Turkmenistan's declaration of "permanent neutrality" was formally recognized by the United Nations in 1995. Former President Niyazov stated that the neutrality would prevent Turkmenistan from participating in multi-national defense organizations, but allows military assistance. Its neutral foreign policy has an important place in the country's constitution. Although the Government of Turkmenistan claims to favour trade with and export to the United States and Turkey, its single largest commercial partner is China, which buys the vast bulk of Turkmen natural gas via the Central Asia–China gas pipeline. Turkmenistan has significant commercial relationships with Russia and Iran and growing cross-border trade with Afghanistan. The Government of Turkmenistan often appears to use the conflicting interests of these regional powers as a means to extract concessions, especially on energy issues.
Signing of the Caspian Sea convention in 2018 brought only partial resolution of boundary disputes in the Caspian. Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan have disputes over water-sharing. Turkmenistan shares a long border with Afghanistan, a principle producer of heroin and opium. As a result, a large volume of narcotics are trafficked through Turkmenistan on their way to lucrative markets in Europe and Russia.
Turkmenistan is rich in natural gas, and currently sells most of its gas to China. Turkmenistan unilaterally cut off exports of pipeline natural gas to Iran in 2017 over a payment arrears dispute. Russia ceased buying gas from Turkmenistan in 2016, but resumed small purchases of pipeline gas in 2019. Afghanistan buys liquid petroleum gas, shipped by rail to Ymamnazar and Torghundi for onward delivery by truck.
Turkmenistan is a partner country of the EU INOGATE energy programme, which has four key topics: enhancing energy security, convergence of member state energy markets on the basis of EU internal energy market principles, supporting sustainable energy development, and attracting investment for energy projects of common and regional interest.
Turkmenistan is a member of the United Nations, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the Economic Cooperation Organization, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Islamic Development Bank, Asian Development Bank, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the Food and Agriculture Organization, and the International Organization of Turkic Culture.
Turkmenistan maintains permanent representatives to the United Nations offices in New York City, Vienna, and Geneva.
The United Nations maintains a permanent representation staffed by a resident coordinator along with representatives of some UN agencies in Ashgabat. The Asian Development Bank, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, and European Union have missions in Ashgabat, as well.
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Afghanistan||21 February 1992|
Afghanistan has an embassy in Ashgabat and a consulate in Mary. Turkmenistan has an embassy in Kabul plus consulates in Herat and Mazar-i-Sharif. The rise of India as an economic giant and its increasing energy needs make Turkmenistan and Central Asia energy markets of choice for that country and also China. The Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India pipeline (TAPI) has been one of the most important regional initiatives to be undertaken by these countries. The agreement to build the pipeline to transport Turkmen gas to Afghanistan and Pakistan and beyond to India was signed in 2010. In addition, Afghanistan depends on Turkmenistan for meeting a large part of the country's electricity needs. At present, Afghanistan imports more than 320 million kilowatt hours of electricity every year from Turkmenistan.
In 2011, Turkmenistan agreed to build a 150-km extension to a railway line to connect the rail line to Serhetabat to Andkhoy in Faryab province, Afghanistan. In February 2018, the existing rail line between Serhetabat and Torghundi in Afghanistan was restored to service. This line is planned to be extended to Herat, where it could potentially connect to a rail line under construction from Khaf, Iran. The line to Andkhoy went into service in January 2021.
In 2013, work began on a link from Kerki via Ymamnazar on the Turkmen-Afghan border to Aqina in Andkhoy District. This link was opened in November 2016. It was extended 38 km to Andkhoy in January 2021, and is intended eventually to become part of a railway corridor through northern Afghanistan, linking it via Sherkhan Bandar, Mazar-i-Sharif and Kunduz to Tajikistan.
As of 1 April 2011, there were 44 enterprises with Afghan assets in Turkmenistan.
|Albania||24 March 1994|
|Armenia||9 October 1992||See Armenia–Turkmenistan relations |
|Austria||16 October 1992||See Austria–Turkmenistan relations |
Turkmenistan has an embassy in Vienna, which doubles as the permanent mission to United Nations agencies in Vienna.
|Azerbaijan||9 June 1992|
The two countries have embassies in each other's capitals. Despite close linguistic affinities (Turkmen and Azerbaijani are about 65 percent mutually intelligible), Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan suffer from a strained relationship, in part because Turkmenistan is majority Sunni and Azerbaijan is majority Shi'a. Nonetheless the two countries have begun to cooperate more in commercial spheres, most notably with signing of a memorandum in 2020 on joint exploitation of the cross-boundary Serdar oil field in the Caspian.
