Central, Hong Kong

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Central
Hong Kong Island Skyline 2009.jpg
Central as viewed from Tsim Sha Tsui, on the opposite side of Victoria Harbour
Traditional Chinese 中環
Simplified Chinese 中环

Central (also Central District; Chinese :中環) is the central business district of Hong Kong. It is located in Central and Western District, on the north shore of Hong Kong Island, across Victoria Harbour from Tsim Sha Tsui, the southernmost point of Kowloon Peninsula. The area was the heart of Victoria City, although that name is rarely used today.

Traditional Chinese characters Traditional Chinese characters

Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, and in the Kangxi Dictionary. The modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, and have been more or less stable since the 5th century.

Central business district commercial and business centre of a city

A central business district (CBD) is the commercial and business center of a city. In larger cities, it is often synonymous with the city's "financial district". Geographically, it often coincides with the "city centre" or "downtown", but the two concepts are separate: many cities have a central business district located away from its commercial or cultural city centre or downtown, or even several CBDs at once. In London, for example, the "city centre" is usually regarded as encompassing the historic City of London and the mediaeval City of Westminster, whereas the City of London and the transformed Docklands area are regarded as its two CBDs. In New York City, Midtown Manhattan is the largest central business district in the city and in the world; yet Lower Manhattan, commonly called Downtown Manhattan, represents the second largest, and second, distinct CBD in New York City and is geographically situated south of Midtown. In Chicago, the Chicago Loop is the second largest central business district in the United States and is also referred to as the core of the city's downtown. Mexico City also has a historic city centre, the colonial-era Centro Histórico, along with two CBDs: the mid-late 20th century Paseo de la Reforma – Polanco, and the new Santa Fe.

Hong Kong East Asian city

Hong Kong, officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With over 7.4 million people of various nationalities in a 1,104-square-kilometre (426 sq mi) territory, Hong Kong is the world's fourth-most densely populated region.

Contents

As the central business district of Hong Kong, it is the area where many multinational financial services corporations have their headquarters. Consulates general and consulates of many countries are also located in this area, as is Government Hill, the site of the government headquarters. The area, with its proximity to Victoria Harbour, has served as the centre of trade and financial activities from the earliest days of the British colonial era in 1841, and continues to flourish and serve as the place of administration after the transfer of sovereignty to China in 1997.

Financial institution institution that provides financial services for its clients or members

Financial institutions, otherwise known as banking institutions, are corporations that provide services as intermediaries of financial markets. Broadly speaking, there are three major types of financial institutions:

  1. Depository institutions – deposit-taking institutions that accept and manage deposits and make loans, including banks, building societies, credit unions, trust companies, and mortgage loan companies;
  2. Contractual institutions – insurance companies and pension funds
  3. Investment institutions – investment banks, underwriters, brokerage firms.
Government Hill hill

The Government Hill is a hill in Central, Hong Kong, bounded by upper section of Upper Albert Road on the south, Queen's Road Central north, Garden Road east, and Glenealy, west of Hong Kong Island.

Naming

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View of Central and Victoria Harbour from Victoria Peak. Tsim Sha Tsui is visible across the harbour.
Central Western View 201007.jpg
Admiralty, Central and the Central and Wan Chai Reclamation, view from the east in 2010.
City Hall and General Post Office.jpg
The General Post Office, the City Hall, and the surrounding business buildings in Central, viewed from the west.

The area of Chung Wan [1] (中環), named Central in English, was one of the districts (四環九約) in Victoria City. The English name Central became prevalent after the Island Line of the MTR metro system was built in the early 1980s, and the connected stations of Pedder and Chater renamed as Central . On some older maps, it and the area to its west are named Kwan Tai Lo (羣帶路) below Victoria Peak. It formed a channel, Chung Mun (中門), with Tsim Sha Tsui, on the sea route along the coast of southern China. The eastern part of Central District has been known as Admiralty since the completion of Admiralty Station in the early 1980s.[ citation needed ]

MTR rapid transit railway system in Hong Kong

The Mass Transit Railway is a major public transport network serving Hong Kong. Operated by the MTR Corporation Limited (MTRCL), it consists of heavy rail, light rail, and feeder bus service centred on an 11-line rapid transit network serving the urbanised areas of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, and the New Territories. The system currently includes 218.2 km (135.6 mi) of rail with 159 stations, including 91 heavy rail stations and 68 light rail stops. The MTR is one of the most profitable metro systems in the world; it had a farebox recovery ratio of 187 per cent in 2015, the world's highest. The MTR was ranked the #1 metro system in the world by CNN in 2017.

