Maximilian Haider (born 23 January 1950 in Freistadt, Austria) is an Austrian physicist.
He studied Physics at the University of Kiel and the Technische Universität Darmstadt, where he received his doctoral degree with a thesis entitled "Design, construction and testing of a corrected electron energy loss spectrometer with large dispersion and a large acceptance angle" (in German: "Entwurf, Bau und Erprobung eines korrigierten Elektronen-Energieverlust-Spektrometers mit grosser Dispersion und grossem Akzeptanzwinkel"). In 1989 he became Group Leader within the Physical Instrumentation Program at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) where he had already performed some experiments during his doctoral studies.
He is honorary professor at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT);co-founder, senior advisor and former president of Corrected Electron Optical Systems GmbH (CEOS), a German company that manufactures correction components for electron microscopes.
He won the 2011 Wolf Prize in Physics, along with Harald Rose and Knut Urban, for his contributions to electron microscopy,specifically for the development of a device to correct electron-optical aberration using magnetic multipole lenses. Their work allowed electron microscopes to achieve a resolution of about 50 pm, comparable to the radius of the smallest atom. The three started working together in 1992. Haider built the first prototype and he is the founder (with Joachim Zach in 1996) of the German company Corrected Electron Optical Systems GmbH (CEOS), which manufactures and sells their invention.
In 2005 Haider, Zach and their company CEOS received the Dr.-Rudolf-Eberle Prize (Innovation prize from Baden-Württemberg).
Haider, Rose and Urban also received the Karl-Heinz-Beckurts Prize in 2006 and the Honda Prizein 2008.
In 2008 he became honorary professor at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT).
A symposium on "Advances in Corrected Electron Microscopy in Materials Science and Biology" was held in honor of his 60th birthday on February 19, 2010 in Heidelberg.
Haider also received the 2013 BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Awardin Basic Sciences, along with Harald Rose and Knut Urban, for greatly enhancing the resolving power of electron microscopy by developing aberration-corrected electron optics, a breakthrough enabling subatomic precision.
In 2015 he also received the Honorary Fellowship of the Royal Microscopical Societyand the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) Award.
In 2020 he received the Kavli Prize in Nanoscience,(together with Harald Rose and Knut Urban and Ondrej Krivanek).
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination. As the wavelength of an electron can be up to 100,000 times shorter than that of visible light photons, electron microscopes have a higher resolving power than light microscopes and can reveal the structure of smaller objects. A scanning transmission electron microscope has achieved better than 50 pm resolution in annular dark-field imaging mode and magnifications of up to about 10,000,000× whereas most light microscopes are limited by diffraction to about 200 nm resolution and useful magnifications below 2000×.
A microscope is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye. Microscopy is the science of investigating small objects and structures using such an instrument. Microscopic means invisible to the eye unless aided by a microscope.
In optics, chromatic aberration (CA), also called chromatic distortion and spherochromatism, is a failure of a lens to focus all colors to the same point. It is caused by dispersion: the refractive index of the lens elements varies with the wavelength of light. The refractive index of most transparent materials decreases with increasing wavelength. Since the focal length of a lens depends on the refractive index, this variation in refractive index affects focusing. Chromatic aberration manifests itself as "fringes" of color along boundaries that separate dark and bright parts of the image.
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a microscopy technique in which a beam of electrons is transmitted through a specimen to form an image. The specimen is most often an ultrathin section less than 100 nm thick or a suspension on a grid. An image is formed from the interaction of the electrons with the sample as the beam is transmitted through the specimen. The image is then magnified and focused onto an imaging device, such as a fluorescent screen, a layer of photographic film, or a sensor such as a scintillator attached to a charge-coupled device.
Frits Zernike was a Dutch physicist and winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1953 for his invention of the phase-contrast microscope.
Sumio Iijima is a Japanese physicist and inventor, often cited as the inventor of carbon nanotubes. Although carbon nanotubes had been observed prior to his "invention", Iijima's 1991 paper generated unprecedented interest in the carbon nanostructures and has since fueled intense research in the area of nanotechnology.
