Foreign relations of Mongolia

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Mongolia has diplomatic relations with 188 states—187 UN states and the Holy See–and the European Union. [1] Of the states with limited recognition it has relations only with the State of Palestine.

Contents

It seeks neutrality and cordial relations with many countries including in cultural and economic matters. It has a modest number of missions abroad.

Bilateral relations

Foreign relations of Mongolia Mongolia diplomatic relations.png
Foreign relations of Mongolia

Africa

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria 1961-06-25
Flag of Angola.svg  Angola 1976-02-10
Flag of Benin.svg  Benin 1977-04-02
Flag of Botswana.svg  Botswana none
Flag of Burkina Faso.svg  Burkina Faso 1985-10-25
Flag of Burundi.svg  Burundi 2013-07-08
Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon 2015-04-13
Flag of Cape Verde.svg  Cape Verde 1975-11-19
Flag of the Central African Republic.svg  Central African Republic 1970-06-18
Flag of Chad.svg  Chad 2014-04-04
Flag of the Comoros.svg  Comoros 2011-12-05
Flag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg  Côte d'Ivoire 1986-07-06
Flag of the Republic of the Congo.svg  Republic of the Congo 1966-12-31
Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg  Democratic Republic of the Congo 1975-02-04
Flag of Djibouti.svg  Djibouti 2016-01-21
Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt 1963-04-02

Diplomatic relations between Egypt and Mongolia were established in 1964. [2] Cairo currently hosts Mongolia's only embassy on the African continent. [3] [4] In 2001, Mongolia sent policemen to Egypt to attend trainings sessions on anti-terrorism and the prevention of drug trafficking. [5] Mongolian President Natsagiin Bagabandi and his wife Azadsurengiin Oyunbileg paid an official visit to Egypt in April 2004, during which he invited Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak to pay him a return visit in Mongolia. [6] Almost exactly one year later, Egyptian Foreign Minister Ahmed Aboul Gheit visited Mongolia, during which he began the planning of mutual visits of the ministers of finance of the two countries. [7]

Bilateral relations between Mongolia and Egypt (in Mongolian)

Flag of Equatorial Guinea.svg  Equatorial Guinea 2014-02-21
Flag of Eritrea.svg  Eritrea 2013-06-24
Flag of Eswatini.svg  Eswatini 2018-11-24
Flag of Ethiopia.svg  Ethiopia 1967-01-24
Flag of Gabon.svg  Gabon 2014-09-15
Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana 1965-12-07
Flag of Guinea.svg  Guinea 1960-04-22
Flag of Guinea-Bissau.svg  Guinea-Bissau 1975-10-14
Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya 2012-03-22 [8]
Flag of Lesotho.svg  Lesotho 1985-07-02
Flag of Liberia.svg  Liberia 1976-04-23
Flag of Libya.svg  Libya 1976-06-16Ties were established between the two nations when both had socialist governments. Mongolian delegates visited Libya in 1978, 1981, and 1986.

Bilateral relations between Mongolia and Libya [ permanent dead link ](in Mongolian)

Flag of Madagascar.svg  Madagascar 1979-05-11
Flag of Malawi.svg  Malawi 2011-12-21
Flag of Mali.svg  Mali 1961-01-25
Flag of Mauritania.svg  Mauritania 1967-06-30
Flag of Mauritius.svg  Mauritius 2014-07-04
Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco 1970-07-14
Flag of Mozambique.svg  Mozambique 1975-09-27
Flag of Namibia.svg  Namibia 1990-10-30
Flag of Niger.svg  Niger 2016-05-02
Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria 1971-09-21
Flag of Rwanda.svg  Rwanda 2013-11-26
Flag of Sao Tome and Principe.svg  São Tomé and Príncipe 1975-10-22
Flag of Senegal.svg  Senegal 1985-12-12
Flag of the Seychelles.svg  Seychelles 1981-08-21
Flag of Sierra Leone.svg  Sierra Leone 2013-09-27
Flag of Somalia.svg  Somalia 1971-02-28
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 1994-05-25
Flag of South Sudan.svg  South Sudan 2011-12-20
Flag of Sudan.svg  Sudan 1970-07-07
Flag of Tanzania.svg  Tanzania 1967-01-17
Flag of The Gambia.svg  The Gambia 2011-12-22
Flag of Togo.svg  Togo 2013-09-06
Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia 1977-02-15
Flag of Uganda.svg  Uganda 2013-11-21
Flag of Zambia.svg  Zambia 1978-10-02
Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe 1984-08-30


