James Rothman

Last updated

James Rothman
Born
James Edward Rothman

(1950-11-03)November 3, 1950
NationalityAmerican
CitizenshipUnited States
Alma mater
Awards
Scientific career
Fields Cell biology
Institutions
Thesis Transbilayer asymmetry and its maintenance in biological membranes  (1976)
Academic advisors Harvey Lodish
Notable students Gero Miesenböck (postdoc) [2] [3]
Website www.chem.yale.edu/faculty/rothman.html

James Edward Rothman (November 3, 1950 – ) is an American biochemist. He is the Fergus F. Wallace Professor of Biomedical Sciences at Yale University, the Chairman of the Department of Cell Biology at Yale School of Medicine, and the Director of the Nanobiology Institute at the Yale West Campus. [4] Rothman also concurrently serves as adjunct professor of physiology and cellular biophysics at Columbia University [5] and a research professor at the UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, University College London. [6] Rothman was awarded the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, for his work on vesicle trafficking (shared with Randy Schekman and Thomas C. Südhof). [7] He received many other honors including the King Faisal International Prize in 1996, [8] the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University and the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research both in 2002. [9] [10]

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.

Yale University private research university in New Haven, Connecticut, United States

Yale University is a private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701, it is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine Colonial Colleges chartered before the American Revolution.

Yale School of Medicine

The Yale School of Medicine is the graduate medical school at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. It was founded in 1810 as The Medical Institution of Yale College, and formally opened in 1813.

Contents

Education

Rothman earned his high school diploma from Pomfret School in 1967, then received his B.A. in physics at Yale University in 1971 and his Ph.D. in biological chemistry at Harvard in 1976 working with Eugene Patrick Kennedy. [11]

Pomfret School

Pomfret School is an independent, coeducational, college preparatory boarding and day school in Pomfret, Connecticut, United States, serving 360 students in grades 9 through 12 and post-graduates. Located in the Pomfret Street Historic District, a 45-minute drive west from Boston, the average class size is 11 students with a student-teacher ratio of 6:1. Over 80% of faculty hold master's or doctorate degrees. Typically, 40% of students receive financial aid or support from over 60 endowed scholarship funds, 9% are students of color, 17% are international students.

Career and research

Following his PhD, Rothman did postdoctoral research with Harvey Lodish at Massachusetts Institute of Technology working on glycosylation of membrane proteins. [1] [11] He moved to the Department of Biochemistry at Stanford University in 1978. He was at Princeton University, from 1988 to 1991, before coming to New York to found the Department of Cellular Biochemistry and Biophysics at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, where he also served as vice chairman of Sloan-Kettering Institute. In 2003, he left Sloan-Kettering to become a professor of physiology at Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons and the head of Columbia's Center for Chemical Biology. [12] He moved from Columbia to Yale in 2008, retaining a part-time appointment at Columbia. Since 2013 he is also holding a position as Distinguished Professor-in-Residence at the Shanghai Institute for Advanced Immunochemical Studies of ShanghaiTech University. [13]

Harvey F. Lodish is a molecular and cell biologist, professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Founding Member of the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, and lead author of the textbook Molecular Cell Biology. Lodish's research focuses on cell surface proteins and other important areas at the interface between molecular cell biology and medicine.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology University in Massachusetts

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering. The Institute is a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant university, with a campus that extends more than a mile alongside the Charles River. Its influence in the physical sciences, engineering, and architecture, and more recently in biology, economics, linguistics, management, and social science and art, has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world.

Stanford University private research university located in Stanford, California, United States

Leland Stanford Junior University is a private research university in Stanford, California. Stanford is known for its academic strength, wealth, proximity to Silicon Valley, and ranking as one of the world's top universities.

In 1995, Rothman joined the Amersham plc scientific advisory board. When Amersham was acquired by GE Healthcare in 2003, Rothman was appointed as the Chief Science Advisor to GE Healthcare.

