering Services Inc.Joint VentureAirline cateringPhilippines40% [93]
Dell Fresh LimitedSubsidiaryCateringHong Kong100% [93]
Ground Support Engineering LimitedJoint VentureAirport ground engineering support and equipment maintenanceHong Kong50% [93]
Global Logisticcs System HK Company Limited-Air Cargo ComputingHong Kong95% [93]
Guangzhou Guo Tai Information Processing Company LimitedSubsidiaryInformation processingChina100% [93]
HAECO ITM Ltd.Joint VentureInventory technical management servicesHong Kong30% [93]
Hong Kong Airport Services LimitedSubsidiary Ground handling Hong Kong100% [93]
Hong Kong Aviation and Airport Services LimitedSubsidiaryPropert InvestmentHong Kong100% [93]
Hong Kong Dragon Airlines Limited SubsidiaryAirlineHong Kong100% [93]
LSG Lufthansa Service Hong Kong Limited-Airline cateringHong Kong32% [93]
Shanghai International Airport Services Co., LimitedJoint VentureGround handlingChina25% [93]
Snowdon LimitedSubsidiaryFinancial servicesHong Kong100% [93]
Troon LimitedSubsidiaryFinancial servicesHong Kong100% [93]
Vogue Laundry Service LimitedSubsidiaryLaundry and Dry CleaningHong Kong100% [93]

**Shareholding held through subsidiary at 25%, another 24% held through an economic interest with total holding at 49%

Livery

A Boeing 777-300ER landing at Hong Kong International Airport with the 1994-2015 livery B-KQZ@HKG (20180903122015).jpg
A Boeing 777-300ER landing at Hong Kong International Airport with the 1994-2015 livery
A Boeing 777-300ER wearing the new Cathay Pacific livery B-KPM2.jpg
A Boeing 777-300ER wearing the new Cathay Pacific livery

All Cathay Pacific aircraft carry the following livery, logos and trademarks: the "brushwing" livery on the body and on the vertical stabiliser, introduced in the early 1990s; the "Asia's world city" brandline, the Brand Hong Kong logotype and the dragon symbol; the Oneworld logo and the Swire Group logo. [30] [94] [95]

The brushwing logo consists of a calligraphic stroke against a green background; the stroke is intended to appear like the wing of a bird. The previous logo, consisting of green and white stripes, was in place from the early 1970s until 1994. [31]

Prior to 1997, all Cathay Pacific aircraft carried the British flag on the empennage. After the handover, aircraft carry the Brand Hong Kong logo and with HONG KONG or in Chinese 香港 under or beside the Brand Hong Kong logo instead of using the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) flag. In fact, the HKSAR flag has never appeared on any aircraft.

In November 2015, the airline revealed a refreshed version of its previous livery, featuring a simpler paint scheme while maintaining their trademark brushwing on an all-green tail. [96] It was first unveiled on a Boeing 777-300ER (B-KPM) in preparation for the delivery of the first Airbus A350 for Cathay Pacific. The second aircraft was a freighter aircraft, Boeing 747-400ERF (B-LIA).

Destinations

Cathay Pacific serves 80 destinations (including cargo), but not including codeshare in 46 countries and territories on five continents, with a well-developed Asian network. The airline serves a number of gateway cities in North America and Europe, with easy connections with its Oneworld and codeshare partners, American Airlines and British Airways via Los Angeles and London, respectively. In addition, the airline serves 10 French cities via a codeshare partnership with French national rail operator, SNCF, from Paris. The airline also has access to over 17 destinations in China through its subsidiary, Cathay Dragon. [97]

Codeshare agreements

Cathay Pacific has codeshare agreements with the following airlines: [98]

The airline also has a codeshare agreement with French high speed trains (SNCF) from TGV station at Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport to ten French cities. [97] [106] as well as codeshare agreement with ferry operators - Cotai Jet, Turbo Jet and CKS to connect passengers from Hong Kong to Macao, Zhuhai, Shenzhen, Shekou and Guangzhou in the Greater Bay Area.

Fleet

Cathay Pacific Airbus A350-1000 Cathay Pacific A350-1000XWB B-LXA.jpg
Cathay Pacific Airbus A350-1000

Cathay Pacific operates an all-wide-body, dual-engine commercial fleet composed of Airbus A330, Airbus A350, and Boeing 777 aircraft and a Boeing 747 cargo fleet. [6] The airline also has more Airbus A350, Boeing 777X and 777-300 aircraft on order.

