|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
Constitution of Mongolia (Mongolian : Монгол Улсын Үндсэн Хууль, Mongol Ulsīn Ündsen Húlĭ, "General Law of the Mongolian State") is the constitution of Mongolia.
The Mongolian languageMoŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family. The number of speakers across all its dialects may be 5.2 million, including the vast majority of the residents of Mongolia and many of the Mongolian residents of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. In Mongolia, the Khalkha dialect, written in Cyrillic, is predominant, while in Inner Mongolia, the language is dialectally more diverse and is written in the traditional Mongolian script. In the discussion of grammar to follow, the variety of Mongolian treated is Standard Khalkha Mongolian, but much of what is to be said is also valid for vernacular (spoken) Khalkha and for other Mongolian dialects, especially Chakhar.
A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation or other type of entity, and commonly determine how that entity is to be governed.
It was adopted on January 13, 1992, put into force on February 12, and amended in 1999 and 2001. The new constitution established a representative democracy in Mongolia, guaranteeing freedom of religion, rights, travel, expression, unalienable rights, government setup, election cycle, and other matters. It was written after the 1990 Mongolian democratic revolution that dissolved the Mongolian People's Republic. It consists of a preamble followed by six chapters divided into 70 articles.
Representative democracy is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy. Nearly all modern Western-style democracies are types of representative democracies; for example, the United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy, France is a unitary state, and the United States is a federal Constitutional republic.
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance. It also includes the freedom to change one's religion or beliefs.
The Mongolian People's Republic was a unitary sovereign socialist state which existed between 1924 and 1992, coterminous with the present-day country of Mongolia in East Asia. It was ruled by the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party and maintained close links with the Soviet Union throughout its history. Geographically, it was bordered by China to its south and the Soviet Union to its north.
The document is pretty close to and/or inspired by Western constitutions in terms of freedom of press, inalienable rights, freedom to travel, and other rights.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, and European civilization, is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe. The term also applies beyond Europe to countries and cultures whose histories are strongly connected to Europe by immigration, colonization, or influence. For example, Western culture includes countries in the Americas and Australasia, whose language and demographic ethnicity majorities are European. The development of western culture has been strongly influenced by Christianity.
Previous constitutions had been adopted in 1924, 1940 and 1960.
Declares the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Mongolian state. Defines relationship between religion and state. Defines Mongolian emblem, flag, and anthem.
Specifies the civil, political, and human rights of the individual. Freedom of religion, of expression, of the press, the right to vote. Equality before the law. The right to Health care, education, and intellectual property. Also lists duties of the citizen, including paying taxes and serving in the armed forces.
Defines the structure of the legal system and form of the republic. Describes the structure of the government.
Codifies the administrative districts of Mongolia and describes the relationship between national and local government.
Establishes a Constitutional Court to make rulings on interpretation of the constitution.
Describes the amendment process for changing the constitution.
Economic activity in Mongolia has traditionally been based on agriculture and livestock. Mongolia also has extensive mineral deposits: copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold account for a large part of industrial production. Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of Gross domestic product (GDP), disappeared almost overnight in 1990–91, at the time of the Collapse of the Soviet Union. Mongolia was driven into deep recession. Reform has been held back by the ex-communist MPRP opposition and by the political instability brought about through four successive governments under the DUC. Economic growth picked up in 1997–99 after stalling in 1996 due to a series of natural disasters and increases in world prices of copper and cashmere. Public revenues and exports collapsed in 1998 and 1999 due to the repercussions of the Asian financial crisis. In August and September 1999, the economy suffered from a temporary Russian ban on exports of oil and oil products. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1997. The international donor community pledged over $300 million per year at the last Consultative Group Meeting, held in Ulaanbaatar in June 1999. Recently, the Mongolian economy has grown at a fast pace due to an increase in mining and Mongolia attained a GDP growth rate of 11.7% in 2013. However, because much of this growth is export-based, Mongolia is suffering from the global slowdown in mining caused by decreased growth in China.
Civil liberties or personal freedoms are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation, without due process. Though the scope of the term differs between countries, civil liberties may include the freedom of conscience, freedom of press, freedom of religion, freedom of expression, freedom of assembly, the right to security and liberty, freedom of speech, the right to privacy, the right to equal treatment under the law and due process, the right to a fair trial, and the right to life. Other civil liberties include the right to own property, the right to defend oneself, and the right to bodily integrity. Within the distinctions between civil liberties and other types of liberty, distinctions exist between positive liberty/positive rights and negative liberty/negative rights.
Mongolia has diplomatic relations with 188 states—187 UN states, the Holy See and the European Union. Of the states with limited recognition it has relations only with the State of Palestine.
