Kavli Prize

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The Kavli Prize
Kavli Astrophysics 2014.jpg
Awarded forAwarded for outstanding contributions in Astrophysics, Nanoscience, and Neuroscience.
Country Norway
Presented by
Reward(s)A gold medal, a scroll, and a monetary award of US$ 1,000,000
First awarded2008
Number of laureates21 prizes to 54 laureates (as of 2021)
Website http://www.kavliprize.no

The Kavli Prize was established in 2005 through a joint venture between the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research, and The Kavli Foundation. The main objective for the Prize is to honor, support and recognize scientists for outstanding scientific work in the fields of astrophysics, nanoscience and neuroscience and award three international prizes every second year. The Kavli Prize was awarded for the first time on 9 September 2008 in Oslo. The Prizes were presented by Haakon, Crown Prince of Norway. Each of the three Kavli Prizes consists of a gold medal, a scroll, and a cash award of US$1,000,000.

Contents

Selection committees

The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters appoints the three Prize Committees consisting of leading international scientists after receiving recommendations made by the following international academies and equivalent scientific organisations:

These distinguished panels of international scientists review and recommend the prize winners on the basis of a nomination process. The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters administer the selection process and announce the prize winners.

Laureates

Astrophysics

YearLaureateInstitutionCountryCitation
2008 Maarten Schmidt California Institute of Technology Flag of the Netherlands.svg "for their seminal contributions to understanding the nature of quasars"
Donald Lynden-Bell.jpg Donald Lynden-Bell Cambridge University Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
2010 Jerry E. Nelson Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz Flag of the United States.svg "for their contributions to the development of giant telescopes"
Raymond N. Wilson European Southern Observatory, Garching Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
James Roger Angel Steward Observatory, University of Arizona Flag of the United States.svg
2012 David Jewitt.jpg David C. Jewitt University of California Los Angeles Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Flag of the United States.svg "for discovering and characterizing the Kuiper Belt and its largest members, work that led to a major advance in the understanding of the history of our planetary system"
JaneLu@Stellafanesml 8416.jpg Jane X. Luu Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Flag of Vietnam.svg Flag of the United States.svg
Michael E Brown 1.jpg Michael E. Brown California Institute of Technology Flag of the United States.svg
2014 AlanGuthCambridge.jpg Alan H. Guth Massachusetts Institute of Technology Flag of the United States.svg "for pioneering the theory of cosmic inflation"
Andrei Linde.jpg Andrei D. Linde Stanford University Flag of Russia.svg Flag of the United States.svg
Alexei A. Starobinsky Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics Flag of Russia.svg
2016 Ronald Drever Glasgow 2007.jpg Ronald W.P. Drever California Institute of Technology Flag of the United Kingdom.svg "for the direct detection of gravitational waves" [1]
Kip Thorne at Caltech.jpg Kip S. Thorne California Institute of Technology Flag of the United States.svg
Rainer Weiss - December 2006.jpg Rainer Weiss Massachusetts Institute of Technology Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the United States.svg
2018 EwineVanDishoeck.jpg Ewine van Dishoeck Leiden University Flag of the Netherlands.svg "for her combined contributions to observational, theoretical, and laboratory astrochemistry, elucidating the life cycle of interstellar clouds and the formation of stars and planets" [2] [3]
2020 Andrew Fabian University of Cambridge Flag of the United Kingdom.svg "for his groundbreaking research in the field of observational X-ray astronomy, covering a wide range of topics from gas flows in clusters of galaxies to supermassive black holes at the heart of galaxies" [4]

