Yale School of Medicine

Last updated
Yale School of Medicine
Yale School of Medicine logo.svg
Coat of arms of the School
Type Private medical school
Established1810
Academic staff
2,451 full time
2,067 adjunct
Students718 including:
  • 516 MD
  • 100 MD/PhD
  • 102 PA [1]
Postgraduates 1,151
Location, ,
U.S.
DeanRobert J. Alpern
Website medicine.yale.edu

The Yale School of Medicine is the graduate medical school at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. It was founded in 1810 as The Medical Institution of Yale College, and formally opened in 1813.

A medical school is a tertiary educational institution, or part of such an institution, that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons. Such medical degrees include the Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, Doctor of Medicine (MD), or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (DO). Many medical schools offer additional degrees, such as a Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D), Master's degree (M.Sc), a physician assistant program, or other post-secondary education.

Yale University Private research university in New Haven, Connecticut, United States

Yale University is a private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701, it is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine Colonial Colleges chartered before the American Revolution. Yale consistently ranks among the top universities in the world.

New Haven, Connecticut City in Connecticut, United States

New Haven is a coastal city in the U.S. state of Connecticut. It is located on New Haven Harbor on the northern shore of Long Island Sound in New Haven County, Connecticut, and is part of the New York metropolitan area. With a population of 129,779 as determined by the 2010 United States Census, it is the second-largest city in Connecticut after Bridgeport. New Haven is the principal municipality of Greater New Haven, which had a total population of 862,477 in 2010.

Contents

The primary teaching hospital for the school is Yale-New Haven Hospital. The school is home to the Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Library, one of the largest modern medical libraries and also known for its historical collections. The faculty includes 62 National Academy of Sciences members, 40 Institute of Medicine investigators, and 16 Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigators. [2]

Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Library

The Harvey Cushing and John Hay Whitney Medical Library is the central library of the Yale School of Medicine, Yale School of Nursing, and Yale-New Haven Hospital in New Haven, Connecticut. According to its mission statement, the Library "strives to be a center of excellence that develops and sustains services and resources to support the biomedical, health, and public health care information needs of Yale University and the Yale-New Haven Medical Center."

The Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) is an American non-profit medical research organization based in Chevy Chase, Maryland. It was founded by the American businessman Howard Hughes in 1953. It is one of the largest private funding organizations for biological and medical research in the United States. HHMI spends about $1 million per HHMI Investigator per year, which amounts to annual investment in biomedical research of about $825 million.

U.S. News and World Report currently ranks the Yale School of Medicine 13th in the country for research, and 51st in primary care. [3] Entrance is highly selective; for the class of 2022, the school received 4,968 applications to fill its class of 104 students. The median GPA for Class of 2022 was a 3.89, with a median MCAT of 521. [4]

Education

Yale's medical campus and The Hill neighborhood from the south Yale University 08.jpg
Yale's medical campus and The Hill neighborhood from the south

The School of Medicine offers the Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) degree and a Master of Medical Science (M.M.Sc.) degree through the Yale Physician Associate Program and Yale Physician Assistant Online Program for prospective physician assistants. Public health degrees are administered through the Yale School of Public Health. [5]

Doctor of Medicine is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions. In the United States, Canada and some other countries, the M.D. denotes a professional graduate degree awarded upon graduation from medical school. In the United States, this generally arose because many in 18th century medical profession trained in Scotland, which used the M.D. degree nomenclature. In England, however, Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery was used and eventually in the 19th century became the standard in Scotland too. Thus, in the United Kingdom, Ireland and other countries, the M.D. is a research doctorate, higher doctorate, honorary doctorate or applied clinical degree restricted to those who already hold a professional degree in medicine; in those countries, the equivalent professional to the North American and some others use of M.D. is still typically titled Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (M.B.B.S.).

An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, usually at a college or university. These institutions commonly offer degrees at various levels, usually including bachelor's, master’s and doctorates, often alongside other academic certificates and professional degrees. The most common undergraduate degree is the bachelor's degree, although in some countries there are lower level higher education qualifications that are also titled degrees.