Metro station railway station of a rapid transit system

A metro station or subway station is a railway station for a rapid transit system, which as a whole is usually called a "metro" or "subway". A station provides a means for passengers to purchase tickets, board trains, and evacuate the system in the case of an emergency.

Victoria Peak mountain in Hong Kong

Victoria Peak is a hill on the western half of Hong Kong Island. It is also known as Mount Austin, and locally as The Peak. With an elevation of 552 m (1,811 ft), it is the highest hill on Hong Kong island, ranked 31 in terms of elevation in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

Location

Central is located on the north shore of Hong Kong Island, across Victoria Harbour from Tsim Sha Tsui, the southernmost point of Kowloon Peninsula. It is bordered in the west by Sheung Wan, with the border being along Aberdeen Street (also called Wing Kut Street). It is bordered in the east by Admiralty, an eastern extension of the central business district. As such, Admiralty is sometimes considered a part of Central. Central is bordered in the south by Mid-levels, an area halfway up Victoria Peak. The boundary between Central and Mid-levels is not clearly defined.

Hong Kong Island second largest island in Hong Kong

Hong Kong Island is an island in the southern part of Hong Kong. It has a population of 1,289,500 and its population density is 16,390/km², as of 2008. The island had a population of about 3,000 inhabitants scattered in a dozen fishing villages when it was occupied by the United Kingdom in the First Opium War. In 1842, the island was formally ceded in perpetuity to the UK under the Treaty of Nanking and the City of Victoria was then established on the island by the British Force in honour of Queen Victoria.

Victoria Harbour harbour between Kowloon and Hong Kong Island in Hong Kong

Victoria Harbour is a natural landform harbour separating Hong Kong Island in the south from the Kowloon Peninsula to the north. The harbour's deep, sheltered waters and strategic location on the South China Sea were instrumental in Hong Kong's establishment as a British colony and its subsequent development as a trading centre.

Tsim Sha Tsui Urban area in Kowloon, Hong Kong

Tsim Sha Tsui, often abbreviated as TST, is an urban area in southern Kowloon, Hong Kong. The area is administratively part of the Yau Tsim Mong District. Tsim Sha Tsui East is a piece of land reclaimed from the Hung Hom Bay now east of Tsim Sha Tsui. The area is bounded north by Austin Road and in the east by Hong Chong Road and Cheong Wan Road.

For district council elections purposes, the area, together with Admiralty, correspond roughly to the "Chung Wan" constituency. [2] The boundaries of such constituencies may be subject to modification. [3]

Central and Western District Council

The Central and Western District Council is the district council for the Central and Western District in Hong Kong. Central and Western District currently consists of 15 members, of which the district is divided into 15 constituencies, electing a total of 15 members. The latest election was held on 22 November 2015.

History

Central waterfront in the 1920s. Hong Kongfromtheharbour c1920.JPG
Central waterfront in the 1920s.
The Court of Final Appeal Building, completed in 1912, once used as the building of Legislative Council of Hong Kong from 1985 to 2011. Hong Kong Legislative Council Building.jpg
The Court of Final Appeal Building, completed in 1912, once used as the building of Legislative Council of Hong Kong from 1985 to 2011.

