Diphtheria

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Diphtheria
Diphtheria bull neck.5325 lores.jpg
Diphtheria can cause a swollen neck, sometimes referred to as a bull neck. [1]
Specialty Infectious disease
SymptomsSore throat, fever, barky cough [2]
Usual onset2–5 days post-exposure [1]
Causes Corynebacterium diphtheriae (spread by direct contact and through the air) [1]
Diagnostic method Throat appearance, culture [2]
Prevention Diphtheria vaccine [1]
Treatment Antibiotics, tracheostomy [1]
Frequency4,500 (reported 2015) [3]
Deaths2,100 (2015) [4]

Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae . [1] Signs and symptoms may vary from mild to severe. [2] They usually start two to five days after exposure. [1] Symptoms often come on fairly gradually, beginning with a sore throat and fever. [2] In severe cases, a grey or white patch develops in the throat. [1] [2] This can block the airway and create a barking cough as in croup. [2] The neck may swell in part due to enlarged lymph nodes. [1] A form of diphtheria that involves the skin, eyes, or genitals also exists. [1] [2] Complications may include myocarditis, inflammation of nerves, kidney problems, and bleeding problems due to low levels of platelets. [1] Myocarditis may result in an abnormal heart rate and inflammation of the nerves may result in paralysis. [1]

Infection invasion of a host by disease-causing organisms

Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce. Infectious disease, also known as transmissible disease or communicable disease, is illness resulting from an infection.

Bacteria A domain of prokaryotes – single celled organisms without a nucleus

Bacteria are a type of biological cell. They constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats. Bacteria inhabit soil, water, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, and the deep portions of Earth's crust. Bacteria also live in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with plants and animals. Most bacteria have not been characterised, and only about half of the bacterial phyla have species that can be grown in the laboratory. The study of bacteria is known as bacteriology, a branch of microbiology.

<i>Corynebacterium diphtheriae</i> Species of prokaryote

Corynebacterium diphtheriae is the pathogenic bacterium that causes diphtheria. It is also known as the Klebs-Löffler bacillus, because it was discovered in 1884 by German bacteriologists Edwin Klebs (1834–1912) and Friedrich Löffler (1852–1915).

Contents

Diphtheria is usually spread between people by direct contact or through the air. [1] [5] It may also be spread by contaminated objects. [1] Some people carry the bacteria without having symptoms, but can still spread the disease to others. [1] The three main types of C. diphtheriae cause different severities of disease. [1] The symptoms are due to a toxin produced by the bacteria. [2] Diagnosis can often be made based on the appearance of the throat with confirmation by microbiological culture. [2] Previous infection may not protect against future infection. [2]

Airborne disease disease that is caused by pathogens and transmitted through the air

An airborne disease is any disease that is caused by pathogens that can be transmitted through the air. Such diseases include many of considerable importance both in human and veterinary medicine. The relevant pathogens may be viruses, bacteria, or fungi, and they may be spread through breathing, talking, coughing, sneezing, raising of dust, spraying of liquids, toilet flushing or any activities which generates aerosol particles or droplets. Human airborne diseases do not include conditions caused by air pollution such as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), gases and any airborne particles, though their study and prevention may help inform the science of airborne disease transmission.

Exotoxin

An exotoxin is a toxin secreted by bacteria. An exotoxin can cause damage to the host by destroying cells or disrupting normal cellular metabolism. They are highly potent and can cause major damage to the host. Exotoxins may be secreted, or, similar to endotoxins, may be released during lysis of the cell. Gram negative pathogens may secrete outer membrane vesicles containing lipopolysaccharide endotoxin and some virulence proteins in the bounding membrane along with some other toxins as intra-vesicular contents, thus adding a previously unforeseen dimension to the well-known eukaryote process of membrane vesicle trafficking, which is quite active at the host-pathogen interface.

Microbiological culture multiplying microorganisms by letting them reproduce in culture media

A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture medium under controlled laboratory conditions. Microbial cultures are foundational and basic diagnostic methods used extensively as a research tool in molecular biology.