The Yale Physician Associate program accepted its first class in 1971. The mission of the program is to educate individuals to become outstanding clinicians and to foster leaders who will serve their communities and advance the physician assistant (PA) profession. The program's founder, Dr. Alfred M. Sadler Jr., served as its first director in 1970. Yale School of Medicine maintains the only PA program named "Physician Associate" program instead of a "Physicians Assistant" program in the United States, as it pre-dates the formation of the accreditation body and has elected to retain its original name. Note that despite the difference in name, graduates of the program will take the Physician Assistant National Certifying Exam and will be called a physician assistant when practicing.

There are also joint degree programs with other disciplines at Yale, including the M.D/Juris Doctor (J.D.) in conjunction with Yale Law School; the M.D./Master of Business Administration (M.B.A.) in conjunction with the Yale School of Management; the M.D./Master of Public Health (M.P.H.) in conjunction with the Yale School of Public Health; science or engineering in conjunction with the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (M.D./Ph.D.); and the M.D./Master of Divinity (M.Div) in conjunction with Yale Divinity School. Students pursuing a tuition-free fifth year of research are eligible for the Master of Health Science degree.

Juris Doctor graduate-entry professional degree in law

The Juris Doctor degree, also known as the Doctor of Jurisprudence degree, is a graduate-entry professional degree in law and one of several Doctor of Law degrees. The Juris Doctor is earned by completing law school in Australia, Canada, the United States, and some other common law countries. It has the academic standing of a professional doctorate in the United States, a master's degree in Australia, and a second-entry, baccalaureate degree in Canada.

Yale Law School Law school of Yale University

Yale Law School is the law school of Yale University, located in New Haven, Connecticut, United States. Established in 1824, Yale Law offers the J.D., LL.M., J.S.D., M.S.L., and Ph.D. degrees in law.

The Master of Business Administration degree originated in the United States in the early 20th century when the country industrialized and companies sought scientific approaches to management. The core courses in an MBA program cover various areas of business such as accounting, applied statistics, business communication, business ethics, business law, finance, managerial economics, management, entrepreneurship, marketing, supply chain, and operations in a manner most relevant to management analysis and strategy.

The M.D. program is notable for its assessment of student achievement. In particular, the school employs the so-called "Yale System" established by Dean Winternitz in the 1920s, wherein first- and second-year students are not graded or ranked among their classmates. In addition, course examinations are anonymous, and are intended only for students' self-evaluation. Student performance is thus based on seminar participation, qualifying examinations (if a student fails, it is his or her responsibility to meet with a professor and arrange for an alternative assessment - passing grades are not released), clinical clerkship evaluations, and the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE). Prior to graduation, students are required to submit a thesis based on original research. A hallmark of the Yale System is the unusual flexibility that it provides; with this flexibility comes great responsibility for the student to take an active role in directing his or her education according to individual interests.

Test (assessment) Procedure for measuring a subjects knowledge, skill, aptitude, physical fitness, or other characteristics

A test or examination is an assessment intended to measure a test-taker's knowledge, skill, aptitude, physical fitness, or classification in many other topics. A test may be administered verbally, on paper, on a computer, or in a predetermined area that requires a test taker to demonstrate or perform a set of skills. Tests vary in style, rigor and requirements. For example, in a closed book test, a test taker is usually required to rely upon memory to respond to specific items whereas in an open book test, a test taker may use one or more supplementary tools such as a reference book or calculator when responding. A test may be administered formally or informally. An example of an informal test would be a reading test administered by a parent to a child. A formal test might be a final examination administered by a teacher in a classroom or an I.Q. test administered by a psychologist in a clinic. Formal testing often results in a grade or a test score. A test score may be interpreted with regards to a norm or criterion, or occasionally both. The norm may be established independently, or by statistical analysis of a large number of participants. An exam is meant to test a persons knowledge or willingness to give time to manipulate that subject.

Seminar form of academic instruction

A seminar is a form of academic instruction, either at an academic institution or offered by a commercial or professional organization. It has the function of bringing together small groups for recurring meetings, focusing each time on some particular subject, in which everyone present is requested to participate. This is often accomplished through an ongoing Socratic dialogue with a seminar leader or instructor, or through a more formal presentation of research. It is essentially a place where assigned readings are discussed, questions can be raised and debates can be conducted.