Loyalty programs

Cathay Pacific has two loyalty programs: The Marco Polo Club (The Club), the loyalty program, and Asia Miles, the travel reward program. Members of The Club are automatically enrolled as Asia Miles members.

Marco Polo Club

The Marco Polo Club is divided into four tiers, Green (entry level), Silver, Gold and Diamond, based on the member's past travel. A joining fee of US$100 is applicable for a Marco Polo Club membership. Members earn Club Points on eligible fare classes with Cathay Pacific, Cathay Dragon and Oneworld member airlines. These are used to calculate the member's eligibility for membership renewal, upgrade or downgrade during the membership year. Higher-tiered members are provided with increased travel benefits such as guaranteed Economy Class seat, additional baggage allowance, priority flight booking and airport lounge access. The Marco Polo Club membership is terminated after 12 months of inactivity or failure to meet minimum travel criteria as outlined in the membership guide and will be downgraded to Asia Miles member. [107] [108]

Green

The Green tier is the entry level to the Marco Polo Club. Benefits include dedicated 24-hour club service line for flight reservations, designated Marco Polo check-in counters, excess baggage allowance and lounge access redemption, and priority boarding. One Business Class lounge voucher will be issued for the member or their travelling companion at reaching 200 Club Points. Members are required to earn 20 Club Points or pay US$100 for membership renewal. [109]

Silver

Silver tier level is achieved or retained when the member earns 300 Club Points during the membership year. Additional benefits for Silver Card members include advanced seat reservations, priority waitlisting, Business Class check-in counters, 10 kg (22 lb) extra baggage allowance, priority baggage handling and Business Class lounge access when flying Cathay Pacific or Cathay Dragon operated flights. Additionally, members are eligible to use the Frequent Visitor e-Channels for seamless self-service immigration clearance at Hong Kong International Airport. At 450 Club Points, members will be issued two Business Class lounge vouchers for their travelling companions. Also, members are entitled to apply for at most three Membership Holidays in their lifetime, retaining their status for one year for each application.

Marco Polo Club Silver tier status is equivalent to Oneworld Ruby tier status, which entitles members to Oneworld Ruby benefits when travelling on a Oneworld member airline. [109] [110]

The Wing, Cathay Pacific's flagship airline lounge at Chek Lap Kok International Airport CX The Wing Long Bar.jpg
The Wing, Cathay Pacific's flagship airline lounge at Chek Lap Kok International Airport
Gold

Gold tier level is achieved or retained when the member earns 600 Club Points during the membership year. Additional benefits for Gold Card members includes a guaranteed Economy Class seat on Cathay Pacific or Cathay Dragon flights booked 72 hours before departure, 15 kg (33 lb) or one piece of extra baggage allowance, Business Class lounge access with one accompanying guest when flying Cathay Pacific, Cathay Dragon and Oneworld operated flights and arrival lounge access when flying Cathay Pacific or Cathay Dragon operated and marketed flights. Two Business Class lounge vouchers will be issued for their travelling companions or members on their Asia Miles Redemption List at reaching 800 Club Points. At reaching 1000 Club Points, four Cabin Upgrade vouchers (for Cathay Pacific or Cathay Dragon operated short haul or medium haul routes) will be issued to members and their travelling companions.

Marco Polo Club Gold tier status is equivalent to Oneworld Sapphire tier status, which entitles members to Oneworld Sapphire benefits when travelling on a Oneworld member airline. [109]

Diamond

The second highest tier in the Marco Polo Club. Diamond tier level is achieved or retained when the member earns 1200 Club Points during the membership year. Additional benefits for Diamond Card members include top priority waitlisting, guaranteed Economy Class or Business Class seat on Cathay Pacific or Cathay Dragon flights booked 24 hours before departure, First Class check-in counters, 20 kg (44 lb) or one piece of extra baggage allowance, First Priority baggage handling, First Class lounge access with two guests when flying Cathay Pacific or Cathay Dragon operated flights, one guest when flying Oneworld operated flights and Business Class lounge access with two guests when flying on any airline. At 1400 Club Points, members will be issued with two First or Business lounge vouchers for their travelling companions or members on their Asia Miles Redemption List. At 1600 Club Points, four Cabin Upgrade vouchers (for any Cathay Pacific or Cathay Dragon operated routes) will be issued to members, travelling companions and members on their Asia Miles Redemption List. At 1800 Club Points, members are able to nominate one member for Marco Polo Gold tier membership.

