Mongolia under Yuan rule

Last updated
Mongolia under Yuan rule
Lingbei province
岭北行省
Province of the Yuan dynasty
1271–1368
Yuan dynasty and Mongolia.jpg
Mongolia within the Yuan dynasty under the Lingbei province
Capital Karakorum
  TypeYuan hierarchy
History 
 Established
1271
 Disestablished
1368
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Blank.png Mongol Empire
Northern Yuan dynasty Blank.png
Today part of China
Mongolia
Russia

The Mongol Empire under Yuan dynasty ruled over the Mongolian steppe, including both Inner and Outer Mongolia as well as part of southern Siberia, for roughly a century between 1271 and 1368. The Mongolian Plateau is where the ruling Mongols of the Yuan dynasty as founded by Kublai Khan came from, thus it enjoyed a somewhat special status during the Yuan dynasty, a division of the Mongol Empire, although the capital of the dynasty had been moved from Karakorum to Khanbaliq (modern Beijing) since the beginning of Kublai Khan's reign, and Mongolia had been turned into a province by the early 14th century.

Contents

History

Yuan dynasty, c. 1294. Yuen Dynasty 1294 - Goryeo as vassal.png
Yuan dynasty, c. 1294.

The Mongols came from the Mongolian steppe, and Karakorum was the capital of the Mongol Empire until 1260. During the Toluid Civil War, Mongolia was controlled by Ariq Böke, a younger brother of Kublai Khan. After Kublai's victory over Ariq Böke, the Yuan dynasty was founded in China in 1271, and both North China and Mongolia were put within the Central Region (腹裏) directly governed by the Zhongshu Sheng of the Yuan at the capital Khanbaliq (Dadu). Even though Karakorum was no longer the empire's capital and Mongolia had partially lost its importance by now, as homeland of the Mongols, it still had a strong influence both politically and militarily over other parts of the empire. There were many Mongolian princes concentrated in the Mongolian steppe, whose influence extended into the Yuan capital. In fact, in order to maintain his claim as the Great Khan, Kublai Khan made significant efforts to control and restore peace in Mongolia after the Toluid Civil War. In 1266, Nomukhan, one of Kublai's favorite sons, was dispatched to Mongolia to guard the north.

During the Kaidu–Kublai war which lasted a few decades, Kaidu, the de facto ruler of the Chagatai Khanate, tried to take control of Mongolia from Kublai Khan. In fact he shortly occupied large parts of Mongolia, although it was later recovered by the Yuan commander Bayan of the Baarin. Temür was later appointed a governor in Karakorum and Bayan became a minister. During Nayan's rebellion against Kublai Khan in Manchuria in the late 1280s, Nayan tried to contact Mongolian princes located in the Mongolian homeland, although most of them did not agree to support him after a settlement made by Kublai Khan. After all, the Yuan court needed the allegiance of the Mongol aristocracy as a whole even when it was forced to strike against individual members. After the death of the Crown Prince Zhenjin in 1286, Kublai Khan decided to make Zhenjin's son Temur his successor. After Kublai Khan's death in 1294, Temür, who previously garrisoned in Mongolia, returned to the Yuan capital to become the next ruler of the empire. During his rule, Külüg, who would become the third Yuan emperor after Temür's death, was sent to Mongolia to assume command of an army that defended the western front of the Yuan against Kaidu and other princes of Central Asia under him. In 1307, when Temür Khan died, he returned eastward to Karakorum and watched the situation. He eventually succeeded to the throne with the support of his mother and younger brother, Ayurbarwada. Shortly after the enthronement of Külüg Khan, Mongolia was put under the Karakorum Branch Secretariat (和林等處行中書省) or simply the Karakorum province (和林行省), although parts of Inner Mongolia were still governed by the Zhongshu Sheng. It was renamed to the Lingbei Branch Secretariat (嶺北等處行中書省) or simply the Lingbei province (嶺北行省, lit. "north of the mountains province") by his successor Ayurbarwada in 1312.

The establishment of the province in Mongolia decreased the importance of the princes in the steppe region, but it did not prevent the seizure of the throne by Yesün Temür in 1323 as a "steppe candidate" in close collaboration with the conspirators in Gegeen Khan's court. [1] During the civil war of the Yuan dynasty known as the War of the Two Capitals after the death of Yesün Temür, the Lingbei province supported the loyalists at Shangdu and fought against El Temür and Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür, but they were eventually crushed by the forces of the latter. After the civil war Tugh Temür abdicated in favor of his older brother Kusala, who enthroned himself on February 27, 1329 north of Karakorum. However, he suddenly died only four days after a banquet with Tugh Temür on his way to Khanbaliq (Dadu). [2] Then Tugh Temür was restored to the throne on September 8. After the capture of the Yuan capital by the Ming dynasty founded by Han Chinese in 1368, the last Yuan emperor Toghon Temür fled north to Shangdu, then to Yingchang and died there in 1370. The Mongols under his son and successor Biligtü Khan Ayushiridara retreated to the Mongolian steppe and fought against the Ming. The Mongolian homeland became the ruling center of the Northern Yuan dynasty, which would last until the 17th century.