|Belarus||21 January 1993||See Belarus–Turkmenistan relations |
Roughly 12,000 to 13,000 Turkmen university students are matriculated annually in Belarusian institutions of higher education.
|Belize||11 September 1996|
|Cambodia||6 April 1995|
Both countries established diplomatic relations on 6 April 1995.
|China||6 January 1992|
The two countries have embassies in each other's capitals. The relationship is dominated by China's position as the largest importer by far of natural gas from Turkmenistan, making China Turkmenistan's largest source of foreign exchange earnings. China offers free higher education to several hundred Turkmen students each year.
|Croatia||2 July 1996||See Croatia–Turkmenistan relations|
|Djibouti||4 July 2017|
|Dominica||13 October 2016|
|France||6 March 1992||See France–Turkmenistan relations |
Diplomatic relations were established with the March 6, 1992 signing of the Protocol. Turkmenistan has an embassy in Paris and France has an embassy in Ashgabat. The French construction company Bouygues, the second-largest in Turkmenistan, has signed many construction contracts. The French company Thales Alenia Space constructed the first space satellite TürkmenÄlem 52°E / MonacoSAT.
|Georgia||8 July 1992|
|Germany||6 March 1992|
The two countries have embassies in each other's capitals. Two German banks, Deutsche and Commerz, have offices in Ashgabat, since much of Turkmenistan's foreign exchange accounts are held in those two German banks. Such German firms as Siemens and Claas have made significant sales of medical and agricultural equipment, respectively, to Turkmenistan. Turkmenistan Air offers scheduled service to Frankfurt.
|Guyana||11 June 1997|
|Holy See||10 July 1996|
|Iceland||13 February 1997|
|India||20 April 1992|
India and Turkmenistan have embassies in each other's capitals. Turkmenistan Airlines operates flights between Ashgabat and both New Delhi and Amritsar, which connect in Ashgabat to flights to London and Birmingham. India is a destination for medical tourism by middle-class Turkmen. To some degree the relationship is framed by Turkmenistan's desire to export natural gas to India via the Turkmenistan–Afghanistan–Pakistan–India Pipeline.
|Iran||18 February 1992||See Iran–Turkmenistan relations |
Iran and Turkmenistan have had relations since Turkmenistan's independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Iran has an embassy in Ashgabat and a consulate in Mary. Turkmenistan has an embassy in Teheran and a consulate in Mashhad. Iran was the second nation to recognize Turkmenistan as an independent nation. Since then, the two countries have cooperated in the economic, infrastructure, and energy sectors. The $139 million Korpeje-Kurt Kui gas pipeline in western Turkmenistan and the $167 million Dostluk ("friendship" in Turkmen) Dam in the south of the country were built through a joint venture. The Caspian Sea territorial boundaries are a cause of tension between the two. Iran's Islamic theocracy and Turkmenistan's secular dictatorship also prevent the development of a closer friendship.
|Israel||8 October 1993|
Israel has an embassy in Ashgabat.
|Italy||9 June 1992|
Italy and Turkmenistan have embassies in each other's capitals. The Turkmen ambassador in Rome is also accredited to the United Nations agencies there, and to the Holy See. The relationship is dominated by the presence of Italian petroleum firm Eni, which operates oil wells in the Caspian Sea under a production sharing agreement.
|Japan||22 April 1992|
Diplomatic relations between Japan and Turkmenistan were established in April 1992. Japan opened an embassy at Ashgabat in January 2005, and Turkmenistan opened an embassy in Tokyo in May 2013. Japan is heavily involved in operation of the Oguz Han Engineering Technology University in Ashgabat. The Japan Bank for International Cooperation has financed several major industrial projects in Turkmenistan, including plants constructed with participation of Kawasaki and Sumitomo.
|Kazakhstan||5 October 1992|
|Kyrgyzstan||5 October 1992|
The two countries have embassies in each other's capitals.
|Libya||8 December 1992|
Libya maintains an economic and commercial office rather than an embassy in Ashgabat.
|Malaysia||17 May 1992|
Turkmen-Malaysian relations mainly revolve around the work of the Malaysian state petroleum corporation, Petronas, which extracts petroleum condensate in the Caspian Sea. Turkmenistan Airlines offers scheduled service between Ashgabat and Kuala Lumpur.