Nanoscience

YearLaureateInstitutionCountryCitation
2008 Louis Brus Columbia University Flag of the United States.svg "for their large impact in the development of the nanoscience field of the zero and one dimensional nanostructures in physics, chemistry and biology"
Iijima.jpg Sumio Iijima Meijo University Flag of Japan.svg
2010 Don Eigler Neon Argon.jpg Donald Eigler IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose Flag of the United States.svg "for their development of unprecedented methods to control matter on the nanoscale"
Nadrian Seeman.jpg Nadrian C. Seeman New York University Flag of the United States.svg
2012 Barack Obama greets Burton Richter and Mildred Dresselhaus (cropped).jpg Mildred S. Dresselhaus Massachusetts Institute of Technology Flag of the United States.svg "for her pioneering contributions to the study of phonons, electron-phonon interactions, and thermal transport in nanostructures"
2014 Thomas Ebbesen 2014.jpg Thomas W. Ebbesen University of Strasbourg Flag of Norway.svg Flag of France.svg "for transformative contributions to the field of nano-optics that have broken long-held beliefs about the limitations of the resolution limits of optical microscopy and imaging"
Stefan W Hell.jpg Stefan W. Hell Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry Flag of Germany.svg
John Pendry 2014c.jpg John B. Pendry Imperial College London Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
2016 Gerd Binnig sw.jpg Gerd Binnig IBM Zurich Research Laboratory Flag of Germany.svg "for the invention and realization of atomic force microscopy, a breakthrough in measurement technology and nanosculpting that continues to have a transformative impact on nanoscience and technology" [5]
Christoph Gerber 2013.jpg Christoph Gerber University of Basel Flag of Switzerland.svg
Calvin Quate Stanford University Flag of the United States.svg
2018 Emmanuelle Charpentier.jpg Emmanuelle Charpentier Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology Flag of Germany.svg Flag of France.svg "for the invention of CRISPR-Cas9, a precise nanotool for editing DNA, causing a revolution in biology, agriculture, and medicine" [6] [3]
Professor Jennifer Doudna ForMemRS.jpg Jennifer Doudna University of California, Berkeley Flag of the United States.svg
VSiksnys.jpg Virginijus Šikšnys Vilnius University Flag of Lithuania.svg
2020 Harald Rose Dresden 2009-2.jpg Harald Rose Universität Ulm Flag of Germany.svg “for sub-ångström resolution imaging and chemical analysis using electron beams” [7]
Maximilian Haider CEOS GmbH Flag of Austria.svg
Knut Urban Forschungszentrum Jülich Flag of Germany.svg
Ondrej L Krivanek outside London 2020.png Ondrej Krivanek Nion Co Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Flag of the Czech Republic.svg

Neuroscience

YearLaureateInstitutionCountryCitation
2008 Sten Grillner Karolinska Institute Flag of Sweden.svg "for discoveries on the developmental and functional logic of neuronal circuits"
Thomas Jessell Columbia University Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Flag of the United States.svg
Professor Pasko Rakic ForMemRS.jpg Pasko Rakic Yale University School of Medicine Flag of Serbia.svg Flag of the United States.svg
2010 Richard H. Scheller Genentech, South San Francisco, California Flag of the United States.svg "for discovering the molecular basis of neurotransmitter release"
Thomas c sudhof.jpg Thomas C. Südhof Stanford University School of Medicine Flag of Germany.svg
James E. Rothman Yale University Flag of the United States.svg
2012 Cornelia Isabella Bargmann Rockefeller University Flag of the United States.svg "for elucidating basic neuronal mechanisms underlying perception and decision"
Winfried Denk Max Planck Institute for Medical Research Flag of Germany.svg
Ann Graybiel 2001.jpg Ann M. Graybiel Massachusetts Institute of Technology Flag of the United States.svg
2014 Brenda Milner.jpg Brenda Milner Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg "for the discovery of specialized brain networks for memory and cognition"
John O'Keefe (neuroscientist) 2014.jpg John O’Keefe University College London Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
M.Raichle w PET3.jpg Marcus E. Raichle Washington University, St.Louis Flag of the United States.svg
2016 Eve Marder.jpg Eve Marder Brandeis University Flag of the United States.svg "for the discovery of mechanisms that allow experience and neural activity to remodel brain function" [8]
Michael M. Merzenich University of California, San Francisco Flag of the United States.svg
Carla shatz.jpg Carla J. Shatz Stanford University Flag of the United States.svg
2018 A. James Hudspeth Rockefeller University Flag of the United States.svg "for their scientific discoveries of the molecular and neural mechanisms of hearing" [9] [3]
Robert Fettiplace University of Wisconsin–Madison Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Flag of the United States.svg
Christine Petit Collège de France Flag of France.svg
2020 Davidjuliuswithsnake.jpg David Julius University of California, San Francisco Flag of the United States.svg “for their transformative discovery of receptors for temperature and pressure”. [10]
Ardem Patapoutian Scripps Research and Howard Hughes Medical Investigator Flag of Lebanon.svg Flag of the United States.svg