See also

Related Research Articles

Toghon Temür 15th Khagan of the Mongol Empire; Emperor of the Yuan and Northern Yuan dynasties

Toghon Temür, also known by the temple name Huizong bestowed by the Northern Yuan dynasty and by the posthumous name Emperor Shun bestowed by the Hongwu Emperor of the Ming dynasty, was a son of Khutughtu Khan Kusala who ruled as emperor of the Yuan dynasty. Apart from Emperor of China, he is also considered the last Khagan of the Mongol Empire.

Khutughtu Khan Kusala 13Th Khagan of the Mongol Empire

Khutughtu Khan, born Kuśala, also known by the temple name Mingzong, was a son of Khayishan who seized the throne of the Yuan dynasty in 1329, but died soon after. Apart from the Emperor of China, he is considered as the 13th Great Khan of the Mongol Empire or Mongols, although it was only nominal due to the division of the empire.

Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür 12Th Khagan of the Mongol Empire

Jayaatu Khan, born Tugh Temür, also known by the temple name Wenzong, was an emperor of the Yuan dynasty. Apart from Emperor of China, he is regarded as the 12th Great Khan of the Mongol Empire or Mongols, although it was only nominal due to the division of the empire.

Ragibagh Khan 11Th Khagan of the Mongol Empire

Ragibagh, also known as the Tianshun Emperor of Yuan, was a son of Yesün Temür who was briefly installed to the throne of the Yuan dynasty in Shangdu in 1328. Although he should have been the seventh ruler of the Yuan dynasty in succession to his father Yesün Temür Khan, or Emperor Taiding, he was dethroned by his rival who was installed by coup before Ragibagh's succession. Apart from Emperor of China, he is regarded as the 11th Great Khan of the Mongol Empire or Mongols, although it was only nominal due to the division of the empire. He was the shortest-reigning Yuan emperor.

Yesün Temür (Yuan dynasty) 10Th Khagan of the Mongol Empire

Yesün Temür was a great-grandson of Kublai Khan and ruled as emperor of the Yuan dynasty from 1323 to 1328. Apart from Emperor of China, he is regarded as the 10th Khagan of the Mongol Empire or Mongols, although it was only nominal due to the division of the empire. In Chinese, Yesün Temür Khan, who was very fond of the traditional ways of the Mongols, is known as the Emperor Taiding of Yuan from his era's name. His name means "nine iron Khan" in the Mongolian language.

Külüg Khan 3rd Emperor of Yuan-dynasty China and 7th Khagan of the Mongol Empire (r. 1307-11)

Külüg Khan, born Khayishan, also known by the temple name Wuzong, Prince of Huai-ning (懷寧王) in 1304-7, was an emperor of the Yuan dynasty. Apart from Emperor of China, he is regarded as the seventh Great Khan of the Mongol Empire or Mongols, although it was only nominal due to the division of the empire. His name means "warrior Khan or fine horse Khan" in the Mongolian language.

Temür Khan 6th Khagan of the Mongol Empire

Temür Öljeytü Khan, born Temür, also known by the temple name Chengzong was the second emperor of the Yuan dynasty, ruling from May 10, 1294 to February 10, 1307. Apart from Emperor of China, he is considered as the sixth Great Khan of the Mongol Empire or Mongols, although it was only nominal due to the division of the empire. He was an able ruler of the Yuan, and his reign established the patterns of power for the next few decades. His name means "blessed iron Khan" in the Mongolian language.

Ariq Böke Khagan of the Mongol Empire

Ariq Böke, the components of his name also spelled Arigh, Arik and Bukha, Buka, was the seventh and youngest son of Tolui and a grandson of Genghis Khan. After the death of his brother the Great Khan Möngke, Ariq Böke claimed the title of the Great Khan of the Mongol Empire and briefly took power while his brothers Kublai and Hulagu were absent from the Mongolian homeland. When Kublai returned for an election in 1260, rival factions could not agree, and elected both claimants, Kublai and Ariq Böke, to the throne, resulting in the Toluid Civil War that fragmented the Mongol Empire. Ariq Böke was supported by the traditionalists of the Mongol Empire, while his brother Kublai was supported by the senior princes of North China and Manchuria.