|Mexico||27 March 1992|
|North Macedonia||21 June 1996|
|Pakistan||10 May 1992||See Pakistan–Turkmenistan relations|
|Palestine||17 April 1992|
|Qatar||22 November 1996|
Qatar has an embassy in Ashgabat. Turkmenistan has no permanent diplomatic representation in Doha.
|Romania||21 July 1992|
The two countries have embassies in each other's capitals. Romania's primary interest is development of the Lapis Lazuli corridor, which would use Romanian seaports on the Black Sea.
|Russia||8 April 1992||See Russia–Turkmenistan relations|
|Saudi Arabia||22 February 1992|
Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Ashgabat, and Turkmenistan has an embassy in Riyadh.
|South Korea||7 February 1992|
Diplomatic relations were established on February 7, 1992. The countries have embassies in each other's capitals. South Korean firms such as Hyundai and LG have won major contracts for building industrial plants.
|Spain||19 March 1992||See Spain–Turkmenistan relations|
|Suriname||25 June 1999|
|Sweden||10 April 1992|
|Switzerland||13 July 1992|
Turkmenistan maintains a diplomatic mission in Geneva, which doubles as its embassy to Switzerland and is permanent representative to United Nations agencies in Geneva as well as to the World Trade Organization. The Swiss ambassador in Baku is accredited to Turkmenistan.
|Tajikistan||27 January 1993|
The two countries have embassies in each other's capitals.
|Turkey||29 February 1992||See Turkey–Turkmenistan relations |
|Ukraine||10 October 1992|
Ukraine and Turkmenistan have embassies in each other's capitals. Ukrainian companies have been involved in major construction projects, including the rail and automobile bridges across the Amu Darya at Türkmenabat.
|United Arab Emirates||10 October 1995|
The countries have embassies in each other's capitals. In addition, Turkmenistan has a consulate in Dubai. The Emirates are a major entrepot for imports of foodstuffs and consumer items into Turkmenistan. In addition, one of three oil-drilling concessions in the Caspian Sea is held by Dragon Oil, which is wholly owned by the Emirates National Oil Company. The international office of Turkmenistan's TAPI Pipeline Company is in Dubai.
|United Kingdom||23 January 1992|
|United States||10 April 1992||See Turkmenistan–United States relations |
The United States and Turkmenistan continue to disagree about the latter country's path toward democratic and economic reform. The United States has publicly advocated industrial and agricultural privatization, market liberalization, and fiscal reform, as well as legal and regulatory reforms to open up the economy to foreign trade and investment, as the best way to achieve prosperity and true independence and sovereignty.
|Uzbekistan||7 February 1993||See Turkmenistan–Uzbekistan relations |
|Venezuela||30 April 1996|
|Zimbabwe||22 March 1999|
Foreign relations of Kazakhstan are primarily based on economic and political security. The Nazarbayev administration has tried to balance relations with Russia and the United States by sending petroleum and natural gas to its northern neighbor at artificially low prices while assisting the U.S. in the War on Terror. Kazakhstan is a member of the United Nations, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, North Atlantic Cooperation Council, Commonwealth of Independent States, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, and NATO's Partnership for Peace program. Kazakhstan established a customs union with Russia and Belarus, transformed into the Eurasian Economical Community then in 2015 into the Eurasian Economic Union. President Nazarbayev has prioritized economic diplomacy into Kazakhstan's foreign policy.
The economy of Turkmenistan continues to recover from the 2014 downturn in hydrocarbon prices, but remains "in the grip of its worst economic crisis since the immediate postindependence period, driven in part by low gas prices, the suspension of gas exports to Russia between 2016 and 2019...and poor harvests." President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow at a session of the Cabinet of Ministers on March 11, 2021, called the rate of GDP growth unsatisfactory. When discussing the 2021 government budget, he noted that 2021 would be "as difficult" a year as 2020 had been. According to the 2020 Investment Climate Statement of the U.S. Department of State,
Turkmenistan’s economy depends heavily on the production and export of natural gas, oil, petrochemicals and, to a lesser degree, cotton, wheat, and textiles. The economy is still recovering from a deep recession that followed the late 2014 collapse in global energy prices. The current investment climate is considered high risk for U.S. foreign direct investment.