Americas

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg  Antigua and Barbuda 2013-06-19
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 1971-09-07 [1] Argentina is represented in Mongolia through its embassy in Beijing (China). Mongolia does not have any representation in Argentina.
Flag of Aruba.svg  Aruba none
Flag of the Bahamas.svg  Bahamas 2016-07-11
Flag of Barbados.svg  Barbados none
Flag of Belize.svg  Belize 2017-06-20Both countries established diplomatic relations on June 20, 2017. [9]
Flag of Bermuda.svg  Bermuda none Bermuda is a British Overseas Territory. The UK is responsible for its foreign relations.
Flag of Bolivia.svg  Bolivia 1989-03-01 [1]
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 1987-06-19 [1]
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 1973-11-30 [1]

Both countries established diplomatic relations on November 30, 1973. Canada is represented in Mongolia through its embassy in Ulaanbaatar. Mongolia has an embassy in Ottawa, and in 2002 opened an honorary consulate in Toronto. Though Canada and Mongolia established diplomatic ties in 1973, ad hoc linkages and minor activities occurred between the two countries mainly through the Canada-Mongolia Society, which disbanded in 1980. When Mongolia formed a democratic government in 1991 after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Canada began to support Mongolia with donor activities through the International Development Research Centre, Canadian International Development Agency and several non-governmental organizations. [10]

Flag of the Cayman Islands.svg  Cayman Islands none Cayman Islands is a British Overseas Territory. The UK is responsible for its foreign relations.
Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba 1960-12-07 [1] Mongolia has an embassy in Cuba.
Flag of Chile.svg  Chile 1971-06-01 [1]
Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia 1988-08-10 [1]
Flag of Costa Rica.svg  Costa Rica 1977-06-06 [1]
Flag of Dominica.svg  Dominica 2011-10-18 [1]
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Dominican Republic 2010-05-27 [1]
Flag of Ecuador.svg  Ecuador 1982-10-30 [1]
Flag of El Salvador.svg  El Salvador 1999-07-14 [1]
Flag of Grenada.svg  Grenada 1980-07-25 [1]
Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala 2006-07-03 [1]
Flag of Guyana.svg  Guyana 1979-12-15 [1]
Flag of Haiti.svg  Haiti 2014-01-14 [11]
Flag of Honduras (darker variant).svg  Honduras 2011-10-19 [1]
Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica 2012-10-26 [11]
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 1975-09-24

In October 2001, Mexican President Vicente Fox paid an official visit to Mongolia. [12]

  • Mexico is accredited to Mongolia from its embassy in Seoul, South Korea and maintains an honorary consulate in Ulaanbaatar. [13] [14] [15]
  • Mongolia is accredited to Mexico from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States and maintains an honorary consulate in Mexico City. [16] [17]
Flag of Nicaragua.svg  Nicaragua 1979-10-13 [1]
Flag of Panama.svg  Panama 2012-01-17 [1]
Flag of Paraguay.svg  Paraguay 2003-06-17 [1]
Flag of Peru.svg  Peru 1997-05-30 [1]
Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg  Saint Kitts and Nevis 2016-04-12
Flag of Saint Lucia.svg  Saint Lucia 2014-09-27
Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.svg  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2011-10-13 [1]
Flag of Suriname.svg  Suriname 2013-09-27
Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg  Trinidad and Tobago 2021-02-24 [18]
Flag of the United States.svg  United States 1987-01-27 [1]

