Zhang (surname)

Last updated
Zhang
Zhang Xing  - Kai Ti .svg
Zhang king surname in regular script
Romanization Chang, Zhang (Mandarin)
Cheung (Hong Kong)
Cheong (Macao, Malaysia)
Tsan, Tsaon (Shanghai)
Teo, Teoh (Hokkien, Teochew)
Tew (Hokkien)
Chong, Cheong (Hakka)
Cheong (Gan)
Jang, Chang () (Korean)
Trương, Trang (Vietnamese)
Pronunciation IPA: /tʂɑŋ˥/(Mandarin IPA)
Zhāng (Pinyin)
Zoeng1(Cantonese Jyutping)
Tiuⁿ (Pe̍h-ōe-jī)
Language(s)Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese
Origin
Language(s) Old Chinese
Derivation Nie
Meaningdrawing a bow, [1]
archer, bowyer, a measure word

Zhang ( [ʈʂáŋ] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is the pinyin romanization of the very common Chinese surname written in simplified characters and in traditional characters. It is spoken in the first tone: Zhāng. It is a surname that exists in many languages and cultures, corresponding to the surname 'Archer' in English for example. [2] Chang is the Wade-Giles romanization; Cheung is commonly used in Hong Kong as romanization.

Contents

It is also the pinyin romanization of the less-common surnames (Zhāng), which is the 40th name on the Hundred Family Surnames poem. There is the even-less common (Zhǎng).

was listed 24th in the famous Song-era Hundred Family Surnames , contained in the verse 何呂施張 (He Lü Shi Zhang). Today, it is one of the most common surnames in the world at over 100 million people worldwide. [3] was listed by the People's Republic of China's National Citizen ID Information System as the third-most-common surname in mainland China in April 2007, with 87.50 million bearers. [4] [5] A commonly cited but erroneous factoid in the 1990 Guinness Book of Records listed it as the world's most common surname, [6] but no comprehensive information from China was available at the time and more recent editions have not repeated the claim.


Romanization

() are also commonly romanized as Chang in Taiwan and among the Chinese diaspora using the older Wade-Giles system. Both are also romanized as Cheung in Hong Kong; Cheong in Macao and Malaysia; Teo and Teoh in Teochew; Chong and Cheong in Hakka; Tsan and Tsaon among Wu Chinese varieties like Shanghainese;[ citation needed ]Cheong in Gan; and Tiong in East Malaysia and the Philippines; and Tjong , Sutiono or Thiono in Indonesia.

is the Hanja of the Korean surname romanized Jang and Chang ( ). It remains the Kanji for the Japanese surname romanized Chō.

In Vietnamese, is the Chữ Nôm form of the Vietnamese surname Trương .

Distribution

As mentioned above, is the third-most-common surname in mainland China, making up 6.83% of the population of the People's Republic of China. [7] In 2019 it was the most common surname in exactly one provincial-level division, Shanghai municipality. [8] In Taiwan, is the fourth-most-common surname, making up 5.26% of the population of the Republic of China. [9] In 2019 it was again the third most common surname in Mainland China. [10]

Zhang Wei (张伟) has been the most common family name and given name combination in China for many years.

Among the Chinese diaspora, the name remains common but takes on various romanizations. "Chong" is the 19th-most-common surname among Chinese Singaporeans; [11] "Chang" is the 6th-most-common surname among Chinese Americans; and "Zhang" was the 7th-most-common particularly Chinese surname (i.e., excluding ethnically diverse surnames such as "Lee") found in a 2010 survey of Ontario's Registered Persons Database of Canadian health card recipients. [12]

History

Characters

combines the Chinese characters (gōng, "bow") and ( simp. , cháng, "long" or "wide"). It originally meant "to open up" or "to spread" as an arching bow, but as a common noun in modern use it is a measure word for flat objects such as paper and cloth, like the English "sheet of".


Families

The traditional origin of the surname (Old Chinese: *C. traŋ [1] ) is rooted in Chinese legend. The fifth son of the Yellow Emperor, Qing Yangshi ( 氏/青 , Qīng Yángshì), had a son Hui ( 揮/挥 , Huī) who was inspired by the Heavenly Bow constellation ( 天弓星 , Tiān Gōng Xīng) to invent the bow and arrow. Hui was then promoted to "First Bow" ( , Gōng Zhèng) and bestowed the surname , which when broken into its constituent radicals  means "widening bow" or "archer". Its Middle Chinese pronunciation has been reconstructed as Trjang. [1]


Other origins

List of persons with the surname

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Those whose original surnames at birth are Zhang are also included on this list.