A diphtheria vaccine is effective for prevention and available in a number of formulations. [1] Three or four doses, given along with tetanus vaccine and pertussis vaccine, are recommended during childhood. [1] Further doses of diphtheria-tetanus vaccine are recommended every ten years. [1] Protection can be verified by measuring the antitoxin level in the blood. [1] Diphtheria can be treated with the antibiotics erythromycin or benzylpenicillin. [1] These antibiotics may also be used for prevention in those who have been exposed to the infection. [1] A tracheotomy is sometimes needed to open the airway in severe cases. [2]

Diphtheria vaccine

Diphtheria vaccine is a vaccine against Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the bacterium that causes diphtheria. Its use has resulted in a more than 90% decrease in number of cases globally between 1980 and 2000. The first dose is recommended at six weeks of age with two additional doses four weeks apart, after which it is about 95% effective during childhood. Three further doses are recommended during childhood. It is unclear if further doses later in life are needed.

Tetanus vaccine

Tetanus vaccine, also known as tetanus toxoid (TT), is an inactive vaccine used to prevent tetanus. During childhood five doses are recommended, with a sixth given during adolescence. Additional doses every 10 years are recommended. After three doses almost everyone is initially immune. In those who are not up to date on their tetanus immunization a booster should be given within 48 hours of an injury. In those with high risk injuries who are not fully immunized tetanus antitoxin may also be recommended. Making sure women who are pregnant are up to date on their tetanus immunization and, if not, immunizing them can prevent neonatal tetanus.

Pertussis vaccine

Pertussis vaccine is a vaccine that protects against whooping cough (pertussis). There are two main types: whole-cell vaccines and acellular vaccines. The whole-cell vaccine is about 78% effective while the acellular vaccine is 71–85% effective. The effectiveness of the vaccines appears to decrease by between 2 and 10% per year after vaccination with a more rapid decrease with the acellular vaccines. Vaccinating the mother during pregnancy may protect the baby. The vaccine is estimated to have saved over 500,000 lives in 2002.

In 2015, 4,500 cases were officially reported worldwide, down from nearly 100,000 in 1980. [3] About a million cases a year are believed to have occurred before the 1980s. [2] Diphtheria currently occurs most often in sub-Saharan Africa, India, and Indonesia [2] [6] . In 2015, it resulted in 2,100 deaths, down from 8,000 deaths in 1990. [4] [7] In areas where it is still common, children are most affected. [2] It is rare in the developed world due to widespread vaccination but can re-emerge if vaccination rates decrease. [2] [8] In the United States, 57 cases were reported between 1980 and 2004. [1] Death occurs in 5% to 10% of those affected. [1] The disease was first described in the 5th century BC by Hippocrates. [1] The bacterium was identified in 1882 by Edwin Klebs. [1]

Sub-Saharan Africa area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara Desert

Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara. According to the United Nations, it consists of all African countries that are fully or partially located south of the Sahara. It contrasts with North Africa, whose territories are part of the League of Arab states within the Arab world. The states of Somalia, Djibouti, Comoros and the Arabic speaking Mauritania are however geographically in sub-Saharan Africa, although they are members of the Arab League as well. The UN Development Program lists 46 of Africa’s 54 countries as “sub-Saharan,” excluding Algeria, Djibouti, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Somalia, Sudan and Tunisia.

Vaccination administration of a vaccine to protect against disease

Vaccination is the administration of a vaccine to help the immune system develop protection from a disease. Vaccines contain a microorganism in a weakened or killed state, or proteins or toxins from the organism. In stimulating the body's adaptive immunity, they help prevent sickness from an infectious disease. When a sufficiently large percentage of a population has been vaccinated, herd immunity results. The effectiveness of vaccination has been widely studied and verified. Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases; widespread immunity due to vaccination is largely responsible for the worldwide eradication of smallpox and the elimination of diseases such as polio, measles, and tetanus from much of the world.