The U.S. government recognized Mongolia in January 1987 and established its first embassy in Ulaanbaatar in June 1988. It formally opened in September 1988. The first U.S. ambassador to Mongolia, Richard L. Williams, was not a resident there. Joseph E. Lake, the first resident ambassador, arrived in July 1990. Secretary of State James A. Baker, III visited Mongolia in August 1990, and again in July 1991. Mongolia accredited its first ambassador to the United States in March 1989. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright visited Mongolia in May 1998, and Prime Minister Enkhbayar visited Washington in November 2001. Deputy Secretary of State Richard L. Armitage visited Mongolia in January 2004, and President Bagabandi came to Washington for a meeting with President George W. Bush in July 2004. President Bush, Mrs. Bush, and Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice visited Mongolia in November 2005. It was the first ever visit of a U.S. President to Mongolia. [19] [20] Defense Secretary Rumsfeld visited in October 2005 and Speaker of the House of Representatives Dennis Hastert visited Mongolia in August 2005. Agriculture Secretary Johanns led a presidential delegation in July 2006 in conjunction with Mongolia's celebration of its 800th anniversary. President Enkhbayar visited the White House in October 2007 and the two presidents signed the Millennium Challenge Compact for Mongolia.

In 2008, the IRS presented a discussion of US Federal income tax to Director General Zorig Luvsandash from the General Department of National Taxation of the Republic of Mongolia.

In August 2011, Joe Biden made the first visit to Mongolia by a sitting U.S. vice president since Henry Wallace toured the region in 1944. [21]

Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay 1997-10-07 [1]
Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela 1990-12-14 [1]

East Asia

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  People's Republic of China 1949-10-16 [1]

In the Post–Cold War era, China has taken major steps to normalize its relationship with Mongolia, emphasizing its respect for Mongolia's sovereignty and independence. In 1994, Chinese Premier Li Peng signed a treaty of friendship and cooperation. [22] China has become Mongolia's biggest trade partner and source of foreign investment as well as the destination for 48% of Mongolian exports. [23] Bilateral trade reached US$1.13 billion by the first nine months of 2007, registering an increase of 90% from 2006. [24] China offered to allow the use of its Tianjin port to give Mongolia and its goods access to trade with the Asia Pacific region. [23] China also expanded its investments in Mongolia's mining industries, seeking to exploit the country's natural resources. [23] [24] Mongolia and China have stepped up cooperation on fighting terrorism and bolstering regional security. China is likely to support Mongolia's membership in to the Asia Cooperation Dialogue (ACD), Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and granting it observer status in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. [23]

Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China (Taiwan) none

As the Republic of China did not recognize Mongolia until 1945, both countries did not exchange any diplomats between 1946 and 1949, and Mongolia recognized the People's Republic of China in 1949, there have never been formal diplomatic relations between Mongolia and the Republic of China. Until the 1990s, the Republic of China still considered Mongolia part of its territory. The Republic of China (currently on Taiwan) has not renounced claim to Mongolia as one of its provinces, primarily out of concern that such a move would be viewed as a precursor to renouncing sovereignty over all of Mainland China and Taiwan independence. In 2002 several ROC officials and government agencies passed laws and made strong statements recognizing Mongolia's sovereignty over the area (unofficially). "Outer Mongolia" was removed from the ROC's official maps and a representative office was established in Ulaanbaatar.

Citizens of the Republic of China may travel to Mongolia using Republic of China passports (as is the case for most countries except the PRC), but Mongolian visas are stapled into (and not applied directly onto) the passport and Mongolian immigration authorities stamp the stapled visa instead of the passport. This is also the case for Hong Kong visas and entry/exit stamps.

Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 1972-02-24 [1]

Japan has been a major ally of Mongolia since the advent of democracy in 1991, and remains the largest single donor. Japanese aid and loans to Mongolia between 1991 and 2003 equal $1.2 billion, equaling 70 percent of total aid and loans.

The two countries established a cultural exchange dialogue in 1974, a trade agreement in 1990, an air relations agreement in 1993, and an investment agreement in 2003. Trade between Mongolia and Japan in the first ten months of 2004 was $83.3 million. In addition, about 500 Mongolian students study in Japan.

Mongolian President Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj visited Japan in 2011, and the two countries made a joint announcement regarding a strategic alliance.

In 1991, Japanese Prime Minister Toshiki Kaifu visited Mongolia, becoming the first to do so. Mongolian President Natsagiin Bagabandi first visited Japan in 1998. Mongolia has an embassy in Tokyo, established in 1973. Japan has an embassy in Ulaanbaatar.

Flag of North Korea.svg  North Korea 1948-10-15 [1]

Mongolia has an embassy in North Korea. Relations date back to 1948, when Mongolia recognised Kim Il-sung's Soviet-backed government in the North. North Korean refugees are a delicate issue between the two governments. In 2005, South Korean charity groups received from the Mongolian government an allocation of 1.3 square kilometres of land at an unspecified location 40 kilometres outside of Ulaanbaatar to establish a refugee camp. [25] However, as of November 2006, Miyeegombyn Enkhbold, Mongolia's prime minister, officially denied the existence of such camps. One scholar estimated that 500 North Korean refugees enter Mongolia each month, along with some legal migrant labourers who come under an inter-governmental agreement to work in light industry and infrastructure projects. [26]

Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 1990-03-26 [1]

Mongolians in South Korea form the largest population of Mongolian citizens abroad.. Their numbers were estimated at 33,000 as of 2008.

South Korea established an embassy in Ulaanbaatar in 1990. [27] Mongolia established its embassy in Seoul in 1991. The relationship between the two countries has been defined by the Joint Mongolia-South Korean notice made during the visit of South Korean president Kim Dae-jung to Mongolia in 1990.

South East Asia

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Flag of Brunei.svg  Brunei 1992-05-18 [1]
Flag of Cambodia.svg  Cambodia 1960-11-30 [1]
Flag of East Timor.svg  East Timor 2003-10-28 [1]
Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia 1956-12-22 [1]
Flag of Laos.svg  Laos 1962-09-12 [1]
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia 1971-09-08 [1] Mongolia did not present an ambassador to Malaysia for seven years due to the murder of a Mongolian citizen in the country, but later decided to appoint an ambassador in 2014. [28]
Flag of Myanmar.svg  Myanmar 1956-09-26 [1] [29]
Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines 1973-10-11 [1]
Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore 1970-06-11 [1]
  • Mongolia has an embassy in Singapore.
  • The Embassy of Singapore accredited to Mongolia is in Seoul.
  • Around 20 Singaporeans live in Mongolia; [30] 4,804 Singaporeans visited Mongolia in 2017-2018. [31]
  • Around 250 Mongolians live in Singapore; 7,196 Mongolians visited Singapore in 2017-2018. [32]
Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand 1974-03-05 [1]
Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam 1954-11-17 [1] The two countries established diplomatic ties in 1954. [33] Mongolia has an embassy in Vietnam. The countries signed a Friendship and Cooperation Treaty in 1961, renewed it in 1979, and signed a new one in 1995. [33] On 13 January 2003, the countries signed an 8-point cooperative document committing to cooperation between the two governments and their legislative bodies, replacing an earlier document signed in 1998. [34]

South Asia

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Flag of Afghanistan.svg  Afghanistan 1962-02-01 [1] In December 2013 Mongolia re-established its embassy in Kabul. [35] [36]
Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh 1972-06-28 [1]
Flag of Bhutan.svg  Bhutan 2012-01-18 [1]
Flag of India.svg  India 1955-12-24 [1]

India established diplomatic relations in December 1955. India was the first country outside the Soviet bloc to establish diplomatic relations with Mongolia. Since then, there have been treaties of mutual friendship and cooperation between the two countries in 1973, 1994, 2001 and 2004.

