Daniel Kleppner

Last updated
Daniel Kleppner
Born (1932-12-16) December 16, 1932 (age 86)
ResidenceUnited States
NationalityAmerican
Alma mater Williams College (B.A.)
University of Cambridge
Harvard University (Ph.D.)
Known for Atomic physics
Spouse(s)Beatrice Kleppner
Awards Lilienfeld Prize (1991)
Oersted Medal (1997)
Wolf Prize in Physics (2005)
National Medal of Science (2006)
Franklin Institute Award (2014)
Scientific career
Fields Physics
Institutions MIT
Thesis The Broken Beam Resonance Experiment [1]  (1959)
Doctoral advisor Norman Ramsey
Doctoral students David E. Pritchard [ citation needed ]
William Daniel Phillips [ citation needed ]
Julia Steinberger [2]
Website web.mit.edu/physics/people/faculty/kleppner_daniel.html

Daniel Kleppner, born 1932, is the Lester Wolfe Professor Emeritus of Physics at MIT and co-director of the MIT-Harvard Center for Ultracold Atoms. His areas of science include Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, and his research interests include Experimental Atomic Physics, Laser Spectroscopy, and High Precision Measurements. [3] He is the winner of the 2005 Wolf Prize in Physics, [4] the 2007 Frederic Ives Medal, and the 2014 Benjamin Franklin Medal. [5] Prof. Kleppner has also been awarded the National Medal of Science (2006). Together with Robert J. Kolenkow, he authored a popular introductory mechanics textbook for advanced students. Kleppner graduated from Williams College with a B.A. in 1953, Cambridge University with a B.A. in 1955, and Harvard University with a Ph.D. in 1959. [6]

The Wolf Prize in Physics is awarded once a year by the Wolf Foundation in Israel. It is one of the six Wolf Prizes established by the Foundation and awarded since 1978; the others are in Agriculture, Chemistry, Mathematics, Medicine and Arts.

The Frederic Ives Medal is the highest award of the Optical Society, recognizing overall distinction in optics. The prize was established in 1928 by Herbert E. Ives in honor of his father, Frederic Ives. Initially awarded every two years, it has been awarded annually since 1951. The prize is funded by the Jarus W. Quinn Ives Medal Endowment.

National Medal of Science science award

The National Medal of Science is an honor bestowed by the President of the United States to individuals in science and engineering who have made important contributions to the advancement of knowledge in the fields of behavioral and social sciences, biology, chemistry, engineering, mathematics and physics. The twelve member presidential Committee on the National Medal of Science is responsible for selecting award recipients and is administered by the National Science Foundation (NSF).

Contents

Biography

Parents

Kleppner's mother grew up in New Jersey. Kleppner refers to her as a "delightful woman in every sense - widely read, had a wonderful sense of humor, and, sort of made our home a happy place." Kleppner's father was Otto Kleppner, founder of an advertising agency. [7]

New Jersey U.S. state in the United States

New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. It is a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York; on the east, southeast, and south by the Atlantic Ocean; on the west by the Delaware River and Pennsylvania; and on the southwest by the Delaware Bay and Delaware. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, making it the most densely populated of the 50 U.S. states with its biggest city being Newark. New Jersey lies completely within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U.S. state by median household income as of 2017.

Early life

Daniel Kleppner was born on December 16, 1932, in New York City, New York, United States. He grew up in New York's suburbs, where he lived in a small town. Kleppner reflects upon his childhood as being "normal, but very happy." [8] Daniel Kleppner lived in a family with no scientific background, with one older brother and one younger sister. He and his older brother built various objects, such as electronic devices. Kleppner also learned woodworking, which soon became his lifelong hobby. In high school, Kleppner's interest in physics was rejuvenated by an excellent teacher. By the time Kleppner graduated, he already knew that he would be in the field of physics for the rest of his life.

New York City Largest city in the United States

The City of New York, usually called either New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2018 population of 8,398,748 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 19,979,477 people in its 2018 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 22,679,948 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. The city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.