Marco Polo Club Diamond tier status is equivalent to Oneworld Emerald tier status, which entitles members to Oneworld Emerald benefits when travelling on a Oneworld member airline. [109]

Diamond Plus

The highest tier in the Marco Polo Club. Diamond Plus tier level offered annually to the top one percent of Diamond members worldwide "in recognition of their exceptional and consistent travel performance and their contribution to Cathay Pacific and Cathay Dragon." Diamond Plus and Diamond members are "considered in the same tier in every aspect". However, Diamond Plus get extra perks consisting of "Nomination of one companion to the Diamond tier", and "access to Cathay Pacific First Class lounges regardless which airline they are flying". Marco Polo Club Diamond Plus tier status is equivalent to Oneworld Emerald tier status, which entitles members to Oneworld Emerald benefits when travelling on a Oneworld member airline. [111]

Asia Miles

Asia Miles was named "Best Frequent Flyer Program" at the 2011 Business Traveller Asia-Pacific Travel Awards ceremony. [112] Members can earn Asia Miles with more than 500 partners in 9 categories: Airlines, Hotels, Finance & Insurance, Dining & Banquets, Retail, Travel & Leisure, Cars & Transport, Telecoms and Professional Services. Members can also earn miles when shopping online through iShop which offers a variety of products and brands – from books and electronics to clothing and accessories. Members can use the miles to redeem travel, electronic items, culinary delights, concert tickets and other lifestyle awards. Miles are valid for 3 years from the date of accrual. Asia Miles membership is free and open to individuals aged two or above. [113] [114]

Services

Ground handling

Self-check-in kiosks at Chek Lap Kok Airport Self Check-In Kiosks at the Hong Kong International Airport.jpg
Self-check-in kiosks at Chek Lap Kok Airport

Beginning in 2007, Cathay Pacific launched more methods to check in for flights. Among them were self-check-in using a kiosk at Hong Kong International Airport and other select destinations and checking in via a mobile phone. Cathay Pacific also launched a mobile application on App Store and Google Play, formerly named CX Mobile. Passengers can use the application to check flight arrivals and departures, check in for their flights, and read about the destinations they are flying to using City Guides. The app has become a hit with passengers, making Cathay Pacific one of the industry leaders in offering mobile services to users of smart phones. [115] [116]

Cathay Pacific is also now following a trend among many airlines to improve its brand image to customers and shareholders with social media, and is ranked fourth worldwide. [117] The airline now uses a range of social media tools including Facebook, Flickr, Twitter, Instagram, YouTube and blogging to share ideas with customers. [118] In addition, it has launched a virtual tour to enable passengers to experience Cathay Pacific's new cabins and services without having to step aboard the aircraft. [119]

On 4 January 2011, the cargo division of the airline, Cathay Pacific Cargo, became the first airline operating out of Hong Kong to fully switch to e-air waybill. This eliminates the need for all paper documents when issuing air waybills. The International Air Transport Association (IATA) selected nine countries and territories and airlines in which to run the e-AWB pilot program, including Hong Kong and Cathay Pacific. [120]

Cabin

First class

First Class on board the Boeing 777-300ER CATHAYFIRST777.jpg
First Class on board the Boeing 777-300ER

First Class is available solely on board select Boeing 777-300ER aircraft, and features 6 seats in a 1-1-1 configuration. The first-class seats can be converted into fully lie-flat beds measuring 36 in × 81 in (91 cm × 206 cm). The seats include a massage function, a personal closet, an ottoman for stowage or guest seating, and adjustable 18.5 in (47 cm), HD personal televisions (PTV). [121] [122] [123]

Business class

A business class seat on board the Boeing 777-300ER Cathay Pacific 77W business class seat.JPG
A business class seat on board the Boeing 777-300ER

Cathay Pacific introduced a new Business Class seat in 2011, featuring reverse herringbone seating in a 1-2-1 configuration. Each seat converts into a fully flat bed of length 82 inches (208 cm), with a width of up to 21 inches (53 cm). Each seat features a small enclosed side cabinet, and an adjustable 18.5 in (47 cm( personal television. [124] In 2016, upon delivery of brand new Airbus A350s, Cathay Pacific introduced a refreshed reverse herringbone seat designed by Porsche Design, with HD personal televisions and additional enclosed storage space on the side. [125]

The new Regional Business Class is provided on Cathay Pacific's regionally configured Boeing 777s (excluding the 777-300ER) and selected Airbus A330-300s. Regional Business Class seats have 21 in (53 cm) width and recline to 47 in (120 cm) of pitch and feature electrical recline and leg rest. A 12 in (30 cm) PTV is located in the seat back offers AVOD. [126] [127] [128]

New Premium Economy Seats on the Airbus 350-900 Cathay Pacific A350-900 Premium Economy.jpg
New Premium Economy Seats on the Airbus 350-900

Premium Economy class

Cathay Pacific introduced a Premium Economy Class in March 2012. [129] The seat pitch is 38 inches – six inches more than Economy Class – and the seat itself is wider and have a bigger recline. It has a large meal table, cocktail table, footrest, a 10.6-inch personal television, an in-seat power outlet, a multi-port connector for personal devices, and extra personal stowage space. The Premium Economy Class seat offers a higher level of comfort with more living space in a separate cabin before the Economy Class zone.

