Bioinorganic chemistry

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Bioinorganic chemistry is a field that examines the role of metals in biology. Bioinorganic chemistry includes the study of both natural phenomena such as the behavior of metalloproteins as well as artificially introduced metals, including those that are non-essential, in medicine and toxicology. Many biological processes such as respiration depend upon molecules that fall within the realm of inorganic chemistry. The discipline also includes the study of inorganic models or mimics that imitate the behaviour of metalloproteins. [1]

Contents

As a mix of biochemistry and inorganic chemistry, bioinorganic chemistry is important in elucidating the implications of electron-transfer proteins, substrate bindings and activation, atom and group transfer chemistry as well as metal properties in biological chemistry.

Composition of living organisms

About 99% of mammals' mass are the elements carbon, nitrogen, calcium, sodium, chlorine, potassium, hydrogen, phosphorus, oxygen and sulfur. [2] The organic compounds (proteins, lipids and carbohydrates) contain the majority of the carbon and nitrogen and most of the oxygen and hydrogen is present as water. [2] The entire collection of metal-containing biomolecules in a cell is called the metallome.

History

Paul Ehrlich used organoarsenic (“arsenicals”) for the treatment of syphilis, demonstrating the relevance of metals, or at least metalloids, to medicine, that blossomed with Rosenberg’s discovery of the anti-cancer activity of cisplatin (cis-PtCl2(NH3)2). The first protein ever crystallized (see James B. Sumner) was urease, later shown to contain nickel at its active site. Vitamin B12, the cure for pernicious anemia was shown crystallographically by Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin to consist of a cobalt in a corrin macrocycle. The Watson-Crick structure for DNA demonstrated the key structural role played by phosphate-containing polymers.

Themes in bioinorganic chemistry

Several distinct systems are of identifiable in bioinorganic chemistry. Major areas include:

Metal ion transport and storage

This topic covers a diverse collection of ion channels, ion pumps (e.g. NaKATPase), vacuoles, siderophores, and other proteins and small molecules which control the concentration of metal ions in the cells. One issue is that many metals that are metabolically required are not readily available owing to solubility or scarcity. Organisms have developed a number of strategies for collecting such elements and transporting them.

Enzymology

Many reactions in life sciences involve water and metal ions are often at the catalytic centers (active sites) for these enzymes, i.e. these are metalloproteins. Often the reacting water is a ligand (see metal aquo complex). Examples of hydrolase enzymes are carbonic anhydrase, metallophosphatases, and metalloproteinases. Bioinorganic chemists seek to understand and replicate the function of these metalloproteins.

Metal-containing electron transfer proteins are also common. They can be organized into three major classes: iron-sulfur proteins (such as rubredoxins, ferredoxins, and Rieske proteins), blue copper proteins, and cytochromes. These electron transport proteins are complementary to the non-metal electron transporters nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). The nitrogen cycle make extensive use of metals for the redox interconversions.

4Fe-4S clusters serve as electron-relays in proteins. FdRedox.png
4Fe-4S clusters serve as electron-relays in proteins.

Toxicity

Several metal ions are toxic to humans and other animals. The bioinorganic chemistry of lead in the context of its toxicity has been reviewed. [3]

Oxygen transport and activation proteins

Aerobic life make extensive use of metals such as iron, copper, and manganese. Heme is utilized by red blood cells in the form of hemoglobin for oxygen transport and is perhaps the most recognized metal system in biology. Other oxygen transport systems include myoglobin, hemocyanin, and hemerythrin. Oxidases and oxygenases are metal systems found throughout nature that take advantage of oxygen to carry out important reactions such as energy generation in cytochrome c oxidase or small molecule oxidation in cytochrome P450 oxidases or methane monooxygenase. Some metalloproteins are designed to protect a biological system from the potentially harmful effects of oxygen and other reactive oxygen-containing molecules such as hydrogen peroxide. These systems include peroxidases, catalases, and superoxide dismutases. A complementary metalloprotein to those that react with oxygen is the oxygen evolving complex present in plants. This system is part of the complex protein machinery that produces oxygen as plants perform photosynthesis.

Myoglobin is a prominent subject in bioinorganic chemistry, with particular attention to the iron-heme complex that is anchored to the protein. Myoglobin.png
Myoglobin is a prominent subject in bioinorganic chemistry, with particular attention to the iron-heme complex that is anchored to the protein.