Flag of Maldives.svg  Maldives 1985-11-06 [1]
Flag of Nepal.svg    Nepal 1961-01-05 [1]
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan 1962-07-06 [1]
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka 1962-02-01 [1]

Russia, Central Asia and West Asia

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia 1992-02-11 [1]
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 February 1992. [37]
  • Armenia is represented in Mongolia through its embassy in Beijing, China. [37]
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan 1992-04-16 [1]
Flag of Bahrain.svg  Bahrain 1998-05-16 [1]
Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia 1992-05-12 [1]
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran 1971-05-20 [1]
Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq 1962-02-05 [1]
Flag of Israel.svg  Israel 1991-10-02 [1]
Flag of Jordan.svg  Jordan 1981-05-21 [1]
Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan 1992-01-22 [1] Mongolia has an embassy in Nur-Sultan and a consulate general in Almaty. Kazakhstan has an embassy in Ulaanbaatar.

Ethnic Kazakhs make up the only significant ethnic minority in Mongolia.

Flag of Kuwait.svg  Kuwait 1975-06-17 [1]
Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg  Kyrgyzstan 1992-04-22 [1] Mongolian president Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj made an official visit to Kyrgyzstan in 2012.
Flag of Lebanon.svg  Lebanon 1998-02-05 [1]
Flag of Oman.svg  Oman 1992-04-27 [1]
Flag of Palestine.svg  State of Palestine 1988-11-22 [1]
Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar 1998-01-21 [1]

In 2020, Mongolia signed a memorandum of understanding with Qatar to establish political consultations between the ministries of foreign affairs of both the countries. [38]

Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 1921-11-05 [1]

Relations between Mongolia and the Russian Federation have been traditionally strong since the Communist era, when Soviet Russia was the closest ally of the Mongolian People's Republic. Russia has an embassy in Ulaanbaatar and two consulate generals (in Darkhan and Erdenet). Mongolia has an embassy in Moscow, three consulate generals (in Irkutsk, Kyzyl and Ulan Ude), and a branch in Yekaterinburg. Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (Russia is a participating state, while Mongolia is a partner).

After the disintegration of the former Soviet Union, Mongolia developed relations with the new independent states. Links with Russia and other republics were essential to contribute to stabilisation of the Mongolian economy. The primary difficulties in developing fruitful coordination occurred because these new states were experiencing the same political and economic restructuring as Mongolia. Despite these difficulties, Mongolia and Russia successfully negotiated both a 1991 Joint Declaration of Cooperation and a bilateral trade agreement. This was followed by a 1993 Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation [22] establishing a new basis of equality in the relationship. Mongolian President Bagabandi visited Moscow in 1999, and Russian President Vladimir Putin visited Mongolia in 2000 [22] in order to sign the 25-point Ulaanbaatar Declaration, reaffirming Mongol-Russian friendship and cooperation on numerous economic and political issues.

Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia 2007-02-12 [1]
Flag of Syria.svg  Syria 1967-07-31 [1] Ties between Mongolia and Syria were established on July 31, 1967, when both countries had socialist governments. Mongolian delegates (from the then-ruling Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party) traveled to Syria in 1978, 1982, and 1985, while Syrian (Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party) delegates visited Mongolia in 1983 and 1986.