See also

Related Research Articles

Fred Kavli was a Norwegian-American businessman and philanthropist. He was born on a small farm in Eresfjord, Norway. He founded the Kavlico Corporation, located in Moorpark, California. Under his leadership, the company became one of the world's largest suppliers of sensors for aeronautic, automotive, and industrial applications supplying General Electric and the Ford Motor Company.

Sumio Iijima

Sumio Iijima is a Japanese physicist and inventor, often cited as the inventor of carbon nanotubes. Although carbon nanotubes had been observed prior to his "invention", Iijima's 1991 paper generated unprecedented interest in the carbon nanostructures and has since fueled intense research in the area of nanotechnology.

Maarten Schmidt Dutch-American astronomer (born 1929)

Maarten Schmidt is a Dutch-American astronomer who measured the distances of quasars.

A. Paul Alivisatos is an American scientist of Greek descent who has been hailed as a pioneer in nanomaterials development, and is an internationally recognized authority on the fabrication of nanocrystals and their use in biomedical and renewable energy applications. He was ranked fifth among the world's 100 top chemists for the period 2000-2010 in the list released by Thomson Reuters. In 2009, he was named the Director of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and in 2014 he was named a laureate for the National Medal of Science. In 2016 he was named Berkeley's Vice Chancellor for Research. As of July 1, 2017, he became University of California, Berkeley's Executive Vice Chancellor and Provost, and then acted as Vice Chancellor for Research on an interim basis. In February 2021, he was named the 14th President of the University of Chicago and will assume his role on September 1.

Ronald Drever

Ronald William Prest Drever was a Scottish experimental physicist. He was a professor emeritus at the California Institute of Technology, co-founded the LIGO project, and was a co-inventor of the Pound–Drever–Hall technique for laser stabilisation, as well as the Hughes–Drever experiment. This work was instrumental in the first detection of gravitational waves in September 2015.

Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters Academy of sciences

The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters is a learned society based in Oslo, Norway. Its purpose is to support the advancement of science and scholarship in Norway.

Gerd Binnig German physicist

Gerd Binnig is a German physicist. He is most famous for having won the Nobel Prize in Physics jointly with Heinrich Rohrer in 1986 for the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope.

Andrew Christopher Fabian is a British astronomer and astrophysicist. He was Director of the Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge from 2013 to 2018. He was a Royal Society Research Professor at the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge from 1982 to 2013, and Vice-Master of Darwin College, Cambridge from 1997 to 2012. He served as president of the Royal Astronomical Society from May 2008 through to 2010.

The Kavli Foundation, based in Los Angeles, California, is a foundation that supports the advancement of science and the increase of public understanding and support for scientists and their work.

Christoph Gerber

Christoph Gerber is a titular professor at the Department of Physics, University of Basel, Switzerland.

Edvard Moser Norwegian psychologist and neuroscientist

Edvard Ingjald Moser is a Norwegian professor of psychology and neuroscience at the Kavli Institute for Systems Neuroscience, at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) in Trondheim. In 2005, he and May-Britt Moser discovered grid cells in the brain's medial entorhinal cortex. Grid cells are specialized neurons that provide the brain with a coordinate system and a metric for space. In 2018 he discovered a neural network that expresses your sense of time in experiences and memories located in the brain's lateral entorhinal cortex. He shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2014 with long-term collaborator and then-wife May-Britt Moser, and previous mentor John O'Keefe for their work identifying the brain's positioning system. The two main components of the brain's GPS are; grid cells and place cells, a specialized type of neuron that respond to specific locations in space. Together with May-Britt Moser he established the Moser research environment, which they lead.