Transmission Electron Aberration-Corrected Microscope (TEAM) is a collaborative research project between four US laboratories and two companies. The project's main activity is design and application of a transmission electron microscope (TEM) with a spatial resolution below 0.05 nanometers, which is roughly half the size of an atom of hydrogen.
Sir John Brian Pendry, FRS FInstP is an English theoretical physicist known for his research into refractive indices and creation of the first practical "Invisibility Cloak". He is a professor of theoretical solid state physics at Imperial College London where he was head of the department of physics (1998–2001) and principal of the faculty of physical sciences (2001–2002). He is an honorary fellow of Downing College, Cambridge, and an IEEE fellow. He received the Kavli Prize in Nanoscience "for transformative contributions to the field of nano-optics that have broken long-held beliefs about the limitations of the resolution limits of optical microscopy and imaging.", together with Stefan Hell, and Thomas Ebbesen, in 2014.
High-resolution transmission electron microscopy is an imaging mode of specialized transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) that allows for direct imaging of the atomic structure of the sample. HRTEM is a powerful tool to study properties of materials on the atomic scale, such as semiconductors, metals, nanoparticles and sp2-bonded carbon. While HRTEM is often also used to refer to high resolution scanning TEM, this article describes mainly the imaging of an object by recording the 2D spatial wave amplitude distribution in the image plane, in analogy to a "classic" light microscope. For disambiguation, the technique is also often referred to as phase contrast TEM. At present, the highest point resolution realised in phase contrast TEM is around 0.5 ångströms (0.050 nm). At these small scales, individual atoms of a crystal and its defects can be resolved. For 3-dimensional crystals, it may be necessary to combine several views, taken from different angles, into a 3D map. This technique is called electron crystallography.
Gerd Binnig is a German physicist. He is most famous for having won the Nobel Prize in Physics jointly with Heinrich Rohrer in 1986 for the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope.
Heinrich Rohrer was a Swiss physicist who shared half of the 1986 Nobel Prize in Physics with Gerd Binnig for the design of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The other half of the Prize was awarded to Ernst Ruska. The Heinrich Rohrer Medal is presented triennially by the Surface Science Society of Japan with IBM Research – Zurich, Swiss Embassy in Japan, and Ms. Rohrer in his memory. The medal is not to be confused with the Heinrich Rohrer Award presented at the Nano Seoul 2020 conference.
Otto Scherzer was a German theoretical physicist who made contributions to electron microscopy.
David J. Smith is a Regents' Professor of physics at Arizona State University. He is an Australian experimental physicist and his research is focussed on using the electron microscope to study the microstructure of different materials. He is a pioneer in high-resolution relectron microscopy technique and is very well known in his field. His interests are focused on thin films, nanostructures, novel materials and magnetism.
Winfried Denk built the first two-photon microscope while he was a graduate student in Watt W. Webb's lab at Cornell University, in 1989.
Louis E. Brus is the S. L. Mitchell Professor of Chemistry at Columbia University. He is the discoverer of the colloidal semi-conductor nanocrystals known as quantum dots.
Thomas Ebbesen is a franco-norwegian physical chemist and professor at the University of Strasbourg in France, known for his pioneering work in nanoscience. He received the Kavli Prize in Nanoscience “for transformative contributions to the field of nano-optics that have broken long-held beliefs about the limitations of the resolution limits of optical microscopy and imaging”, together with Stefan Hell, and Sir John Pendry in 2014.
Knut W. Urban is a German physicist. He has been the Director of the Institute of Microstructure Research at Forschungszentrum Jülich from 1987 to 2010.
Ondrej L. Krivanek FRS is a Czech/British physicist resident in the United States, and a leading developer of electron-optical instrumentation.
Harald Rose is a German physicist.
Scherzer's theorem is a theorem in the field of electron microscopy. It states that there is a limit of resolution for electronic lenses because of unavoidable aberrations.