Bioorganometallic chemistry

Bioorganometallic systems feature metal-carbon bonds as structural elements or as intermediates. Bioorganometallic enzymes and proteins include the hydrogenases, FeMoco in nitrogenase, and methylcobalamin. These naturally occurring organometallic compounds. This area is more focused on the utilization of metals by unicellular organisms. Bioorganometallic compounds are significant in environmental chemistry. [4]

Structure of FeMoco, the catalytic center of nitrogenase. FeMoco cluster.svg
Structure of FeMoco, the catalytic center of nitrogenase.

Metals in medicine

A number of drugs contain metals. This theme relies on the study of the design and mechanism of action of metal-containing pharmaceuticals, and compounds that interact with endogenous metal ions in enzyme active sites. The most widely used anti-cancer drug is cisplatin. MRI contrast agent commonly contain gadolinium. Lithium carbonate has been used to treat the manic phase of bipolar disorder. Gold antiarthritic drugs, e.g. auranofin have been commercialized. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules are metal complexes have been developed to suppress inflammation by releasing small amounts of carbon monoxide. The cardiovascular and neuronal importance of nitric oxide has been examined, including the enzyme nitric oxide synthase. (See also: nitrogen assimilation.) Besides, metallic transition complexes based on triazolopyrimidines have been tested against several parasite strains. [5]

Environmental chemistry

Environmental chemistry traditionally emphasizes the interaction of heavy metals with organisms. Methylmercury has caused major disaster called Minamata disease. Arsenic poisoning is a widespread problem owing largely to arsenic contamination of groundwater, which affects many millions of people in developing countries. The metabolism of mercury- and arsenic-containing compounds involves cobalamin-based enzymes.

Biomineralization

Biomineralization is the process by which living organisms produce minerals, often to harden or stiffen existing tissues. Such tissues are called mineralized tissues. [6] [7] [8] Examples include silicates in algae and diatoms, carbonates in invertebrates, and calcium phosphates and carbonates in vertebrates. Other examples include copper, iron and gold deposits involving bacteria. Biologically-formed minerals often have special uses such as magnetic sensors in magnetotactic bacteria (Fe3O4), gravity sensing devices (CaCO3, CaSO4, BaSO4) and iron storage and mobilization (Fe2O3•H2O in the protein ferritin). Because extracellular [9] iron is strongly involved in inducing calcification, [10] [11] its control is essential in developing shells; the protein ferritin plays an important role in controlling the distribution of iron. [12]

Types of inorganic elements in biology

Alkali and alkaline earth metals

Like many antibiotics, monensin-A is an ionophore that tightly bind Na (shown in yellow). Monensin2.png
Like many antibiotics, monensin-A is an ionophore that tightly bind Na (shown in yellow).

The abundant inorganic elements act as ionic electrolytes. The most important ions are sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, phosphate, and bicarbonate. The maintenance of precise gradients across cell membranes maintains osmotic pressure and pH. [14] Ions are also critical for nerves and muscles, as action potentials in these tissues are produced by the exchange of electrolytes between the extracellular fluid and the cytosol. [15] Electrolytes enter and leave cells through proteins in the cell membrane called ion channels. For example, muscle contraction depends upon the movement of calcium, sodium and potassium through ion channels in the cell membrane and T-tubules. [16]

Transition metals

The transition metals are usually present as trace elements in organisms, with zinc and iron being most abundant. [17] [18] [19] These metals are used in some proteins as cofactors and are essential for the activity of enzymes such as catalase and oxygen-carrier proteins such as hemoglobin. [20] These cofactors are bound tightly to a specific protein; although enzyme cofactors can be modified during catalysis, cofactors always return to their original state after catalysis has taken place. The metal micronutrients are taken up into organisms by specific transporters and bound to storage proteins such as ferritin or metallothionein when not being used. [21] [22] Cobalt is essential for the functioning of vitamin B12. [23]

Main group compounds

Many other elements aside from metals are bio-active. Sulfur and phosphorus are required for all life. Phosphorus almost exclusively exists as phosphate and its various esters. Sulfur exists in a variety of oxidation states, ranging from sulfate (SO42−) down to sulfide (S2−). Selenium is a trace element involved in proteins that are antioxidants. Cadmium is important because of its toxicity. [24]

See also

Related Research Articles

Metalloprotein Protein that contains a metal ion cofactor

Metalloprotein is a generic term for a protein that contains a metal ion cofactor. A large proportion of all proteins are part of this category. For instance, at least 1000 human proteins contain zinc-binding protein domains although there may be up to 3000 human zinc metalloproteins.

Biomolecule Molecule that is produced by a living organism

A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecules and ions present in organisms that are essential to one or more typically biological processes, such as cell division, morphogenesis, or development. Biomolecules include large macromolecules such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids, as well as small molecules such as primary metabolites, secondary metabolites, and natural products. A more general name for this class of material is biological materials. Biomolecules are usually endogenous, produced within the organism but organisms usually need exogenous biomolecules, for example certain nutrients, to survive.

