An aerial view of Kowloon Peninsula from Hong Kong Island
The Kowloon Peninsula is a peninsula that forms the southern part of the main landmass in the territory of Hong Kong. The Kowloon Peninsula and the area of New Kowloon are collectively known as Kowloon.
A peninsula is a landform surrounded by water on the majority of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends. The surrounding water is usually understood to be continuous, though not necessarily named as a single body of water. Peninsulas are not always named as such; one can also be a headland, cape, island promontory, bill, point, fork, or spit. A point is generally considered a tapering piece of land projecting into a body of water that is less prominent than a cape. A river which courses through a very tight meander is also sometimes said to form a "peninsula" within the loop of water. In English, the plural versions of peninsula are peninsulas and, less commonly, peninsulae.
New Kowloon is an area in Kowloon, Hong Kong, bounded in the south by Boundary Street, and in the north by the ranges of the Lion Rock, Beacon Hill, Tate's Cairn and Kowloon Peak. It covers the present-day Kwun Tong District and Wong Tai Sin District, and part of the Sham Shui Po District and Kowloon City District.
Kowloon is an urban area in Hong Kong comprising the Kowloon Peninsula and New Kowloon. It is bordered by the Lei Yue Mun strait to the east, Mei Foo Sun Chuen and Stonecutter's Island to the west, a mountain range, including Tate's Cairn and Lion Rock to the north, and Victoria Harbour to the south. With a population of 2,019,533 and a population density of 43,033/km2 in 2006, it is the most populous urban area in Hong Kong. The peninsula's area is approximately 47 km2 (18 sq mi).
Geographically, the term "Kowloon Peninsula" may also refer to the area south of the mountain ranges of Beacon Hill, Lion Rock, Tate's Cairn, Kowloon Peak, etc. The peninsula covers five of the eighteen districts of Hong Kong. Kowloon Bay is located at the northeast of the peninsula.
Beacon Hill is a large hill in the northern part of the Kowloon peninsula in Hong Kong. It is the 65th-highest hill of Hong Kong and is 457m tall.
Lion Rock, or less formally Lion Rock Hill, is a mountain in Hong Kong. It is located between Kowloon Tong of Kowloon and Tai Wai of the New Territories, and is 495 metres high. The peak consists of granite covered sparsely by shrubs.
Tate's Cairn is a mountain peak in Hong Kong, 583 metres (1,913 ft) in height. It is one of the peaks of the Kowloon Ridge and falls within Ma On Shan Country Park. The peak began to appear on colonial maps in the 1860s but remained unnamed until the beginning of the 20th Century.
The main rock type of the peninsula consists of a medium grained monzogranite with some fine granite outcrops, part of the Kowloon Granite.Early maps and photographs show flat, low-lying land behind the beach of Tsim Sha Tsui Bay with a raised area, Kowloon Hill, in the west.
Monzogranites are biotite granite rocks that are considered to be the final fractionation product of magma. Monzogranites are characteristically felsic (SiO2 > 73%, and FeO + MgO + TiO2 < 2.4), weakly peraluminous (Al2O3/ (CaO + Na2O + K2O) = 0.98–1.11), and contain ilmenite, sphene, apatite and zircon as accessory minerals. Although the compositional range of the monzogranites is small, it defines a differentiation trend that is essentially controlled by biotite and plagioclase fractionation. (Fagiono, 2002). Monzogranites can be divided into two groups (magnesio-potassic monzogranite and ferro-potassic monzogranite) and are further categorized into rock types based on their macroscopic characteristics, melt characteristics, specific features, available isotopic data, and the locality in which they are found.
The peninsula has been significantly expanded through land reclamation from the sea, over several phases. In the south and west most of the reclamation was carried out before 1904. Reclamation in several other small areas along the main Tsim Sha Tsui waterfront was completed by 1982. The West Kowloon Reclamation was formed as part of the Airport Core Programme and largely completed by 1995.
The reclamation of land from the ocean has long been used in mountainous Hong Kong to expand the limited supply of usable land with a total of around 60 square kilometres of land created by 1996. The first reclamations can be traced back to the early Western Han Dynasty, when beaches were turned into fields for salt production. Major land reclamation projects have been conducted since the mid-19th century.