In 2016, on delivery of the Airbus A350-900 fleet, Cathay Pacific introduced a new Premium Economy seat, which features a 12.1 in (31 cm) HD PTV, and improved pitch of 40 inches (102 cm). The new seats are configured in a 2-4-2 configuration, with a width of 18.5 in (47 cm). [130]

Economy class

New Economy Class cabin on a Boeing 777-300ER B-KPL Economy Class CX391 (20140206153106).JPG
New Economy Class cabin on a Boeing 777-300ER
Old Economy Class seats with fixed shell design and StudioCX screens Cathay Pacific Economy clamshells.jpg
Old Economy Class seats with fixed shell design and StudioCX screens

Cathay Pacific introduced a new economy class in March 2012. They have a six-inch recline (two inches over the current long-haul economy seat). These seats are 17.5 in (44 cm) in width and have 32 in (81 cm) of pitch. [131] [132]

The old Economy Class seats, offered on aircraft outfitted with the refurbished long-haul interiors, were designed by B/E Aerospace and introduced in July 2008. [133] These seats include a fixed back design (shell) that allows passengers to recline without intruding on those seated behind, a 9 in (23 cm) PTV providing AVOD, AC power located behind a larger tray table, a coat hook and a literature pocket that has been relocated to below the seat cushion to create more leg room. The fixed shell of these seats has been criticised. [134] The previous Economy Class seats each feature 6 in (15 cm) PTVs with a choice of 25 channels. These seats are 17 in (43 cm) in width and have 32 in (81 cm) of pitch. These seats are being replaced with the New Economy Class seats on aircraft receiving the Cathay Pacific's new long-haul interior configuration. [135] Since 2017, all Boeing B777 are retrofitted from 9 abreast to 10 abreast, increasing the economy class seats on board the -300 from 350 to 396 seats & the -300 ER from 182/ 268 seats to 201/296 seats. All new seats feature new 10.1 inch touch screens, USB ports, & improved seat pitch. The seat width is 17.5 inches

In-flight entertainment

Studio CX, Cathay Pacific's in-flight entertainment system, equipped with personal televisions (PTVs) in every seat, offers movies, Asian and Western TV programs, music and games. In addition, the airline provides a range of different newspapers and magazines from around the world, including the airline's in-flight magazine Discovery. Passengers with visual impairment can request for Hong Kong's South China Morning Post in Braille to be available on board. [136]

Studio CX provides Audio/Video on Demand (AVOD) for every passenger and offers up to 100 movies, 350 TV programs, about 1000 CD albums in 25 different genres, 25 radio channels and more than 70 interactive games. [137] [138]

Catering

Cathay Pacific First Class fruit and cheese course CX First Class course.jpg
Cathay Pacific First Class fruit and cheese course
Starter menu of in-flight meal in business class of Cathay Pacific Cathay Pacific Business Class Menu-1.jpg
Starter menu of in-flight meal in business class of Cathay Pacific

Food and beverages are complimentary on all flights, with two hot meals generally served on each flight for long haul flights, along with free alcoholic beverages. [139] Foods served on flights from Hong Kong are provided by Cathay Pacific Catering Services (CPCS) facilities in Hong Kong. [140] CLS Catering Services Limited, a joint venture with LSG Sky Chefs, provides the inflight catering from Toronto and Vancouver airports; [141] [142] while Vietnam Air Caterers, a joint venture between CPCS and Vietnam Airlines, provides the inflight catering for flights from Ho Chi Minh City. [143] For Manila-Hong Kong, they usually serve snacks in a snack bag, called a complimentary snack and drink. It contains a pastry or wrap in a box or a paper bag, an Anzac Cookie, an Antiseptic Towelette and a Nestea Lemon Tea for Taipei flights and a Sunkist Mango Juice or a Bottled Water for Manila flights. For flights to and from Taipei, a simplified lunch with hot rice is served, and the four varieties are served in rotation on flights.

Accidents and incidents

Cathay Pacific had nine incidents and accidents over its history, although none have resulted in a hull loss or loss of life since 1972.

See also

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