The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) is a three-step examination for medical licensure in the United States and is sponsored by the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). Physicians with an MD degree are required to pass this examination before being permitted to practice medicine in the United States; see below for requirements of physicians with a DO degree.

Other key features of the Yale System include:

More graduates of the Yale School of Medicine enter medical scholarship (including Ph.D. degrees in Medicine) as professors of medicine than those graduates of other medical schools.

History

Original building of Yale School of Medicine, formerly a hotel built by James Hillhouse at the corner of Grove and Prospect Streets. Originally leased by Yale, the building was later purchased with funds from the Connecticut State Legislature. Original Yale School of Medicine building Grove Street New Haven Connecticut.jpg
Original building of Yale School of Medicine, formerly a hotel built by James Hillhouse at the corner of Grove and Prospect Streets. Originally leased by Yale, the building was later purchased with funds from the Connecticut State Legislature.

In 18th century United States, credentials were not needed to practice medicine. Prior to the founding of the medical school, Yale graduates would train through an apprenticeship in order to become physicians. Yale President Ezra Stiles conceived the idea of training physicians at Yale and ultimately, his successor Timothy Dwight IV helped to found the medical school. The school was chartered in 1810 and opened in New Haven in 1813. Nathan Smith (medicine and surgery) and Benjamin Silliman (pharmacology) were the first faculty members. Silliman was a professor of chemistry and taught at both Yale College and the Medical School. The other two founding faculty were Jonathan Knight, anatomy, physiology and surgery and Eli Ives, pediatrics. [6]

One of Yale's earliest medical graduates was Dr. Asaph Leavitt Bissell of Hanover, New Hampshire, who graduated in 1815, a member of the school's second graduating class. Following his graduation, Dr. Bissell moved to Suffield, Connecticut, a tobacco-farming community where his parents came from, and where he practiced as a country physician for the rest of his life. [6] The saddlebags that Dr. Bissell carried in his practice, packed with paper packets and glass bottles, are today in the school's Medical Historical Library. [7]

Yale medical diploma awarded Asaph Leavitt Bissell, Class of 1815, signed by school's four professors and Timothy Dwight IV Asaph Leavitt Bissell Diploma.jpg
Yale medical diploma awarded Asaph Leavitt Bissell, Class of 1815, signed by school's four professors and Timothy Dwight IV

The original building (at Grove and Prospect) later became Sheffield Hall, part of the Sheffield Scientific School (razed in 1931). In 1860, the school moved to Medical Hall on York Street, near Chapel (this building was razed in 1957). In 1925, the school moved to its current campus, neighboring the hospital. This campus includes the Sterling Hall of Medicine, Boyer Center for Molecular Medicine (1991, designed by Cesar Pelli), Anlyan Center (2003, designed by Payette and Venturi Scott Brown) and the Amistad Building (2007, designed by Herbert Newman).

Deans

Before 1845, there was no dean. Nathan Smith, followed by Jonathan Knight, provided leadership in the early years. [6]

Notable faculty

Current

Past

See also

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References

  1. Lorimer, Linda Koch (20 July 2012). "School of Medicine". BULLETIN OF YALE UNIVERSITY. 108 (6): 213–222.
  2. "Facts and Figures". Yale School of Medicine. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
  3. "Medical School Overview". Grad-schools.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  4. "Facts and Figures 2018-2019" (PDF). Medicine.yale.edu. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  5. "Online Physician Assistant Programs | Yale School of Medicine" . Retrieved 2018-08-01.
  6. 1 2 3 "Home - Yale School of Medicine". Medicine.yale.edu. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  7. "Yale Medicine Magazine - Yale School of Medicine". Medicine.yale.edu. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  8. Altman, Lawrence (January 21, 2001), "Dr. Dorothy Horstmann, 89; Made Strides in Polio Research", The New York Times , p. 36
  9. Taffel, Max (September 1953). "Samuel Clark Harvey, 1886–1953". Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine . 26 (1): b1–7. PMC   2599352 . PMID   13103137.
  10. Curtis, John (Fall 1999 – Winter 2000), "A lifetime making mischief with DNA", Yale Medicine

Coordinates: 41°18′10″N72°56′10″W / 41.3027°N 72.936°W / 41.3027; -72.936