The British landed on Possession Point of Sheung Wan in 1841. They soon decided to build a city on the north coast of Hong Kong Island, and the present-day Central was chosen to house major military facilities and an administrative centre. The area soon attracted both Westerners and Chinese to trade and live in the area, and a Canton Bazaar (precursor of Central Market) was built between Cochrane Street and Graham Street in 1842. The area was soon zoned for Westerners only, and the Chinese residents were restricted to Sheung Wan. [It was zoned for "Western-style buildings," meaning buildings with minimum space and hygiene standards]. The area was largely dominated by the presence of Victoria City. The popularity of this area would also boost the population of Hong Kong from 5,000 in 1841 to 24,000 in 1848. [4] Government House and other Hong Kong Government buildings were completed during this period on Government Hill. Various barracks, naval base and residence of Commander, Flagstaff House were built on the east end of the district. Between 1860 and 1880 the construction of City Hall, Theatre Royal and other financial structures made Central the heart of Hong Kong.

Possession Point

Possession Point is a former point of land on the northwestern coast of Hong Kong Island in Hong Kong, before land reclamation moved the coast further north.

Sheung Wan area in Hong Kong

Sheung Wan is an area in Hong Kong, located in the north-west of Hong Kong Island, between Central and Sai Ying Pun. Administratively, it is part of the Central and Western District. The name can be variously interpreted as Upper District, or Gateway District.

Central Market, Hong Kong

Central Market was a fresh food market in Central, Hong Kong. Located between Jubilee Street, Queen Victoria Street, Queen's Road Central and Des Voeux Road Central, it was the first wet market in Hong Kong. By its side is the first public female toilet and first above-ground toilets in Hong Kong. It is one of two existing Bauhaus market buildings.

In 1904 the Praya Reclamation Scheme added 59 acres (24 ha) of land to Central's waterfront. Many of the proposals came from Sir Paul Chater and James Johnstone Keswick, the founders of Hongkong Land. [5] During the 1920s, Hong Kong was able to push far ahead economically, because of the cohesive collaboration between Central and all waterfront commerce.

The military structures survived until the 1980s. Only Flagstaff House remains as Museum of Tea Ware in Hong Kong Park. City Hall sat on the present premises of the HSBC Hong Kong headquarters. Hong Kong's first road, Queen's Road, passes through the area and the business centre continued to expand toward the shoreline as far as the reclaimed lands.

Economy

There are many Grade-A commercial buildings in Central [6] , a prime commercial district in Hong Kong.

Bank of China (Hong Kong) has its head office in the Bank of China Tower. [7] The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, a subsidiary of HSBC, has its head office in the HSBC Main Building. [8] Bank of East Asia and Hang Seng Bank have their head offices in Central. [9] [10]

Before 1999, Cathay Pacific had its head office in the Swire House in Central. [11] In 1999 the airline relocated its head office to Hong Kong International Airport. [12]

Nord Anglia Education, which operates international schools in various countries, has its head office in Central. [13]

Notable places, streets and buildings

Office buildings

Night view of Statue Square. From left to right:Bank of China Tower, HSBC Main Building, Standard Chartered Bank Building and Prince's Building Hong Kong Central District Night View 201305.jpg
Night view of Statue Square. From left to right:Bank of China Tower, HSBC Main Building, Standard Chartered Bank Building and Prince's Building
Bank of China Tower. Bank-of-china clean-img-sma.jpg
Bank of China Tower.
Two International Finance Centre. IFC, Hong Kong Island (2796343561).jpg
Two International Finance Centre.

Streets and squares

Pedder Street Pedder Street 2015.jpg
Pedder Street
Intersection of the lower end of D'Aguilar Street with Queen's Road in 2016 D'aguilar Street 2016.jpg
Intersection of the lower end of D'Aguilar Street with Queen's Road in 2016

Government buildings

Central Government Complex, Tamar under construction in March 2011. New Govn Headquarters Site 201103.jpg
Central Government Complex, Tamar under construction in March 2011.
Former French Mission Building Court of Final Appeal (HK).jpg
Former French Mission Building
The Cenotaph Hong Kong Cenotaph.jpg
The Cenotaph
St. John's Cathedral St. John's Cathedral, HK bell tower.JPG
St. John's Cathedral
Chater Garden HK Chater Garden.jpg
Chater Garden

Other historical buildings

Hotels

Central, together with Tsim Sha Tsui and Tsim Sha Tsui East, is home to many hotels.