Transport in Turkmenistan includes roadways, railways, airways, seaways, and waterways, as well as oil-, gas-, and water pipelines. Road-, rail-, and waterway transport fall under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Industry and Communications.
Turkmenistan, also known as Turkmenia, officially the Republic of Turkmenistan, is a country in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north, east and northeast, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest and the Caspian Sea to the west. Ashgabat is the capital and largest city of the country. The population of the country is about 6 million, the lowest of the Central Asian republics. Turkmenistan is one of the most sparsely populated nations in Asia. Citizens of Turkmenistan are known as Turkmenistanis, Turkmenians or Turkmens.
Serhetabat is a city and administrative center of Serhetabat District, Mary Province, Turkmenistan, in the valley of the Kushka River. The population was 5,200 in 1991. It is immediately opposite Torghundi, Afghanistan, with which it is connected by a road and a 1,520 mm gauge railway.
Turkmenistan – United States relations are bilateral relations between Turkmenistan and the United States.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Turkmenistan:
Russia–Turkmenistan relations refers to the bilateral relationship between Russia and Turkmenistan. Russia has an embassy in Ashgabat and a consulate-general in Türkmenbaşy. Turkmenistan has an embassy in Moscow.
Uzbekistan–Turkmenistan relations refers to bilateral relations between Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Uzbekistan has an embassy in Ashgabat. Turkmenistan has an embassy in Tashkent. Both countries were previously subordinated republics of the Soviet Union as Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic and Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic before its collapse in 1991.
Pakistan–Turkmenistan relations are the relations between Turkmenistan and Pakistan. Relations between the two countries were established after Turkmenistan became independent from the Soviet Union. Pakistan was one of the first countries to recognise the independence of Turkmenistan in December 1991. Formal diplomatic relations were established on 10 May 1992. To celebrate the 10th anniversary of Turkmenistan's independence in 2001 Pakistan issued stamps bearing the flag of Turkmenistan. Pakistan has accorded approval to Turkmenistan for access to the warm water Gwadar Port as well as Iran and Russia, thus providing Turkmenistan direct access to the Arabian Sea
Armenian-Turkmen relations refers to the bilateral diplomatic relations between Armenia and Turkmenistan. Armenia is represented in Ashgabat by its embassy Turkmenistan also has its own embassy in Yerevan.
The list of Turkmenistan-related articles is below
India–Turkmenistan relations refers to the bilateral relationship between India and Turkmenistan. India has an embassy in Ashgabat which opened in 1994. Turkmenistan has an embassy in New Delhi.
Turkmenistan has 4,980 kilometres (3,090 mi) of railways. The railway operator is the state owned company Türkmendemirýollary. The company belongs to the Ministry of Railways of Turkmenistan. Turkmenistan is currently expanding its rail system to cover 5,256.25 kilometres (3,266.08 mi) more distance, which will take its network to 10,236.25 kilometres (6,360.51 mi) track kilometres by 2025.
Demirýollary AGPJ is the state-owned operator of railways in Turkmenistan. The company operates on 4,980 km (3,090 mi) of railways and maintains over 345 railway stations throughout the country. The company belongs to the Ministry of Industry and Construction and is subordinate to the Railways Agency of Turkmenistan. It is headquartered in Ashgabat. While the rail system itself belongs to the railways agency, the Turkmen Railways company owns the locomotive and railcar depots, rail stations, construction and maintenance units, communications and power supply services, and two hotels in Awaza, the Kerwen and Türkmenbaşy.
Turkey–Turkmenistan relations are foreign relations between Turkey and Turkmenistan. Turkey was the first country in the world to recognize the independence of Turkmenistan during the period of dissolution of the Soviet Union and first country that opened an embassy in the newly independent country. Turkmenistan has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate general in Istanbul. Both countries are full members of the Economic Cooperation Organization, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, International Organization of Turkic Culture and Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. The two countries share close cultural connections. Both have a majority Sunni Muslim population, and both are predominantly inhabited by Turkic peoples, both the Turkish and Turkmen languages belong to the Oghuz subgroup of Turkic languages. Turkey is one of the 47 countries in the world, that, holders of a Turkmen passport can visit without visa.
Spain–Turkmenistan relations are the bilateral and diplomatic relations between these two countries. Turkmenistan does not have an embassy in Spain, but has a plenipotent ambassador for affairs with Spain in Moscow, Russia. Spain does not have an embassy in Turkmenistan, but has an accredited embassy for Turkmenistan affairs in Moscow.