Hippocrates ancient Greek physician

Hippocrates of Kos, also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles, who is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine. He is often referred to as the "Father of Medicine" in recognition of his lasting contributions to the field as the founder of the Hippocratic School of Medicine. This intellectual school revolutionized medicine in ancient Greece, establishing it as a discipline distinct from other fields with which it had traditionally been associated, thus establishing medicine as a profession.

Signs and symptoms

An adherent, dense, grey pseudomembrane covering the tonsils is classically seen in diphtheria. Dirty white pseudomembrane classically seen in diphtheria 2013-07-06 11-07.jpg
An adherent, dense, grey pseudomembrane covering the tonsils is classically seen in diphtheria.
A diphtheria skin lesion on the leg A diphtheria skin lesion on the leg. PHIL 1941 lores.jpg
A diphtheria skin lesion on the leg

The symptoms of diphtheria usually begin two to seven days after infection. Symptoms of diphtheria include fever of 38 °C (100.4 °F) or above, chills, fatigue, bluish skin coloration (cyanosis), sore throat, hoarseness, cough, headache, difficulty swallowing, painful swallowing, difficulty breathing, rapid breathing, foul-smelling and bloodstained nasal discharge, and lymphadenopathy. [9] [10] Within two to three days, diphtheria may destroy healthy tissues in the respiratory system. The dead tissue forms a thick, gray coating that can build up in the throat or nose. This thick gray coating is called a “pseudomembrane.” It can cover tissues in the nose, tonsils, voice box, and throat, making it very hard to breathe and swallow. [11] Symptoms can also include cardiac arrhythmias, myocarditis, and cranial and peripheral nerve palsies.

Cyanosis medical diagnosis

Cyanosis is the bluish or purplish discolouration of the skin or mucous membranes due to the tissues near the skin surface having low oxygen saturation. Based on Lundsgaard and Van Slyke's work, it is classically described as occurring if 5.0 g/dL of deoxyhemoglobin or greater is present. This was based on an estimate of capillary saturation based on a mean of arterial versus peripheral venous blood gas measurements. Since estimation of hypoxia is usually now based either on arterial blood gas measurement or pulse oximetry, this is probably an overestimate, with evidence that levels of 2.0 g/dL of deoxyhemoglobin may reliably produce cyanosis. Since, however, the presence of cyanosis is dependent upon there being an absolute quantity of deoxyhemoglobin, the bluish color is more readily apparent in those with high hemoglobin counts than it is with those with anemia. Also, the bluer the color, the more difficult it is to detect on deeply pigmented skin. When signs of cyanosis first appear, such as on the lips or fingers, intervention should be made within 3–5 minutes because a severe hypoxia or severe circulatory failure may have induced the cyanosis.

Cough medical symptom, reflex to clear large breathing passages

A cough is a sudden, and often repetitively occurring, protective reflex which helps to clear the large breathing passages from fluids, irritants, foreign particles and microbes. The cough reflex consists of three phases: an inhalation, a forced exhalation against a closed glottis, and a violent release of air from the lungs following opening of the glottis, usually accompanied by a distinctive sound.

Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough. The American Thoracic Society defines it as "a subjective experience of breathing discomfort that consists of qualitatively distinct sensations that vary in intensity", and recommends evaluating dyspnea by assessing the intensity of the distinct sensations, the degree of distress involved, and its burden or impact on activities of daily living. Distinct sensations include effort/work, chest tightness, and air hunger.