Bilateral relations between Mongolia and Syria (in Mongolian)

Flag of Tajikistan.svg  Tajikistan 1992-04-24 [1]
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 1969-06-24 [1] See Mongolia–Turkey relations
  • Mongolia has an embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Ulaanbaatar.
  • Both countries are members of Asia Cooperation Dialogue and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 39.7 million USD in 2019 (Mongolian exports/imports: 0.5/39.2 million USD. [39]
  • There are around 134 Turks who live in Mongolia.
Flag of Turkmenistan.svg  Turkmenistan 1992-04-23 [1]
Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates 1996-04-01 [1]
Flag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan 1992-01-25 [1]
Flag of Yemen.svg  Yemen 1970-08-28 [1]

Europe

Mongolia seeks closer relations with countries in Europe and hopes to receive most-favoured-nation status from the European Union (EU). During 1991, Mongolia signed investment promotion and protection agreements with Germany and France and an economic cooperation agreement with the United Kingdom. Germany continued former East German cooperative programs and also provided loans and aid.

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Flag of Europe.svg  European Union 1989-08-01 [1]
Flag of Albania.svg  Albania 1949-05-24 [1]
Flag of Andorra.svg  Andorra 2011-11-21 [1]
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 1963-07-01 [1]
Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus 1992-01-24 [1]
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 1971-07-08 [1] The Benelux (Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) is represented in Mongolia through embassies in Beijing (China). Mongolia has an embassy in Brussels.
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina 1993-02-24 [1]
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 1950-04-22 [1]

Bulgaria has an embassy in Ulaanbaatar. Mongolia has an embassy in Sofia. Diplomatic relations between the two counties were first initiated on 22 April 1950. Due to the similar ideological situation in both countries, their relations witnessed a steady development up until the 1990s. Bilateral relations somewhat deteriorated for the next ten years. Since 2001, they have been on a more positive track, with Bulgarian president Georgi Parvanov making an official visit to Ulaanbaatar in the summer of 2007. Until the beginning of the 1990s Bulgaria was Mongolia's 3rd biggest trading partner. Agricultural products and light industry goods were the main exports. Due to the subsequent economical and political changes in both countries the volume of trade shrank considerably. The volume of trade between Bulgaria and Mongolia totaled $2 million for 2008, with the main exporter being Bulgaria. [40]

Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 1993-03-10 [1]

Both countries established diplomatic relations on March 10, 1993. [41] Croatia is represented in Mongolia through its embassy in Beijing (China). Mongolia has an honorary consulate in Zagreb.

Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus 1973-12-19 [1]
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on December 19, 1973. [42] [43]
  • Cyprus is represented in Mongolia through its embassy in Beijing, China. [44]
  • Mongolia is represented in Cyprus through its embassy in Sofia, Bulgaria. [45]
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 1993-01-01 [1]

Diplomatic relations between Mongolia and Czechoslovakia commenced on 25 April 1950. In the 1980s, Czechoslovakia was Mongolia's second-largest trading partner, behind the Soviet Union. After the 1992 dissolution of Czechoslovakia, Mongolia reaffirmed its relations with the newly formed Czech Republic in 1993. [46] However, in the 1990s, trade volumes declined sharply, though the Czech Republic still accounts for about 1% of Mongolia's imports. The Embassy of the Czech Republic in Ulaanbaatar was formally reopened in 1999. [47] As of 2005, annual bilateral trade between the two countries was valued at US$5 million. [48] The Czech government has also been involved in various water supply development programs in Mongolia.

Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 1968-08-05 [1]
Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia 1991-11-20 [1]
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 1963-07-15 [1]
Flag of France.svg  France 1965-04-27 [1]
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 1974-01-31 [1]

Mongolia established ties with the Federal Republic of Germany in 1974, with embassies in Ulaanbaatar and Berlin

Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 1967-03-03 [1] Greece is represented in Mongolia through its embassy in Beijing (China). Mongolia is represented in Greece through its embassy in Sofia (Bulgaria) and an honorary consulate in Athens.
Flag of the Vatican City.svg   Holy See 1992-04-04 [1]
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 1950-04-28 [1] Hungary has an embassy in Ulaanbaatar. Mongolia has an embassy in Budapest. [51]
Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland 1974-06-04 [1]
Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 1998-12-22 [1]
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 1970-06-29 [1]
Flag of Kosovo.svg  Kosovo noneMongolia does not recognize Kosovo as a country.
Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia 1991-10-15 [1]
Flag of Liechtenstein.svg  Liechtenstein 1998-03-18 [1]
Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania 1991-12-11 [1]
Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg 1976-07-11 [1] The Benelux (Belgium Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) is represented in Mongolia through embassies in Beijing (China).
Flag of Malta.svg  Malta 1979-08-08 [1]
Flag of Moldova.svg  Moldova 1992-01-30 [1]
Flag of Monaco.svg  Monaco 2008-05-22 [1]
Flag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro 2007-02-01 [1]
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 1972-03-06 [1] The Benelux (Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) is represented in Mongolia through embassies in Beijing (China). Mongolia has an honorary consulate in Breda.
Flag of North Macedonia.svg  North Macedonia 1995-06-27 [1]
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 1968-01-11 [1]
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 1950-04-14 [1]
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 1974-07-26 [1]
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 1950-04-29 [1]
  • The Romanian embassy in Mongolia was closed in 1995, and the Mongolian one in Bucharest in 1997. [52]
Flag of San Marino.svg  San Marino 2007-04-25 [1]
Flag of the Order of St. John (various).svg  Sovereign Military Order of Malta none [54]
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 1977-07-05 [1]
Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia 1956-11-20 [1]
Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia 1993-01-01 [1]
Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia 1993-02-18 [1]
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 1964-06-30 [1]
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 1964-05-22 [1]
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine 1992-01-21 [1]
  • Mongolia is represented in Ukraine through its embassy in Poland. An embassy previously existed in Kyiv but was closed and replaced with a consular department.
  • Ukraine is represented in Mongolia through its embassy in China.
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1963-01-23 [1] First Western nation to establish diplomatic ties.

Oceania

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 1972-09-15 [1]
The Mongolian Consulate was established in Canberra in March 1997. An embassy was established in October 2008. [55] Sükhbaataryn Batbold became the first head of government to visit Australia in 2011.

Australia opened its embassy in Ulaanbaatar in December 2015. [56]

Flag of the Cook Islands.svg  Cook Islands none
Flag of Fiji.svg  Fiji 1976-03-15 [1]
Flag of Kiribati.svg  Kiribati 2014-01-15 [11]
Flag of the Marshall Islands.svg  Marshall Islands 2015-05-25 [11]
Flag of Federated States of Micronesia.svg  Federated States of Micronesia 2013-12-06
Flag of Nauru.svg  Nauru 2011-10-13 [1]
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 1975-04-08 [1]
Flag of Niue.svg  Niue none
Flag of Palau.svg  Palau 2013-09-25 [1]
Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg  Papua New Guinea 1976-06-16 [1]
Flag of Samoa.svg  Samoa 2011-12-21 [1]
Flag of the Solomon Islands.svg  Solomon Islands 2011-10-13 [1]
Flag of Tonga.svg  Tonga 2000-04-04 [1]
Flag of Tuvalu.svg  Tuvalu 2011-12-05 [1]
Flag of Vanuatu.svg  Vanuatu 2013-09-23 [1]

International organisation participation

AsDB, ASEAN (observer), ASEM, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, SCO (observer)

Mongolia did not join the UN until 1961 because of repeated threats to veto by the Republic of China, which considered Mongolia to be part of its territory (see China and the United Nations).

See also

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The Foreign relations of Egypt are the Egyptian government's external relations with the outside world. Egypt's foreign policy operates along a non-aligned level. Factors such as population size, historical events, military strength, diplomatic expertise and a strategic geographical position give Egypt extensive political influence in the Middle East, Africa, and within the Non-Aligned Movement as a whole. Cairo has been a crossroads of the Arab world's commerce and culture for centuries, and its intellectual and religious institutions are at the center of the region's social and cultural landmarks.