Entertainment areas

Places of worship

Parks

Schools

Former buildings

Edinburgh Place Ferry Pier was demolished in 2007. Clock Tower, Star Ferry Pier in Central.jpg
Edinburgh Place Ferry Pier was demolished in 2007.

Transport

Tram in Central. 20091005 Hong Kong 7204.jpg
Tram in Central.
View of the Central Piers. Central Piers Overview 2010.jpg
View of the Central Piers.
Central-Mid-levels escalators at Cochrane Street. HK Central Cochrane Street Central-Mid-Levels escalators Upsidedown.JPG
Central–Mid-levels escalators at Cochrane Street.
The night view of Connaught Road Central Connaught Road C - Central (7318769180).jpg
The night view of Connaught Road Central

Public transport

The area is a major transport hub for Hong Kong (see also Transport in Hong Kong).

Expressways and routes

Related Research Articles

Tsuen Wan line MTR metro line

The Tsuen Wan line is one of the eleven lines of the metro network in Hong Kong's MTR. It is indicated in red on the MTR map.

Star Ferry Hong Kong ferryboat service

The Star Ferry is a passenger ferry service operator and tourist attraction in Hong Kong. Its principal routes carry passengers across Victoria Harbour, between Hong Kong Island, and Kowloon. The service is operated by the Star Ferry Company, which was founded in 1888 as the Kowloon Ferry Company, and adopted its present name in 1898.

Central station (MTR) MTR interchange station on Hong Kong Island

Central is an MTR station located in the Central area of Hong Kong Island. The station's livery is firebrick red but brown on the Tsuen Wan Line platforms. The station is the southern terminus of the Tsuen Wan Line, a stop on the Island Line, and connects to Hong Kong Station, which serves the Tung Chung Line and the Airport Express.

Nathan Road major road in Kowloon, Hong Kong

Nathan Road is the main thoroughfare in Kowloon, Hong Kong that goes in a south–north direction from Tsim Sha Tsui to Sham Shui Po. It is lined with shops and restaurants and throngs with tourists, and was known in the post–World War II years as the Golden Mile, a name that is now rarely used. It starts on the southern part of Kowloon at its junction with Salisbury Road, a few metres north of Victoria Harbour, and ends at its intersection with Boundary Street in the north. Portions of the Kwun Tong and Tsuen Wan Lines run underneath Nathan Road. The total length of Nathan Road is about 3.6 kilometres (2.2 mi).

This article is a list of transport means that cross Victoria Harbour in Hong Kong.

Wan Chai Pier pier in Hong Kong

The Wan Chai Pier, or Wan Chai Ferry Pier, is a pier at the coast of Wan Chai North on the Hong Kong Island of Hong Kong. The pier is operated by Star Ferry, and provides ferry services to Tsim Sha Tsui. The pier is near the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre.

Austin station (MTR) MTR station in Kowloon, Hong Kong

Austin is an underground MTR rapid transit station on the West Rail Line in Hong Kong, situated perpendicular to Wui Cheung Road and Austin Road West, and formerly adjacent to Jordan Road Ferry Pier Bus Terminus. It is the only intermediate station along the Kowloon Southern Link project, built to connect the West Rail Line and East Rail Line. Construction was finished in July 2009 and the station opened on 16 August 2009.

Sau Mau Ping human settlement

Sau Mau Ping is an area part of Kwun Tong District, in eastern Kowloon, Hong Kong.

The Gateway, Hong Kong building in Hong Kong, China

The Gateway, part of Harbour City, is the office buildings with shopping arcade at lower level in Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Star Ferry Pier, Tsim Sha Tsui pier

Star Ferry Pier, Tsim Sha Tsui, or Tsim Sha Tsui Ferry Pier, is a pier located on reclaimed land at the southernmost tip of Tsim Sha Tsui on Kowloon Peninsula in Hong Kong. It is commonly known as Star Ferry Pier (天星碼頭) in Tsim Sha Tsui. Star Ferry operates the pedestrian ferry service across Victoria Harbour to Wan Chai and to Central on Hong Kong Island. The location is identified as "Kowloon Point" in the franchise held by Star Ferry.