Historical figures
Science and mathematics
Government and military
Entertainment
Writers
Sports
Others
Fictional and mythological characters
Tiong
Tjong
Cheong

See also

Related Research Articles

Chinese surnames are used by Han Chinese and Sinicized ethnic groups in China, Taiwan, Korea, Vietnam, Singapore and among overseas Chinese communities around the world. Chinese surnames are given first for names written in Chinese, which is the opposite of Western naming convention where surnames come last. Around 2,000 Han Chinese surnames are currently in use, but the great proportion of Han Chinese people use only a relatively small number of these surnames; 19 surnames are used by around half of the Han Chinese people, while 100 surnames are used by around 87% of the population. A report in 2019 gives the most common Chinese surnames as Wang and Li, each shared by over 100 million people in China, with Zhang, Liu, Chen, Yang, Huang, Zhao, Wu and Zhou making up the rest of the ten most common Chinese names.

Wang (surname) Surname list

Wang is the pinyin romanization of the common Chinese surnames (Wáng) and (Wāng).

Huang (surname) Surname list

Huang is a Chinese surname that means "Yellow". While Huáng is the pinyin romanization of the word, it may also be romanized as Hwang, Wong, Waan, Wan, Waon, Hwong, Vong, Hung, Hong, Bong, Eng, Ng, Uy, Wee, Oi, Oei, Oey, Ooi, Ong, or Ung due to pronunciations of the word in different dialects and languages. It is the 96th name on the Hundred Family Surnames poem.

Chen (surname) Surname list

Chen is a common East Asian surname. It is the most common surname in Taiwan (2010) and Singapore (2000). Chen is also the most common family name in Guangdong, Zhejiang, Fujian, and Hong Kong. It is the most common surname in Xiamen, the ancestral hometown of many overseas Hoklo. Besides 陳/陈, an uncommon Chinese surname 諶/谌 (Shen) can also be romanized as Chen.

Zhang Yi may refer to:

Yang (surname) Surname list

Yang is the transcription of a Chinese family name. It is the sixth most common surname in Mainland China. It is the 16th name on the Hundred Family Surnames text.

Cui, alternatively spelled Tsui or Tsway, is one of the 100 most common surnames in China, with around 0.28% of the Chinese population having the surname. It is also one of the most common surnames in Korea, with around 4.7% of the population having the surname in South Korea.

Zhong (surname) Surname list

Zhong is pinyin transliteration of several Chinese surnames, including Zhōng (鍾/钟), Zhòng and Zhòng (仲), etc. These are also transliterated as Chung. It is sometimes transliterated as Cheong or Choong in Malaysia. In Indonesia, it is transliterated as Tjung or Tjoeng.

Lü (surname) Surname list

is the pinyin and Wade–Giles romanisation of the Chinese surname written 吕 in simplified character and 呂 in traditional character. It is the 47th most common surname in China, shared by 5.6 million people, or 0.47% of the Chinese population as of 2002. It is especially common in Shandong and Henan provinces.

Shěn Surname list

Shěn is the Mandarin Hanyu pinyin romanization of the Chinese surname 沈.

Li (surname 李) Lee #Li

Li is the second most common surname in China as of 2018, behind only Wang. It is one of the most common surnames in the world, shared by 92.76 million people in China, and more than 100 million worldwide. It is the fourth name listed in the Song dynasty classic text Hundred Family Surnames.

Lu (surname 盧) Chinese surname with character 卢/盧 (pinyin: Lú)

is the pinyin romanization of the Chinese surname written 卢 in simplified character and 盧 in traditional character. It is also spelled Lo according to the Cantonese pronunciation. Lu 卢 is the 52nd most common surname in China, shared by 5.6 million people, or 0.475% of the Chinese population as of 2002. It is especially common in Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, and Hebei provinces. Lu 卢 is listed 167th in the Song Dynasty classic text Hundred Family Surnames.

Lu (surname 陸) Chinese surname Lu 陸/陆 (pinyin:Lù)

Lu is the pinyin and Wade–Giles romanization of the Chinese surname written 陆 in simplified character and 陸 in traditional character. It is also spelled Luk or Loke according to the Cantonese pronunciation. Lu 陆 is the 61st most common surname in China, shared by 4.2 million people. Most people with the surname live in southern China; 44% live in just two provinces: Jiangsu and Guangxi. Lu 陸 is listed 198th in the Song Dynasty classic text Hundred Family Surnames.

Ji (surname 纪) Chinese surname Ji 紀/纪

is the Mandarin pinyin romanization of the Chinese surname written 纪 in simplified Chinese and 紀 in traditional Chinese. It is romanized as Chi in Wade–Giles, and Kei in Cantonese. Ji is the 136th most common surname in China, with a population of 1.1 million. It is listed 122nd in the Song dynasty classic text Hundred Family Surnames. It is 42nd in the Hundred Family Surnames, contained in the verse 熊紀舒屈.