Amersham plc company

Amersham plc was a manufacturer of radiopharmaceutical products, to be used in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures. The company became GE Healthcare following a takeover in 2003, which is based at the original site in Amersham, Buckinghamshire.

GE Healthcare company

GE Healthcare is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. As of 2017, the company is a manufacturer and distributor of diagnostic imaging agents and radiopharmaceuticals for imaging modalities that are used in medical imaging procedures. The company offers dyes that are used in magnetic-resonance-imaging procedures. GE Healthcare also manufactures medical diagnostic equipment including CT image machines. Further, it develops Health technology for medical imaging and information technologies, medical diagnostics, patient monitoring systems, disease research, drug discovery, and biopharmaceutical manufacturing. The company was incorporated in 1994 and operates in more than 100 countries. GE Healthcare operates as a subsidiary of General Electric.

Nobel Prize Ceremony: James Rothman receives his award from king of Sweden. Nobel prize for J.Rothman. Sthlm2013.JPG
Nobel Prize Ceremony: James Rothman receives his award from king of Sweden.

Rothman's research [14] details how vesicles—tiny sac-like structures that transport hormones, growth factors, and other molecules within cells—know how to reach their correct destination and where and when to release their contents. This cellular trafficking underlies many critical physiological functions, including the propagation of the cell itself in division, communication between nerve cells in the brain, secretion of insulin and other hormones in the body, and nutrient uptake. Defects in this process lead to a wide variety of conditions, including diabetes and botulism.

Botulism human and animal disease

Botulism is a rare and potentially fatal illness caused by a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. The disease begins with weakness, blurred vision, feeling tired, and trouble speaking. This may then be followed by weakness of the arms, chest muscles, and legs. Vomiting, swelling of the abdomen, and diarrhea may also occur. The disease does not usually affect consciousness or cause a fever.

Awards and honors

Rothman was awarded the 2010 Kavli Prize Neuroscience together with Richard Scheller and Thomas C. Südhof for "discovering the molecular basis of neurotransmitters release". [15]

Kavli Prize award

The Kavli Prize was established in 2005 through a joint venture between the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research, and The Kavli Foundation. The main objective for the Prize is to honor, support and recognize scientists for outstanding scientific work in the fields of astrophysics, nanoscience and neuroscience and award three international prizes every second year. The Kavli Prize was awarded the first time in Oslo, 9 September 2008. The Prizes were presented by Haakon, Crown Prince of Norway. Each of the three Kavli Prizes consists of a gold medal, a scroll, and a cash award of US $1,000,000.

Richard H. Scheller is the Chief Science Officer & Head of Therapeutics at 23andMe and the former Executive Vice President of Research and Early Development at Genentech. He was a Professor at Stanford University from 1982 to 2001 before joining Genentech. He has been awarded the Alan T. Waterman Award in 1989, the W. Alden Spencer Award in 1993 and the NAS Award in Molecular Biology in 1997, won the 2010 Kavli Prize in Neuroscience with Thomas C. Südhof and James E. Rothman, and won the 2013 Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research with Thomas Sudhof. He was also given the Life Sciences Distinguished Alumni Award from University of Wisconsin–Madison. He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a Member of the National Academy of Sciences.

Thomas C. Südhof German biochemist

Thomas Christian Südhof, ForMemRS, is a German-American biochemist known for his study of synaptic transmission. Currently, he is a professor in the School of Medicine in the Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, and by courtesy in Neurology, and in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University.

Rothman was awarded the 2013 Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine together with Randy Schekman and Thomas C. Südhof for "their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells." [16] [17] [18]

Rothman is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and its Institute of Medicine. [11]

Related Research Articles

Vesicle (biology and chemistry) any small, fluid-filled, spherical organelle enclosed by a membrane

In cell biology, a vesicle is a large structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of liquid enclosed by a lipid bilayer. Vesicles form naturally during the processes of secretion (exocytosis), uptake (endocytosis) and transport of materials within the plasma membrane. Alternatively, they may be prepared artificially, in which case they are called liposomes. If there is only one phospholipid bilayer, they are called unilamellar liposome vesicles; otherwise they are called multilamellar. The membrane enclosing the vesicle is also a lamellar phase, similar to that of the plasma membrane and vesicles can fuse with the plasma membrane to release their contents outside the cell. Vesicles can also fuse with other organelles within the cell.