Tsim Sha Tsui, often abbreviated as TST, is an urban area in southern Kowloon, Hong Kong. The area is administratively part of the Yau Tsim Mong District. Tsim Sha Tsui East is a piece of land reclaimed from the Hung Hom Bay now east of Tsim Sha Tsui. The area is bounded north by Austin Road and in the east by Hong Chong Road and Cheong Wan Road.
West Kowloon is a part of Kowloon, Hong Kong situated within the Yau Tsim Mong District. It is bounded by Canton Road to the east, Victoria Harbour to the west and the south, and Jordan Road to the north. Further to the north, the area extends to Tai Kok Tsui to the west of the West Kowloon Expressway. Nam Cheong, Olympic, Austin and Kowloon stations are within the area.
Before the actual Kowloon boundaries were established, the Kowloon Peninsula served as one of the first destinations for escape during China's dynastic times. In 1287, the last emperor of the Song dynasty, Emperor Bing was fleeing from the Mongol leader Kublai Khan. Taking refuge in a cave in the Kowloon peninsula, the inscription wrote "Sung Wong Toi" or "Song Emperor's Pavilion".In the 17th century, after the fall of the Ming dynasty, many of the Emperor's followers also found shelter in the Kowloon peninsula to hide from the Manchus.
The Song dynasty was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song following his usurpation of the throne of the Later Zhou, ending the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. The Song often came into conflict with the contemporaneous Liao, Western Xia and Jin dynasties to its north. It was eventually conquered by the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Song government was the first in world history to issue banknotes or true paper money nationally and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy. This dynasty also saw the first known use of gunpowder, as well as the first discernment of true north using a compass.
Kublai was the fifth Khagan of the Mongol Empire, reigning from 1260 to 1294. He also founded the Yuan dynasty in China as a conquest dynasty in 1271, and ruled as the first Yuan emperor until his death in 1294.
The Ming dynasty, officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynasty of China ruled by ethnic Han Chinese. Although the primary capital of Beijing fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng, numerous rump regimes loyal to the Ming throne – collectively called the Southern Ming – survived until 1662.
Historically speaking, Kowloon Peninsula refers to the ceded territories of Kowloon in 1860 as part of the Convention of Peking, but geographically it covers the entire Kowloon south of the mountain ranges of Lion Rock, Kowloon Peak and other hills. Kowloon Peninsula had a population of 800 when it was ceded to the British empire in 1860.
The Convention or First Convention of Peking, sometimes now known as the Convention of Beijing, is an agreement comprising three distinct treaties concluded between the Qing dynasty of China and the United Kingdom, French Empire, and Russian Empire in 1860. In China, they are regarded as among the unequal treaties. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of China keeps the original copy of the Convention in the National Palace Museum in Taiwan.
Kowloon Peak or Fei Ngor Shan or Fei Ngo Shan is a 602 m (1,975 ft) tall mountain in the northeast corner of New Kowloon, Hong Kong, situated in Ma On Shan Country Park. It is crossed by both the Wilson Trail and the MacLehose Trail. On the lower slopes is Gilwell Campsite, belonging to The Scout Association. The highest point of New Kowloon is immediately to the west of peak.
In 1898 a resolution was passed by the Colonial Hong Kong Legislative Council to preserve the land where some of the caves stand.
Yau Tsim Mong District is one of 18 districts of Hong Kong, located on the western part of Kowloon Peninsula. It is the core urban area of Kowloon. The district has the second highest population density of all districts, at 49,115/km². The 2016 By-Census recorded the total population of Yau Tsim Mong District at 342,970.
Yau Ma Tei is an area in the Yau Tsim Mong District in the south of the Kowloon Peninsula in Hong Kong.
Victoria Harbour is a natural landform harbour separating Hong Kong Island in the south from the Kowloon Peninsula to the north. The harbour's deep, sheltered waters and strategic location on the South China Sea were instrumental in Hong Kong's establishment as a British colony and its subsequent development as a trading centre.