Star Ferry Pier, Central

Star Ferry Pier, Central may refer to any of the successive generations of pier in Central, Hong Kong used by the Star Ferry for its services across Victoria Harbour to Tsim Sha Tsui Ferry Pier and until April 2011, to Hung Hom Pier. The current Star Ferry pier is the fourth to bear the name in Central. It opened for public service on 12 November 2006.

Central Elevated Walkway

The Central Elevated Walkway is an extensive footbridge network spanning Admiralty, Central and parts of Sheung Wan, near Victoria Harbour in Hong Kong.

Jordan Road Ferry Pier

Jordan Road Ferry Pier or Ferry Point (1924–1998) is a demolished pier originally located at Jordan Road, Jordan, Hong Kong.

Articles related to Hong Kong include:

Sham Shui Po Ferry Pier

Sham Shui Po Ferry Pier was a ferry pier in Sham Shui Po, Kowloon, Hong Kong that operated from 1924 to 1992. It was one of the important ferry piers in West Kowloon and had a bus terminus nearby.

Tsim Sha Tsui East Ferry Pier

Tsim Sha Tsui East Ferry Pier was a ferry pier in Salisbury Road, Tsim Sha Tsui East, Kowloon. The pier was firstly located outside Kowloon Shangri-La Hotel but moved to outside Grand Stanford InterContinental Hong Kong after 2000. It was closed and demolished in 2008.

References

  1. Map of circa 1880
  2. District Council electoral boundaries – Central and Western District
  3. Press release: "Public consultation on proposed constituency boundaries for 2011 District Council Election", December 3, 2010
  4. Sanderson, Edgar (1897–1898). The British Empire in the nineteenth century: its progress and expansion at home and abroad. IV. London: Blackie and Son. p. 337. LCCN   02002538. OCLC   11625716.
  5. Wordie, Jason. [2002] (2002) Streets: Exploring Hong Kong Island. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. ISBN   962-209-563-1
  6. Office For Rent at Central Treasure Land. Retrieved 3 Oct 2018
  7. "Contact Us Archived 20 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine ." Bank of China. Retrieved on 11 September 2011. "Registered Office BOC Hong Kong (Holdings) Limited 52/F Bank of China Tower 1 Garden Road Hong Kong"
  8. "Contact Us." HSBC. Retrieved on 12 September 2011. "The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation LtdThe Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation – Hong Kong Address:GPO Box 64, Hong Kong, 1 Queen's Road Central, Hong Kong SAR, China"
  9. "Investor Enquiries." Bank of East Asia. Retrieved on 11 September 2011. "Registered Office : 10 Des Voeux Road Central, Central, Hong Kong"
  10. "Business Banking Centres." Hang Seng Bank. Retrieved on 11 September 2011. "Level 1 & 6, Hang Seng Headquarters, 83 Des Voeux Road, Central" (Map)
  11. "World Airline Directory" (PDF). Flight International. 30 March 1985. p. 68. Retrieved 17 June 2009. "Head Office: Swire House, 9 Connaught Road, C, Hong Kong"
  12. "Cathay Pacific wins award for providing a smoke-free workplace at its Hong Kong Headquarters" (Press release). Cathay Pacific. 6 January 2005. Retrieved 2 July 2009.
  13. "Contact Us." Nord Anglia Education. Retrieved on 5 March 2016. "Central Office Address: Nord Anglia Education St George's Building Level 12 2 Ice House Street Central Hong Kong"
  14. Yanne, Andrew; Heller, Gillis (2009). Signs of a Colonial Era. Hong Kong University Press. p. 8. ISBN   978-962-209-944-9.
  15. Lim, Patricia. [2002] (2002). Discovering Hong Hong's Cultural Heritage. Central, Hong Kong: Oxford University Press. ISBN Volume One 0-19-592723-0

Coordinates: 22°16′55″N114°09′29″E / 22.28194°N 114.15806°E / 22.28194; 114.15806

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