Kowloon Peninsula

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Kowloon Peninsula
HK Kowloon View 2006.jpg
An aerial view of Kowloon Peninsula from Hong Kong Island
Traditional Chinese 九龍半島
Simplified Chinese 九龙半岛
Military encampments on Kowloon Peninsula in 1860, looking south toward Hong Kong Island. Kowloon, Hong Kong; military encampments (pic 4 of 6) Wellcome L0067732.jpg
Military encampments on Kowloon Peninsula in 1860, looking south toward Hong Kong Island.

The Kowloon Peninsula is a peninsula that forms the southern part of the main landmass in the territory of Hong Kong. The Kowloon Peninsula and the area of New Kowloon are collectively known as Kowloon.

Peninsula A piece of land that is bordered by water on three sides but connected to mainland.

A peninsula is a landform surrounded by water on the majority of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends. The surrounding water is usually understood to be continuous, though not necessarily named as a single body of water. Peninsulas are not always named as such; one can also be a headland, cape, island promontory, bill, point, fork, or spit. A point is generally considered a tapering piece of land projecting into a body of water that is less prominent than a cape. A river which courses through a very tight meander is also sometimes said to form a "peninsula" within the loop of water. In English, the plural versions of peninsula are peninsulas and, less commonly, peninsulae.

New Kowloon human settlement

New Kowloon is an area in Kowloon, Hong Kong, bounded in the south by Boundary Street, and in the north by the ranges of the Lion Rock, Beacon Hill, Tate's Cairn and Kowloon Peak. It covers the present-day Kwun Tong District and Wong Tai Sin District, and part of the Sham Shui Po District and Kowloon City District.

Kowloon Place in Kowloon

Kowloon is an urban area in Hong Kong comprising the Kowloon Peninsula and New Kowloon. It is bordered by the Lei Yue Mun strait to the east, Mei Foo Sun Chuen and Stonecutter's Island to the west, a mountain range, including Tate's Cairn and Lion Rock to the north, and Victoria Harbour to the south. With a population of 2,019,533 and a population density of 43,033/km2 in 2006, it is the most populous urban area in Hong Kong. The peninsula's area is approximately 47 km2 (18 sq mi).

Contents

Geographically, the term "Kowloon Peninsula" may also refer to the area south of the mountain ranges of Beacon Hill, Lion Rock, Tate's Cairn, Kowloon Peak, etc. The peninsula covers five of the eighteen districts of Hong Kong. Kowloon Bay is located at the northeast of the peninsula.

Beacon Hill, Hong Kong peak in Hong Kong

Beacon Hill is a large hill in the northern part of the Kowloon peninsula in Hong Kong. It is the 65th-highest hill of Hong Kong and is 457m tall.

Lion Rock hill in Hong Kong

Lion Rock, or less formally Lion Rock Hill, is a mountain in Hong Kong. It is located between Kowloon Tong of Kowloon and Tai Wai of the New Territories, and is 495 metres high. The peak consists of granite covered sparsely by shrubs.

Tates Cairn mountain in Peoples Republic of China

Tate's Cairn is a mountain peak in Hong Kong, 583 metres (1,913 ft) in height. It is one of the peaks of the Kowloon Ridge and falls within Ma On Shan Country Park. The peak began to appear on colonial maps in the 1860s but remained unnamed until the beginning of the 20th Century.

Geology and reclamation

The main rock type of the peninsula consists of a medium grained monzogranite with some fine granite outcrops, part of the Kowloon Granite. [1] [2] Early maps and photographs show flat, low-lying land behind the beach of Tsim Sha Tsui Bay with a raised area, Kowloon Hill, in the west. [3]

Monzogranite

Monzogranites are biotite granite rocks that are considered to be the final fractionation product of magma. Monzogranites are characteristically felsic (SiO2 > 73%, and FeO + MgO + TiO2 < 2.4), weakly peraluminous (Al2O3/ (CaO + Na2O + K2O) = 0.98–1.11), and contain ilmenite, sphene, apatite and zircon as accessory minerals. Although the compositional range of the monzogranites is small, it defines a differentiation trend that is essentially controlled by biotite and plagioclase fractionation. (Fagiono, 2002). Monzogranites can be divided into two groups (magnesio-potassic monzogranite and ferro-potassic monzogranite) and are further categorized into rock types based on their macroscopic characteristics, melt characteristics, specific features, available isotopic data, and the locality in which they are found.

The peninsula has been significantly expanded through land reclamation from the sea, over several phases. In the south and west most of the reclamation was carried out before 1904. Reclamation in several other small areas along the main Tsim Sha Tsui waterfront was completed by 1982. The West Kowloon Reclamation was formed as part of the Airport Core Programme and largely completed by 1995. [3]

Land reclamation in Hong Kong

The reclamation of land from the ocean has long been used in mountainous Hong Kong to expand the limited supply of usable land with a total of around 60 square kilometres of land created by 1996. The first reclamations can be traced back to the early Western Han Dynasty, when beaches were turned into fields for salt production. Major land reclamation projects have been conducted since the mid-19th century.