Kaidu Grandson of Mongol Khagan Ogedei Khan and leader of the House of Ögedei (c.1230-1301)

Kaidu was the grandson of Mongol Khagan Ogedei Khan (1185–1241) and thus leader of the House of Ögedei and the de facto khan of the Chagatai Khanate, a division of the Mongol Empire. He ruled part of modern-day Xinjiang and Central Asia during the 13th century, and actively opposed his cousin, Kublai Khan, who established the Yuan dynasty in China, until Kaidu's death in 1301. Medieval chroniclers often mistranslated Kadan as Kaidu, mistakenly placing Kaidu at the Battle of Legnica. Kadan was the brother of Güyük, and Kaidu's uncle.

Yuan dynasty Mongol-led imperial dynasty of China (1271-1368)

The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan, was a successor state to the Mongol Empire after its division and a ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongol Borjigin clan, lasting from 1271 to 1368. In Chinese historiography, this dynasty followed the Song dynasty and preceded the Ming dynasty.

Kublai Khan Founding emperor of the Yuan dynasty, grandson of Genghis Khan

Kublai, also known as the Emperor Shizu of Yuan, was the fifth khagan-emperor of the Mongol Empire, reigning from 1260 to 1294, although after the division of the empire this was a nominal position. He also founded the Yuan dynasty in China in 1271, and ruled as the first Yuan emperor until his death in 1294.

The Yuan dynasty (1271–1368) was a dynasty of China ruled by the Mongol Borjigin clan. Founded by Kublai Khan, it is considered as one of the successors to the Mongol Empire.

The Toluid Civil War was a war of succession fought between Kublai Khan and his younger brother, Ariq Böke, from 1260 to 1264. Möngke Khan died in 1259 with no declared successor, precipitating infighting between members of the Tolui family line for the title of Great Khan that escalated to a civil war. The Toluid Civil War, and the wars that followed it, weakened the authority of the Great Khan over the Mongol Empire and split the empire into autonomous khanates.

The division of the Mongol Empire began when Möngke Khan died in 1259 in the siege of Diaoyu Castle with no declared successor, precipitating infighting between members of the Tolui family line for the title of khagan that escalated into the Toluid Civil War. This civil war, along with the Berke–Hulagu war and the subsequent Kaidu–Kublai war, greatly weakened the authority of the great khan over the entirety of the Mongol Empire, and the empire fractured into autonomous khanates: the Golden Horde in Eastern Europe, the Chagatai Khanate in Central Asia, the Ilkhanate in Southwest Asia, and the Yuan dynasty in East Asia based in modern-day Beijing – although the Yuan emperors held the nominal title of khagan of the empire. The four divisions each pursued their own interests and objectives and fell at different times.

Yuan dynasty in Inner Asia

The Yuan dynasty in Inner Asia was the domination of the Yuan dynasty in Inner Asia in the 13th and the 14th centuries. The Borjigin rulers of the Yuan came from the Mongolian steppe, and the Mongols under Kublai Khan established the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368) based in Khanbaliq. The Yuan was a Chinese dynasty that incorporated many aspects of Mongol and Inner Asian political and military institutions.

The Kaidu–Kublai war was a war between Kaidu, the leader of the House of Ögedei and the de facto khan of the Chagatai Khanate in Central Asia, and Kublai Khan, the founder of the Yuan dynasty in China and his successor Temür Khan that lasted a few decades from 1268 to 1301. It followed the Toluid Civil War (1260–1264) and resulted in the permanent division of the Mongol Empire. By the time of Kublai's death in 1294, the Mongol Empire had fractured into four separate khanates or empires: the Golden Horde khanate in the northwest, the Chagatai Khanate in the middle, the Ilkhanate in the southwest, and the Yuan dynasty in the east based in modern-day Beijing. Although Temür Khan later made peace with the three western khanates in 1304 after Kaidu's death, the four khanates continued their own separate development and fell at different times.

The War of the Two Capitals, or the Tianli Incident, was a civil war that occurred in 1328 in the Yuan dynasty. It was a war of succession fought between the forces based in the Yuan capital Khanbaliq and the forces based in the summer capital Shangdu after the death of Yuan emperor Yesün Temür in Shangdu. The clash between the two groups was the bloodiest and most destructive succession in all of Yuan history. The War of the Two Capitals was less about ideology and more a struggle to advance individual family interests through political alliances and military strength. It ended with victory for the Khanbaliq group, but it took a few years for the last remnants of its opponents to give up.

Ananda was a royal prince of Yuan dynasty China and the Mongolian Empire. He was descended from Genghis Khan, as the grandson of Kublai Khan, and son of Manggala, the third son of Kublai.

Dagi Khatun

Dagi Khatun — was a Mongol noblewoman, mother of Yuan emperors Külüg Khan and Ayurbawada Khan.

References

  1. The Cambridge History of China: Volume 6, Alien Regimes and Border States, by Denis C. Twitchett, Herbert Franke, John King Fairbank, p546
  2. Yuan shi, 31. pp.700