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Leland Harrison (Lee) Hartwell is former president and director of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington. He shared the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Paul Nurse and Tim Hunt, for their discoveries of protein molecules that control the division (duplication) of cells.

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Joseph L. Goldstein scientist

Joseph Leonard Goldstein ForMemRS is an American biochemist. He received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1985, along with fellow University of Texas researcher, Michael Brown, for their studies regarding cholesterol. They discovered that human cells have low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors that remove cholesterol from the blood and that when LDL receptors are not present in sufficient numbers, individuals develop hypercholesterolemia and become at risk for cholesterol related diseases, notably coronary heart disease. Their studies led to the development of statin drugs.

Randy Schekman Nobel prize winning American cell biologist

Randy Wayne Schekman is an American cell biologist at the University of California, Berkeley and former editor-in-chief of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. In 2011, he was announced as the editor of eLife, a new high-profile open-access journal published by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Max Planck Society and the Wellcome Trust launching in 2012. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1992. Schekman shared the 2013 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with James Rothman and Thomas C. Südhof for their ground-breaking work on cell membrane vesicle trafficking.

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References

  1. 1 2 "James E. Rothman, Faculty: Yale Department of Chemistry". Chem.yale.edu. Archived from the original on December 11, 2012. Retrieved October 7, 2013.
  2. Miesenböck, G.; Rothman, J. E. (1997). "Patterns of synaptic activity in neural networks recorded by light emission from synaptolucins". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 94 (7): 3402–3407. doi:10.1073/pnas.94.7.3402. PMC   20382 . PMID   9096406.
  3. Miesenböck, G.; De Angelis, D. A.; Rothman, J. E. (1998). "Visualizing secretion and synaptic transmission with pH-sensitive green fluorescent proteins". Nature. 394 (6689): 192–195. doi:10.1038/28190. PMID   9671304.
  4. "James E Rothman" . Retrieved 7 October 2013.
  5. "P&S Adjunct Faculty Member Wins 2013 Nobel Prize". Columbia Newsroom. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
  6. http://www.leighbureau.com/speakers/JRothman/
  7. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved October 7, 2013.
  8. "KFIP Winners Archive" (PDF). King Faisal Foundation.
  9. Neill, Ushma S. (2015). "A conversation with James Rothman". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 125 (2): 460–461. doi:10.1172/JCI80641. ISSN   0021-9738. PMC   4319411 . PMID   25642705.
  10. Wickner, W. T. (2013). "Profile of Thomas Sudhof, James Rothman, and Randy Schekman, 2013 Nobel Laureates in Physiology or Medicine". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 110 (46): 18349–18350. doi:10.1073/pnas.1319309110. ISSN   0027-8424. PMC   3832004 . PMID   24158482.
  11. 1 2 3 "Yale's James Rothman shares 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine". Yale News. 7 October 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
  12. "Leading Cell Biologist Joins Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons". Columbia Medical Center Newsroom. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
  13. "ShanghaiTech professor named 'Highly Cited Researcher'" . Retrieved 7 March 2017.
  14. James Rothman's publications indexed by the Scopus bibliographic database. (subscription required)
  15. "JAMES ROTHMAN". Kavlifoundation.org. September 6, 2010. Archived from the original on October 15, 2013. Retrieved October 7, 2013.
  16. Altman, Lawrence (7 October 2013). "3 Win Joint Nobel Prize in Medicine". NY Times. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
  17. "James E. Rothman, Ph.D. '76, Shares Nobel Prize for Medicine". Harvard Magazine. 7 October 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
  18. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013". Nobel Prize. Retrieved 7 October 2013.