Ni (surname) Surname list

Ni is the Mandarin pinyin and Wade–Giles romanization of the Chinese surname written 倪 in Chinese character. It is romanized Ngai in Cantonese. It is romanized as "Geh" in Malaysia and Singapore, and "Ge" in Indonesia, from its Minnan / Hokkian pronunciation. Ni is listed 71st in the Song dynasty classic text Hundred Family Surnames. As of 2008, it is the 116th most common surname in China, shared by 1.4 million people.

Dou (surname) Surname list

Dou is the Mandarin pinyin romanization of the Chinese surname written 窦 in simplified Chinese and 竇 in traditional Chinese. It is romanized Tou in Wade–Giles. Dou is listed 39th in the Song dynasty classic text Hundred Family Surnames. As of 2008, it is the 219th most common surname in China, shared by 380,000 people.

Che (surname) Surname list

Che is the Mandarin pinyin romanization of the Chinese surname written 車 in traditional Chinese and 车 in simplified Chinese. It is listed 229th in the Song dynasty classic text Hundred Family Surnames. As of 2008, it is the 191st most common surname in China, shared by 540,000 people. It is romanized Cha in Korean.

Jiang is one of the oldest Chinese surname, being one of the original xing (姓) surnames. It was one of the "Eight Great Xings of High Antiquity" (上古八大姓), along with Jī (姬), Yáo (姚), Yíng (嬴), Sì (姒), Yún (妘), Guī (媯) and Rèn (妊), though some sources quote Jí (姞) as the last one instead of Rèn. Of these xing, only Jiang and Yao have survived in their original form to modern days as frequently occurring surnames. It is the 32nd surname listed in the Song dynasty-era Hundred Family Surnames poem. It is the 60th most common surname in China (2007), roughly 0.34% of the Han Chinese population. The Lu clan of Fanyang stem from this surname before taking on the Lu (盧) surname. Derivative surnames of Jiang include Zhang, Lü, Qiu, Shen., These originated:

Wéi is a Chinese surname meaning meaning ‘leather’ in ancient Chinese. It is the 62nd most common name in China as of 2018. It is Wai in Cantonese. It is the 50th name on the Hundred Family Surnames poem.

Wèi. is a Chinese surname. It means ‘defend, guard’ and is written Wai in Cantonese. The character 衞 is traditionally preferred although 衛 is now more prevalent, with 卫 being the simplified form in Mainland China. In 2013 it was found to be the 214th most common surname, shared by 480,000 people or 0.036% of the population, with the province with the most being Shanxi.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Baxter, Wm. H. & Sagart, Laurent. "Baxter–Sagart Old Chinese Reconstruction". Archived from the original on April 25, 2012. (1.93 MB), p. 143. 2011. Accessed 11 October 2011.
  2. "Zhang Name Meaning & Zhang Family History at Ancestry.ca". www.ancestry.ca. Retrieved 2018-07-17.
  3. "What are the 10 most common last names in the world?", reference.com
  4. Xinhua. "公安部统计分析显示:王姓成为我国第一大姓." (in Chinese)
  5. People's Daily. "Chinese Surname Shortage Sparks Rethink."
  6. McFarlan, Donald. 1990 Guinness Book of World Records . Sterling Pub. Co., 2001. ISBN   189205101X.
  7. "公安部统计:'王'成中国第一大姓 有9288万人 [Public Security Bureau Statistics: 'Wang' Found China's #1 'Big Family', Includes 92.88m People]." 24 Apr 2007. Accessed 27 Mar 2012.(in Chinese)
  8. http://www.bjnews.com.cn/news/2020/01/20/676822.html
  9. 中华百家姓-千字文-国学经典-文化经典. "中国台湾姓氏排行 [Taiwan (China) Surname Ranking]". 8 Jun 2010. Accessed 1 Apr 2012. (in Chinese)
  10. http://www.bjnews.com.cn/news/2020/01/20/676822.html
  11. Statistics Singapore. "Popular Chinese Surnames in Singapore".
  12. Shah, B. R.; Chiu, M.; Amin, S.; Ramani, M.; Sadry, S.; Tu, J. V. (2010). "Surname lists to identify South Asian and Chinese ethnicity from secondary data in Ontario, Canada: A validation study". BMC Medical Research Methodology. 10: 42. doi:10.1186/1471-2288-10-42. PMC   2877682 . PMID   20470433.
  13. (本聶壹之後,以避怨變姓。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.