Diphtheritic croup

Laryngeal diphtheria can lead to a characteristic swollen neck and throat, or "bull neck". The swollen throat is often accompanied by a serious respiratory condition, characterized by a brassy or "barking" cough, stridor, hoarseness, and difficulty breathing, and historically referred to variously as "diphtheritic croup", [12] "true croup", [13] [14] or sometimes simply as "croup". [15] Diphtheritic croup is extremely rare in countries where diphtheria vaccination is customary. As a result, the term "croup" nowadays most often refers to an unrelated viral illness that produces similar but milder respiratory symptoms. [16]

Stridor is a high-pitched breath sound resulting from turbulent air flow in the larynx or lower in the bronchial tree. It is different from a stertor which is a noise originating in the pharynx. Stridor is a physical sign which is caused by a narrowed or obstructed airway. It can be inspiratory, expiratory or biphasic, although it is usually heard during inspiration. Inspiratory stridor often occurs in children with croup. It may be indicative of serious airway obstruction from severe conditions such as epiglottitis, a foreign body lodged in the airway, or a laryngeal tumor. Stridor should always command attention to establish its cause. Visualization of the airway by medical experts equipped to control the airway may be needed.

Croup respiratory condition that is usually triggered by an acute viral infection of the upper airway

Croup, also known as laryngotracheobronchitis, is a type of respiratory infection that is usually caused by a virus. The infection leads to swelling inside the trachea, which interferes with normal breathing and produces the classic symptoms of "barking" cough, stridor, and a hoarse voice. Fever and runny nose may also be present. These symptoms may be mild, moderate, or severe. Often it starts or is worse at night. It normally lasts one to two days.

Transmission

Human-to-human transmission of diphtheria typically occurs through the air when an infected individual coughs or sneezes. Breathing in particles released from the infected individual leads to infection. [17] Contact with any lesions on the skin can also lead to transmission of diphtheria, but this is uncommon. [18] Indirect infections can occur, as well. If an infected individual touches a surface or object, the bacteria can be left behind and remain viable. Also, some evidence indicates diphtheria has the potential to be zoonotic, but this has yet to be confirmed. Corynebacterium ulcerans has been found in some animals, which would suggest zoonotic potential. [19]

Mechanism

Diphtheria toxin is produced by C. diphtheriae only when infected with a bacteriophage that integrates the toxin-encoding genetic elements into the bacteria. [20] [21]

Diphtheria toxin is a single, 60-kDa-molecular weight protein composed of two peptide chains, fragment A and fragment B, held together by a disulfide bond. Fragment B is a recognition subunit that gains the toxin entry into the host cell by binding to the EGF-like domain of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor on the cell surface. This signals the cell to internalize the toxin within an endosome via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Inside the endosome, the toxin is split by a trypsin-like protease into its individual A and B fragments. The acidity of the endosome causes fragment B to create pores in the endosome membrane, thereby catalysing the release of fragment A into the cell's cytoplasm.

Fragment A inhibits the synthesis of new proteins in the affected cell by catalyzing ADP-ribosylation of elongation factor EF-2—a protein that is essential to the translation step of protein synthesis. This ADP-ribosylation involves the transfer of an ADP-ribose from NAD+ to a diphthamide (a modified histidine) residue within the EF-2 protein. Since EF-2 is needed for the moving of tRNA from the A-site to the P-site of the ribosome during protein translation, ADP-ribosylation of EF-2 prevents protein synthesis.

ADP-ribosylation of EF-2 is reversed by giving high doses of nicotinamide (a form of vitamin B3), since this is one of the reaction's end products, and high amounts drive the reaction in the opposite direction. [22]

Diagnosis

The current clinical case definition of diphtheria used by the United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is based on both laboratory and clinical criteria.

Laboratory criteria

Clinical criteria

Case classification

Empirical treatment should generally be started in a patient in whom suspicion of diphtheria is high.

Prevention

Quinvaxem is a widely administered pentavalent vaccine, which is a combination of five vaccines in one that protect babies from diphtheria, among other common childhood diseases. [23] Diphtheria vaccine is usually combined at least with tetanus vaccine (Td) and often with pertussis (DTP, DTaP, TdaP, Tdap) vaccines, as well.