New York (state) American state

New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies that formed the United States. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. In order to distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes referred to as New York State.

Woodworking Process of making objects from wood

Woodworking is the activity or skill of making items from wood, and includes cabinet making, wood carving, joinery, carpentry, and woodturning.

Education and Career

Kleppner graduated from Williams College in 1953 in Williamstown, Massachusetts. He also attended Cambridge University in Cambridge, England, and Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where he attended the Harvard Graduate School of Arts and Sciences.
In the 1950s, Kleppner became a physics doctoral student at Harvard University, where he worked under Norman Ramsey. Here, Kleppner took the concepts behind an ammonia maser and applied them to a hydrogen maser, which became his Ph.D. thesis. After more than twenty years of his career had passed, Kleppner found an interest in Rydberg atoms. His work in this area led to new research. Later, Kleppner became very interested in creating a Hydrogen Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC). In 1995, a group of researchers, including Kleppner's former students, made a BEC using Rubidium atoms. It was not until 1998 until Kleppner and Tom Greytak finally created a Hydrogen BEC. [9]

Williams College liberal arts college in Massachusetts

Williams College is a private liberal arts college in Williamstown, Massachusetts. It was established in 1793 with funds from the estate of Ephraim Williams, a colonist from the Province of Massachusetts Bay who was killed in the French and Indian War in 1755.

Williamstown, Massachusetts Town in Massachusetts, United States

Williamstown is a town in Berkshire County, in the northwest corner of Massachusetts, United States. It shares a border with Vermont to the north and New York to the west. It is part of the Pittsfield, Massachusetts Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 7,754 at the 2010 census. A college town, it is home to Williams College, the Clark Art Institute and the Tony-awarded Williamstown Theatre Festival.

Harvard University Private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning. Its history, influence, wealth, and academic reputation have made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. It has often been cited as the world's top university by most publishers.

Later life

Currently, Daniel Kleppner is living in the United States with his wife. He also has 3 children, and 4 grandchildren.

Books

Kleppner and Robert J. Kolenkow wrote An Introduction to Mechanics is 1973, but they edited it and published a second edition in 2013.

Robert J. Kolenkow is an American physicist and teacher. He is best known for being the coauthor, along with Daniel Kleppner, of a popular undergraduate physics textbook.

International Standard Book Number Unique numeric book identifier

The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.

Selected publications

Related Research Articles

Bose–Einstein condensate state of matter of a dilute gas of bosons cooled to temperatures very near absolute zero

A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter of a dilute gas of low densities called bosons cooled to temperatures very close to absolute zero (-273.15 °C). Under such conditions, a large fraction of bosons occupy the lowest quantum state, at which point microscopic quantum phenomena, particularly wavefunction interference, become apparent macroscopically. A BEC is formed by cooling a gas of extremely low density, about one-hundred-thousandth(1/100000) the density of normal air, to ultra-low temperatures.

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References

  1. "Harvard Physics PhD Theses, 1954-1970" (PDF). Harvard University Department of Physics. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
  2. Steinberger, Julia K. (2004). Progress towards high precision measurements on ultracold metastable hydrogen and trapping deuterium (PhD thesis). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. hdl:1721.1/28649. OCLC   655586822. Lock-green.svg
  3. MIT Department of Physics
  4. Kleppner awarded international Wolf Prize for physics | MIT News
  5. https://archive.is/20131106155044/http://www.fi.edu/franklinawards/14/bf_physics.html. Archived from the original on November 6, 2013. Retrieved November 6, 2013.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  6. Daniel Kleppner Archived 2008-12-02 at the Wayback Machine
  7. "Otto kleppner". The New York Times. 1982-08-05. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved 2015-07-10.
  8. Daniel Kleppner | MIT150 | Massachusetts Institute of Technology 150th anniversary Archived 2014-07-14 at the Wayback Machine
  9. Daniel Kleppner | The Franklin Institute