Nathan Road is the main thoroughfare in Kowloon, Hong Kong that goes in a south–north direction from Tsim Sha Tsui to Sham Shui Po. It is lined with shops and restaurants and throngs with tourists, and was known in the post–World War II years as the Golden Mile, a name that is now rarely used. It starts on the southern part of Kowloon at its junction with Salisbury Road, a few metres north of Victoria Harbour, and ends at its intersection with Boundary Street in the north. Portions of the Kwun Tong and Tsuen Wan Lines run underneath Nathan Road. The total length of Nathan Road is about 3.6 kilometres (2.2 mi).
Salisbury Road is a major road in Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
Kwun Chung, or Koon Chung in early documents, is an area of Hong Kong, southwest of Yau Ma Tei located in the Yau Tsim Mong District of western Kowloon Peninsula. South of the area, across Austin Road, is Tsim Sha Tsui by Victoria Harbour. The area contains one of few Nepalese communities in Hong Kong.
Middle Road is a street in the southern part of Tsim Sha Tsui of Kowloon in Hong Kong, across Nathan Road and parallel to Salisbury Road.
Canton Road is a major road in Hong Kong, linking the former west reclamation shore in Tsim Sha Tsui, Jordan, Yau Ma Tei and Mong Kok on the Kowloon Peninsula. The road runs mostly parallel and west to Nathan Road. It starts from the junction with Salisbury Road in the south and ends in the north at the junction with Lai Chi Kok Road in the Prince Edward area. The southern part Canton Road is home to many upscale retail shops, shopping centres and others business establishments, with busy traffic from both vehicles and pedestrians from morning till late night.
Hung Hom Bay was a bay in Victoria Harbour, between Tsim Sha Tsui and Hung Hom in the south of Kowloon Peninsula, Hong Kong.
Chatham Road South and Chatham Road North are two continuous roads spanning from Tsim Sha Tsui to Hung Hom in Kowloon, Hong Kong. The road originally ran from Signal Hill to Hung Hom under No. 12 Hill by the side of Hung Hom Bay. It was later extended through Lo Lung Hang to the southern end of To Kwa Wan, which makes up Chatham Road North.
The Gateway, part of Harbour City, is the office buildings with shopping arcade at lower level in Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
Tsim Sha Tsui Fire Station is a fire station in Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon, Hong Kong. The station stands at the Canton Road, adjacent to China Hong Kong City. The front door of the station was stylished with old style fire alarm lights and guarded by a pair of lion statues. The site was once a Royal Navy torpedo depot.
Star Ferry Pier, Tsim Sha Tsui, or Tsim Sha Tsui Ferry Pier, is a pier located on reclaimed land at the southernmost tip of Tsim Sha Tsui on Kowloon Peninsula in Hong Kong. It is commonly known as Star Ferry Pier (天星碼頭) in Tsim Sha Tsui. Star Ferry operates the pedestrian ferry service across Victoria Harbour to Wan Chai and to Central on Hong Kong Island. The location is identified as "Kowloon Point" in the franchise held by Star Ferry.
Peking Road is a road between Nathan Road and Canton Road in Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon, Hong Kong. The road is mainly hotels and shopping area on the street level.
Tai Kok Tsui Ferry Pier (1972–1992) was a ferry pier in Tai Kok Tsui, Kowloon, Hong Kong. It started operation in 1972, together with an adjacent bus terminus, to replace the Mong Kok Ferry Pier in Mong Kok. It provided a ferry service to and from Central, Hong Kong and Guangzhou, Mainland China. Its cross-boundary ferry terminal position was replaced by the Hong Kong China Ferry Terminal in Tsim Sha Tsui in 1988. It was then closed in 1992 to cope with land reclamation work for the Airport Core Programme. The bus terminus remained in use until it was relocated to a new reclaimed area in west Tai Kok Tsui in 1995. The pier has been reclaimed and the HSBC Centre now stands where the former bus terminal used to be.
Kowloon Public Pier or Tsim Sha Tsui Public Pier is a public pier in Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon, Hong Kong. It approaches Hong Kong Cultural Centre and Victoria Harbour. Any boat can freely park at the pier.