Treatment

The disease may remain manageable, but in more severe cases, lymph nodes in the neck may swell, and breathing and swallowing are more difficult. People in this stage should seek immediate medical attention, as obstruction in the throat may require intubation or a tracheotomy. Abnormal cardiac rhythms can occur early in the course of the illness or weeks later, and can lead to heart failure. Diphtheria can also cause paralysis in the eye, neck, throat, or respiratory muscles. Patients with severe cases are put in a hospital intensive care unit and given a diphtheria antitoxin (consisting of antibodies isolated from the serum of horses that have been challenged with diphtheria toxin). [24] Since antitoxin does not neutralize toxin that is already bound to tissues, delaying its administration increases risk of death. Therefore, the decision to administer diphtheria antitoxin is based on clinical diagnosis, and should not await laboratory confirmation. [25]

Antibiotics have not been demonstrated to affect healing of local infection in diphtheria patients treated with antitoxin. Antibiotics are used in patients or carriers to eradicate C. diphtheriae and prevent its transmission to others. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends [26] either:

In cases that progress beyond a throat infection, diphtheria toxin spreads through the blood and can lead to potentially life-threatening complications that affect other organs, such as the heart and kidneys. Damage to the heart caused by the toxin affects the heart's ability to pump blood or the kidneys' ability to clear wastes. It can also cause nerve damage, eventually leading to paralysis. About 40% to 50% of those left untreated can die.

Epidemiology

Disability-adjusted life year for diphtheria per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004
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Disability-adjusted life year for diphtheria per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004
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Diphtheria cases reported to the World Health Organization between 1997 and 2006:
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Over 100 reported cases Diphterie.png
Diphtheria cases reported to the World Health Organization between 1997 and 2006:
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  Between 50 and 99 reported cases
  Over 100 reported cases

Diphtheria is fatal in between 5% and 10% of cases. In children under five years and adults over 40 years, the fatality rate may be as much as 20%. [25] In 2013, it resulted in 3,300 deaths, down from 8,000 deaths in 1990. [7]

The number of cases has changed over the course of the last 2 decades, specifically throughout developing countries. Better standards of living, mass immunization, improved diagnosis, prompt treatment, and more effective health care have led to the decrease in cases worldwide. However, although outbreaks are rare, they still occur worldwide, especially in developed nations such as Germany among unvaccinated children. [27]

After the breakup of the former Soviet Union in the early 1990s, vaccination rates in its constituent countries fell so low that an explosion of diphtheria cases occurred. In 1991, 2,000 cases of diphtheria occurred in the USSR. Between 1991 and 1998 as many as 200,000 cases in the Commonwealth of Independent States were reported, with 5,000 deaths. [27]

History

In 1613, Spain experienced an epidemic of diphtheria. The year is known as El Año de los Garrotillos (The Year of Strangulations) in the history of Spain. [27]

In 1735, a diphtheria epidemic swept through New England. [28]

Before 1826, diphtheria was known by different names across the world. In England, it was known as Boulogne sore throat, as it spread from France. In 1826, Pierre Bretonneau gave the disease the name diphthérite (from Greek diphthera "leather") describing the appearance of pseudomembrane in the throat. [29] [30]

In 1856, Victor Fourgeaud described an epidemic of diphtheria in California. [31]

In 1878, Queen Victoria's daughter Princess Alice and her family became infected with diphtheria, causing two deaths, Princess Marie of Hesse and by Rhine and Princess Alice herself. [32]

In 1883, Edwin Klebs identified the bacterium causing diphtheria [33] and named it Klebs-Loeffler bacterium. The club shape of this bacterium helped Edwin to differentiate it from other bacteria. Over the period of time, it was called Microsporon diphtheriticum, Bacillus diphtheriae, and Mycobacterium diphtheriae. Current nomenclature is Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

Friedrich Loeffler was the first person to cultivate C. diphtheriae in 1884. [34] He used Koch's postulates to prove association between C. diphtheriae and diphtheria. He also showed that the bacillus produces an exotoxin.[ citation needed ]