Civil liberties in the United States are certain unalienable rights retained by citizens of the United States under the Constitution of the United States, as interpreted and clarified by the Supreme Court of the United States and lower federal courts. Civil liberties are simply defined as individual legal and constitutional protections from entities more powerful than an individual, for example, parts of the government, other individuals, or corporations. The liberties explicitly defined, make up the Bill of Rights, including freedom of speech, the right to bear arms, and the right to privacy. There are also many liberties of people not defined in the Constitution, as stated in the Ninth Amendment: The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
At the 7th (Special) Session of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union Ninth Convocation on October 7, 1977, the third and last Soviet Constitution, also known as the Brezhnev Constitution or the constitution of the developed Socialism, was adopted unanimously. The official name was the Constitution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The Prime Minister of Mongolia is the head of government, and heads the Mongolian cabinet. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President of Mongolia, and can be removed by the State Great Hural with a vote of no confidence.
The Constitution of South Africa is the supreme law of the Republic of South Africa. It provides the legal foundation for the existence of the republic, sets out the rights and duties of its citizens, and defines the structure of the government. The current constitution, the country's fifth, was drawn up by the Parliament elected in 1994 in the South African general election, 1994. It was promulgated by President Nelson Mandela on 18 December 1996 and came into effect on 4 February 1997, replacing the Interim Constitution of 1993.
Mongolia is divided into 21 Provinces or aimags and one provincial municipality. Each aimag is subdivided into several districts. The modern provinces have been established since 1921. The capital, Ulaanbaatar, is governed as an independent provincial municipality separate from Töv Province, inside which it is situated.
Erdenet is the second-largest city in Mongolia and the capital of the aimag (province) of Orkhon. Officially known as Bayan-Öndör sum. Located in the northern part of the country, it lies in a valley between the Selenge and Orkhon rivers about 150 miles northwest of Ulaanbaatar, the capital. The road length between Ulaanbaatar and Erdenet is about 230 mi (370 km).
The President of Mongolia is the executive head of state of Mongolia.
The State Great Khural is the unicameral parliament of Mongolia. It is located in the Government Palace.
A district is a second level administrative subdivision of Mongolia. The 21 Provinces of Mongolia are divided into 331 districts.
Boroo Gold Mine is an open-pit gold mining site in Mongolia located about 110 km (70 mi) west-northwest of the capital Ulaanbaatar in Bayangol and Mandal sums (districts) of Selenge Province in northern Mongolia. Gatsuurt Gold Mine is 35 E from Boroo Gold Mine.
The preamble to the Constitution of India is a brief introductory statement that sets out guidelines to guide people and to present the principles of the document, and to indicate the source from which the ordinary document derives its authority, meaning, and the people. The hopes and aspirations of the people as well as the ideals before our nation are described in the preamble in clear words. The preamble can be referred to as the preface which highlights the entire Constitution. It was adopted on 26 November 1949 by the Constituent Assembly and came into effect on 26 January 1950, which is celebrated as the Republic day in India.
The media of Mongolia refers to the print, broadcast and online media in Mongolia. Since the collapse of the Soviet style system in 1990, the media has undergone large reforms which have allowed greater diversity and freedom of the press which make it one of the most free in the region. Censorship of media outlets is forbidden under the 1998 Media Freedom Law. In its 2013 report, Reporters Without Borders classified the media environment as 98th out of 179, with 1st being most free.
The Constitutional Court of Mongolia is the highest court in Mongolia responsible for the interpretation of the constitution. Thus, the Constitutional Court has supreme power over the implementation of the Mongolian Constitution. The Court delivers decisions on violations of constitutional procedures and resolves constitutional disputes. All governmental action is subject to the Court.
The Supreme Court of Mongolia is the highest court in the judicial system of Mongolia, and is generally the court of last resort for non-constitutional matters. It is established by Article 48(1) of the Constitution of Mongolia. The 1992 Constitution states in Article 50(1) that "the Supreme Court shall be the highest judicial organ".
Erdenet Mining Corporation - mining corporation in Erdenet, Mongolia.
The Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt was the former fundamental law of Egypt. It was signed into law by President Mohamed Morsi on 26 December 2012, after it was approved by the Constituent Assembly on 30 November 2012 and passed in a referendum held 15–22 December 2012 with 64% support, and a turnout of 33%. It replaced the 2011 Provisional Constitution of Egypt, adopted in 2011 following the Egyptian revolution. On 3 July 2013, the constitution was suspended by order of the Egyptian army. On 8 July 2013, acting President Adly Mansour issued a decree that envisaged the introduction of amendments to the constitution and put them to a referendum; if approved, the suspended-constitution would be restored into law. The current constitutional declaration has the power of a constitution; it outlines the authorities of the president and establishes many rights.
|This Mongolia-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|