Foreign relations of Latvia

Foreign relations of Latvia are the primary responsibility of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Today's Republic of Latvia regards itself as a continuation of the 1918–1940 republic. After the declaration on the restoration of its full independence on August 21, 1991, Latvia became a member of the United Nations on September 17, 1991, and is a signatory to a number of UN organizations and other international agreements. Latvia welcomes further cooperation and integration with NATO, European Union, OECD and other Western organizations. It also seeks more active participation in UN peacekeeping efforts worldwide.

Slovak Republic has been a member of European Union since 2004. Slovakia has been an active participant in U.S.- and NATO-led military actions. There is a joint Czech-Slovak peacekeeping force in Kosovo. After the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attack on the United States, the government opened its airspace to coalition planes. In June 2002, Slovakia announced that they would send an engineering brigade to Afghanistan.

Foreign relations of Mauritania

The foreign relations of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania have, since 1960, been dominated by the issues of the Spanish Sahara and the recognition of its independence by its neighbours, particularly Morocco. Mauritania's foreign relations are handled by the Minister for Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, who is currently Ismail Ould Cheikh Ahmed.

Mongolia–North Korea relations Bilateral relations

Mongolia–North Korea relations are the historic and current bilateral relations between Mongolia and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

Czech Republic–Mongolia relations Bilateral relations

Czech Republic–Mongolia relations refer to the diplomatic relations between the Czech Republic and Mongolia. The Czech Republic has an embassy in Ulaanbaatar. Both countries are members of the International Investment Bank (IIB) and formerly Comecon.

Egypt–Mongolia relations Bilateral relations

Egypt–Mongolia relations date back to the wars between Egypt and the Mongol Empire from 1260 to 1335 AD. Official relations between the modern states were established in 1964. Cairo currently hosts Mongolia's only embassy on the African continent. The countries have signed various agreements on bilateral cooperation.

Croatia–Mongolia relations Bilateral relations

Croatia–Mongolia relations refers to the historic and current bilateral relationship between Croatia and Mongolia. Both countries established diplomatic relations on March 10, 1993. Croatia is represented in Mongolia through its embassy in Beijing, China. Mongolia has an honorary consulate in Zagreb.

Bulgaria–Mongolia relations Bilateral relations

Bulgaria–Mongolia relations are the bilateral relations between Bulgaria and Mongolia. Bulgaria has an embassy in Ulaanbaatar and Mongolia has an embassy in Sofia.

Mongolia–Norway relations Bilateral relations

Mongolia–Norway relations refers to the bilateral relationship of Mongolia and Norway. Diplomatic relations were established on 11 January 1968. Neither country has a resident embassy. Mongolia is represented to Norway via its embassy in Brussels, while Norway is represented in Mongolia by its embassy in Beijing. There is also a Norwegian honorary consulate general in the Mongolian capital Ulaanbaatar. Mongolia plans to establish an embassy in Stockholm and move the representative in Brussels. The move is to facilitate the development of bilateral contacts and have stronger relations between Norway and Mongolia.

The Taipei Trade and Economic Representative Office in Ulaanbaatar is the representative office of Taiwan in Mongolia, functioning as a de facto embassy in the absence of diplomatic relations.

Mongolia–Singapore relations Bilateral relations

Mongolia–Singapore relations refer to the relations between Mongolia and the Republic of Singapore. The earliest contact between the two countries started in 1950, while both countries established diplomatic relations in 1970.

Dashdorj Bayarkhuu

Dashdorj Bayarkhuu is a Mongolian research professor, columnist and writer and former Ambassador of Mongolia to Egypt. Prior to his nomination to the ambassadorial position, Bayarkhuu worked in media, defense, diplomatic and educational sectors. After his tenure as ambassador in Cairo, Bayarkhuu returned to academic field as a Visiting Professor of International Politics and Contracted Researcher. He joined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Mongolia as Deputy Director, Policy Planning & Co-ordination Department in 2015–2016.

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