A diphtheria immunisation scheme in London, 1941 Diphtheria Immunisation Scheme, London, England, 1941 D3184.jpg
A diphtheria immunisation scheme in London, 1941

Joseph P. O’Dwyer introduced the O'Dwyer tube for laryngeal intubation in patients with an obstructed larynx in 1885. It soon replaced tracheostomy as the emergency diphtheric intubation method. [35]

In 1888, Emile Roux and Alexandre Yersin showed that a substance produced by C. diphtheriae caused symptoms of diphtheria in animals. [36] [37]

In 1890, Shibasaburo Kitasato and Emil von Behring immunized guinea pigs with heat-treated diphtheria toxin. [38] They also immunized goats and horses in the same way and showed that an "antitoxin" made from serum of immunized animals could cure the disease in non-immunized animals. Behring used this antitoxin (now known to consist of antibodies that neutralize the toxin produced by C. diphtheriae) for human trials in 1891, but they were unsuccessful. Successful treatment of human patients with horse-derived antitoxin began in 1894, after production and quantification of antitoxin had been optimized. [39] [24] Von Behring won the first Nobel Prize in medicine in 1901 for his work on diphtheria. [40]

In 1895, H. K. Mulford Company of Philadelphia started production and testing of diphtheria antitoxin in the United States. [41] Park and Biggs described the method for producing serum from horses for use in diphtheria treatment.[ citation needed ]

In 1897, Paul Ehrlich developed a standardized unit of measure for diphtheria antitoxin. This was the first ever standardization of a biological product, and played an important role in future developmental work on sera and vaccines.[ citation needed ]

In 1901, 10 of 11 inoculated St. Louis children died from contaminated diphtheria antitoxin. The horse from which the antitoxin was derived died of tetanus. This incident, coupled with a tetanus outbreak in Camden, New Jersey, [42] played an important part in initiating federal regulation of biologic products. [43]

On 7 January 1904, Ruth Cleveland died of diphtheria at the age of 12 years in Princeton, New Jersey. Ruth was the eldest daughter of former President Grover Cleveland and the former first lady Frances Folsom. [44]

In 1905, Franklin Royer, from Philadelphia's Municipal Hospital, published a paper urging timely treatment for diphtheria and adequate doses of antitoxin. [45] In 1906, Clemens Pirquet and Béla Schick described serum sickness in children receiving large quantities of horse-derived antitoxin. [46]

Between 1910 and 1911, Béla Schick developed the Schick test to detect pre-existing immunity to diphtheria in an exposed person. Only those who were not exposed to diphtheria were preferably vaccinated. A massive, five-year campaign was coordinated by Dr. Schick. As a part of the campaign, 85 million pieces of literature were distributed by the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company with an appeal to parents to "Save your child from diphtheria." A vaccine was developed in the next decade, and deaths began declining significantly in 1924. [47]

A poster from the United Kingdom advertising diphtheria immunisation (published prior to 1962) Diphtheria is Deadly Art.IWMPST14182.jpg
A poster from the United Kingdom advertising diphtheria immunisation (published prior to 1962)

In 1919, in Dallas, Texas, 10 children were killed and 60 others made seriously ill by toxic antitoxin which had passed the tests of the New York State Health Department. Mulford Company of Philadelphia (manufacturers) paid damages in every case. [48]

In the 1920s, an estimated 100,000 to 200,000 cases of diphtheria occurred per year in the United States, causing 13,000 to 15,000 deaths per year. [25] Children represented a large majority of these cases and fatalities. One of the most infamous outbreaks of diphtheria was in Nome, Alaska; the "Great Race of Mercy" to deliver diphtheria antitoxin is now celebrated by the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race. [49]

In 1926, Alexander Thomas Glenny increased the effectiveness of diphtheria toxoid (a modified version of the toxin used for vaccination) by treating it with aluminum salts. [50] Vaccination with toxoid was not widely used until the early 1930s. [51]

In 1943, diphtheria outbreaks accompanied war and disruption in Europe. The 1 million cases in Europe resulted in 50,000 deaths.[ citation needed ]