May-Britt Moser Norwegian psychologist and neuroscientist

May-Britt Moser is a Norwegian psychologist and neuroscientist, who is a Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU). She and her then-husband, Edvard Moser, shared half of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, awarded for work concerning the grid cells in the entorhinal cortex, as well as several additional space-representing cell types in the same circuit that make up the positioning system in the brain. Together with Edvard Moser she established the Moser research environment at NTNU, which they lead. Since 2012 she heads the Centre for Neural Computation.

Knut W. Urban is a German physicist. He has been the Director of the Institute of Microstructure Research at Forschungszentrum Jülich from 1987 to 2010.

Marcus Raichle American neurologist

Marcus E. Raichle is an American neurologist at the Washington University School of Medicine in Saint Louis, Missouri. He is a professor in the Department of Radiology with joint appointments in Neurology, Neurobiology and Biomedical Engineering. His research over the past 40 years has focused on the nature of functional brain imaging signals arising from PET and fMRI and the application of these techniques to the study of the human brain in health and disease. He received the Kavli Prize in Neuroscience “for the discovery of specialized brain networks for memory and cognition", together with Brenda Milner and John O’Keefe in 2014.

Harald Rose

Harald Rose is a German physicist.

Richard H. Scheller is the former Chief Science Officer & Head of Therapeutics at 23andMe and the former Executive Vice President of Research and Early Development at Genentech. He was a Professor at Stanford University from 1982 to 2001 before joining Genentech. He has been awarded the Alan T. Waterman Award in 1989, the W. Alden Spencer Award in 1993 and the NAS Award in Molecular Biology in 1997, won the 2010 Kavli Prize in Neuroscience with Thomas C. Südhof and James E. Rothman, and won the 2013 Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research with Thomas Sudhof. He was also given the Life Sciences Distinguished Alumni Award from University of Wisconsin–Madison. He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a Member of the National Academy of Sciences.

John OKeefe (neuroscientist)

John O'Keefe, is an American-British neuroscientist, psychologist and a professor at the Sainsbury Wellcome Centre for Neural Circuits and Behaviour and the Research Department of Cell and Developmental Biology at University College London. He discovered place cells in the hippocampus, and that they show a specific kind of temporal coding in the form of theta phase precession. He shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2014, together with May-Britt Moser and Edvard Moser; he has received several other awards. He has worked at the University College London for his entire career, but also held a part-time chair at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology at the behest of his Norwegian collaborators, the Mosers.

Alexei Starobinsky

Alexei Alexandrovich Starobinsky is a Soviet and Russian astrophysicist and cosmologist. He received the Kavli Prize in Astrophysics “for pioneering the theory of cosmic inflation", together with Alan Guth and Andrei Linde in 2014.

Ardem Patapoutian is an Armenian-American molecular biologist and neuroscientist at Scripps Research in La Jolla, California.

References

  1. "2016 Kavli Prize in Astrophysics | www.kavliprize.org". www.kavliprize.org. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
  2. "2018 Kavli Prize in Astrophysics | www.kavliprize.org". Kavil Prize. 31 May 2018. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  3. 1 2 3 "Jennifer Doudna shares 2018 Kavli Prize in Nanoscience". Berkeley News. 31 May 2018. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  4. "2020 Kavli Prize in Astrophysics". www.kavliprize.org. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  5. "2016 Kavli Prize in Nanoscience | www.kavliprize.org". www.kavliprize.org. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
  6. "2018 Kavli Prize in Nanoscience | www.kavliprize.org". www.kavliprize.org. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  7. 2020 Kavli Prize in Nanoscience". www.kavliprize.org. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  8. "2016 Kavli Prize in Neuroscience | www.kavliprize.org". www.kavliprize.org. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
  9. "2018 Kavli Prize in Neuroscience | www.kavliprize.org". www.kavliprize.org. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  10. 2020 Kavli Prize in Neuroscience". www.kavliprize.org. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 27 May 2020.