Tsim Sha Tsui Urban area in Kowloon, Hong Kong

Tsim Sha Tsui, often abbreviated as TST, is an urban area in southern Kowloon, Hong Kong. The area is administratively part of the Yau Tsim Mong District. Tsim Sha Tsui East is a piece of land reclaimed from the Hung Hom Bay now east of Tsim Sha Tsui. The area is bounded north by Austin Road and in the east by Hong Chong Road and Cheong Wan Road.

West Kowloon

West Kowloon is a part of Kowloon, Hong Kong situated within the Yau Tsim Mong District. It is bounded by Canton Road to the east, Victoria Harbour to the west and the south, and Jordan Road to the north. Further to the north, the area extends to Tai Kok Tsui to the west of the West Kowloon Expressway. Nam Cheong, Olympic, Austin and Kowloon stations are within the area.

History

Before the actual Kowloon boundaries were established, the Kowloon Peninsula served as one of the first destinations for escape during China's dynastic times. In 1287, the last emperor of the Song dynasty, Emperor Bing was fleeing from the Mongol leader Kublai Khan. Taking refuge in a cave in the Kowloon peninsula, the inscription wrote "Sung Wong Toi" or "Song Emperor's Pavilion". [4] In the 17th century, after the fall of the Ming dynasty, many of the Emperor's followers also found shelter in the Kowloon peninsula to hide from the Manchus. [4]

Song dynasty Chinese historical period

The Song dynasty was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song following his usurpation of the throne of the Later Zhou, ending the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. The Song often came into conflict with the contemporaneous Liao, Western Xia and Jin dynasties to its north. It was eventually conquered by the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Song government was the first in world history to issue banknotes or true paper money nationally and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy. This dynasty also saw the first known use of gunpowder, as well as the first discernment of true north using a compass.

Kublai Khan founding emperor of the Yuan Dynasty, grandson of Genghis Khan

Kublai was the fifth Khagan of the Mongol Empire, reigning from 1260 to 1294. He also founded the Yuan dynasty in China as a conquest dynasty in 1271, and ruled as the first Yuan emperor until his death in 1294.

Ming dynasty Former empire in Eastern Asia, last Han Chinese-led imperial regime

The Ming dynasty, officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynasty of China ruled by ethnic Han Chinese. Although the primary capital of Beijing fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng, numerous rump regimes loyal to the Ming throne – collectively called the Southern Ming – survived until 1662.

Historically speaking, Kowloon Peninsula refers to the ceded territories of Kowloon in 1860 as part of the Convention of Peking, but geographically it covers the entire Kowloon south of the mountain ranges of Lion Rock, Kowloon Peak and other hills. Kowloon Peninsula had a population of 800 when it was ceded to the British empire in 1860. [5]

Convention of Peking Three treaties signed by Qing dynasty of China in 1860, after the end of Second Opium War (1856–1860), respectively with United Kingdom (ceding Kowloon Peninsula), Russian Empire (ceding Outer Manchuria), and Second French Empire. Three of the second series of unequal treaties in modern Chinese history.

The Convention or First Convention of Peking, sometimes now known as the Convention of Beijing, is an agreement comprising three distinct treaties concluded between the Qing dynasty of China and the United Kingdom, French Empire, and Russian Empire in 1860. In China, they are regarded as among the unequal treaties. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of China keeps the original copy of the Convention in the National Palace Museum in Taiwan.

Kowloon Peak mountain in Peoples Republic of China

Kowloon Peak or Fei Ngor Shan or Fei Ngo Shan is a 602 m (1,975 ft) tall mountain in the northeast corner of New Kowloon, Hong Kong, situated in Ma On Shan Country Park. It is crossed by both the Wilson Trail and the MacLehose Trail. On the lower slopes is Gilwell Campsite, belonging to The Scout Association. The highest point of New Kowloon is immediately to the west of peak.

In 1898 a resolution was passed by the Colonial Hong Kong Legislative Council to preserve the land where some of the caves stand. [6]

An Air France Boeing 747 passing above Kowloon, landing at the old airport. Boeing 747-428, Air France AN0278440.jpg
An Air France Boeing 747 passing above Kowloon, landing at the old airport.
Hong Kong's old airport, Kai Tak, was located in Kowloon. Hong Kong Kai Tak Airport 1971.jpg
Hong Kong's old airport, Kai Tak, was located in Kowloon.

City landscape

Kowloon Panorama.JPG
West Kowloon taken from Hong Kong Island.

See also

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References

  1. "CEDD – Kowloon Granite – Klk". Government of Hong Kong. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  2. Geological Map, Sheet 11, Hong Kong and Kowloon (1:20,000), Hong Kong Geological Survey
  3. 1 2 – Environmental Impact Assessment – Land Contamination Assessment, 10.2.1 Geology Information
  4. 1 2 Warres, Smith D. [1990] (1990). European Settlements in the Far East: China, Japan, Indo-China, Straits Settlements, Malaysia. Stanford University Press. No ISBN Digitized
  5. Mayers, William Frederick; King, Charles (1867). The treaty ports of China and Japan: A complete guide to the open ports of those countries, together with Peking, Yedo, Hongkong and Macao. Forming a guide book & vade mecum for travellers, merchants, and residents in general. Trübner and Co. p. 17.
  6. 15TH AUGUST, 1898

Coordinates: 22°19′01″N114°10′59″E / 22.317°N 114.183°E / 22.317; 114.183