In 1949, 68 of 606 children died after diphtheria immunization due to improper manufacture of aluminum phosphate toxoid.[ citation needed ]

In 1974, the World Health Organization included DPT vaccine in their Expanded Programme on Immunization for developing countries.[ citation needed ]

In 1975, an outbreak of cutaneous diphtheria in Seattle, Washington, was reported . [52]

In 1994, the Russian Federation had 39,703 diphtheria cases. By contrast, in 1990, only 1,211 cases were reported. [53] Between 1990 and 1998, diphtheria caused 5000 deaths in the countries of the former Soviet Union. [24]

In early May 2010, a case of diphtheria was diagnosed in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, after the devastating 2010 Haiti earthquake. The 15-year-old male patient died while workers searched for antitoxin. [54]

In 2013, three children died of diphtheria in Hyderabad, India. [55]

In early June 2015, a case of diphtheria was diagnosed at Vall d'Hebron University Hospital in Barcelona, Spain. The 6-year-old child who died of the illness had not been previously vaccinated due to parental opposition to vaccination. [56] It was the first case of diphtheria in the country since 1986 as reported by "El Mundo" [57] or from 1998, as reported by WHO. [58]

In March 2016, a 3-year-old girl died of diphtheria in the University Hospital of Antwerp, Belgium. [59]

In June 2016, a 3-year-old, 5-year-old, and 7-year-old girl died of diphtheria in Kedah, Malacca and Sabah, Malaysia. [60]

In January 2017, more than 300 cases were recorded in Venezuela. [61] [62]

In November and December 2017, an outbreak of diphtheria occurred in Indonesia with more than 600 cases found and 38 fatalities. [63]

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Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is a pneumococcal vaccine and a conjugate vaccine used to protect infants, young children, and adults against disease caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. There are currently three types of PCV available on the global market, which go by the brand names: Prevnar, Synflorix and Prevnar 13.

Diphtheria antitoxin (DAT) is a medication made up of antibodies used in the treatment of diphtheria. It is no longer recommended for prevention of diphtheria. It is given by injection into a vein or muscle.

Passive immunity is the transfer of active humoral immunity of ready-made antibodies. Passive immunity can occur naturally, when maternal antibodies are transferred to the fetus through the placenta, and it can also be induced artificially, when high levels of antibodies specific to a pathogen or toxin are transferred to non-immune persons through blood products that contain antibodies, such as in immunoglobulin therapy or antiserum therapy. Passive immunization is used when there is a high risk of infection and insufficient time for the body to develop its own immune response, or to reduce the symptoms of ongoing or immunosuppressive diseases. Passive immunization can be provided when people cannot synthesize antibodies, and when they have been exposed to a disease that they do not have immunity against.

Immunization during pregnancy, that is the administration of a vaccine to a pregnant woman, is not a routine event as it is generally preferred to administer vaccines either prior to conception or in the postpartum period. When widespread vaccination is used, the risk for an unvaccinated pregnant patient to be exposed to a related infection is low, allowing for postponement, in general, of routine vaccinations to the postpartum period. Nevertheless, immunization during pregnancy may occur either inadvertently, or be indicated in a special situation, when it appears prudent to reduce the risk of a specific disease for a potentially exposed pregnant woman or her fetus.

William Hallock Park American microbiologist

William Hallock Park was an American bacteriologist and laboratory director at the New York City Board of Health, Division of Pathology, Bacteriology, and Disinfection from 1893 to 1936.

Corynebacterium ulcerans is a rod-shaped, aerobic, and gram-positive bacteria. Most Corynebacterium are harmless but some cause serious illness in humans, especially in immunocompromised humans. C. ulcerans has been known to cause diphtheria and diphtheria-like infections in patients. Previously thought to simply be contaminants recovered from diphtheria patients, “coryneform” or “diphtheroids” are now believed to be the cause of such infections.

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Further reading

Classification
D
External resources