Cofactor (biochemistry) a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for a proteins biological activity to happen

A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity as a catalyst, a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction. Cofactors can be considered "helper molecules" that assist in biochemical transformations. The rates at which these happen are characterized by in an area of study called enzyme kinetics.

Iron–sulfur proteins are proteins characterized by the presence of iron–sulfur clusters containing sulfide-linked di-, tri-, and tetrairon centers in variable oxidation states. Iron–sulfur clusters are found in a variety of metalloproteins, such as the ferredoxins, as well as NADH dehydrogenase, hydrogenases, coenzyme Q – cytochrome c reductase, succinate – coenzyme Q reductase and nitrogenase. Iron–sulfur clusters are best known for their role in the oxidation-reduction reactions of electron transport in mitochondria and chloroplasts. Both Complex I and Complex II of oxidative phosphorylation have multiple Fe–S clusters. They have many other functions including catalysis as illustrated by aconitase, generation of radicals as illustrated by SAM-dependent enzymes, and as sulfur donors in the biosynthesis of lipoic acid and biotin. Additionally, some Fe–S proteins regulate gene expression. Fe–S proteins are vulnerable to attack by biogenic nitric oxide, forming dinitrosyl iron complexes. In most Fe–S proteins, the terminal ligands on Fe are thiolate, but exceptions exist.

In biochemistry, the metallome distribution of free metal ions in every one of cellular compartments. The term was defined in analogy with proteome as metallomics is the study of metallome: the "comprehensive analysis of the entirety of metal and metalloid species within a cell or tissue type". Therefore, metallomics can be considered a branch of metabolomics, even though the metals are not typically considered as metabolites.

A Holoprotein or conjugated protein is an apoprotein combined with its prosthetic group.

Methane monooxygenase class of enzymes

Methane monooxygenase (MMO) is an enzyme capable of oxidizing the C-H bond in methane as well as other alkanes. Methane monooxygenase belongs to the class of oxidoreductase enzymes.

Catechol oxidase is a copper oxidase that contains a type 3 di-copper cofactor and catalyzes the oxidation of ortho-diphenols into ortho-quinones coupled with the reduction of molecular oxygen to water. It is present in a variety of species of plants and fungi including Ipomoea batatas and Camellia sinensis. Metalloenzymes with type 3 copper centers are characterized by their ability to reversibly bind dioxygen at ambient conditions. In plants, catechol oxidase plays a key role in enzymatic browning by catalyzing the oxidation of catechol to o-quinone in the presence of oxygen, which can rapidly polymerize to form the melanin that grants damaged fruits their dark brown coloration.

Nitrite reductase refers to any of several classes of enzymes that catalyze the reduction of nitrite. There are two classes of NIR's. A multi haem enzyme reduces NO2 to a variety of products. Copper containing enzymes carry out a single electron transfer to produce nitric oxide.

Iron-binding proteins are carrier proteins and metalloproteins that are important in iron metabolism and the immune response. Iron is required for life.

Biometal (biology)

Biometals are metals normally present, in small but important and measurable amounts, in biology, biochemistry, and medicine. The metals copper, zinc, iron, and manganese are examples of metals that are essential for the normal functioning of most plants and the bodies of most animals, such as the human body. A few are present in relatively larger amounts, whereas most others are trace metals, present in smaller but important amounts. Approximately 2/3 of the existing periodic table is composed of metals with varying properties, accounting for the diverse ways in which metals have been utilized in nature and medicine.

Bioorganometallic chemistry is the study of biologically active molecules that contain carbon directly bonded to metals or metalloids. The importance of main-group and transition-metal centers has long been recognized as important to the function of enzymes and other biomolecules. However, only a small subset of naturally-occurring metal complexes and synthetically prepared pharmaceuticals are organometallic; that is, they feature a direct covalent bond between the metal(loid) and a carbon atom. The first, and for a long time, the only examples of naturally occurring bioorganometallic compounds were the cobalamin cofactors (vitamin B12) in its various forms. Due to the recent (21st century) discovery of new systems containing carbon-metal bonds in biology, bioorganometallic chemistry is rapidly emerging as a distinct subdiscipline of bioinorganic chemistry that straddles organometallic chemistry and biochemistry. Naturally occurring bioorganometallics include enzymes and sensor proteins. Also within this realm are synthetically prepared organometallic compounds that serve as new drugs and imaging agents (technetium-99m sestamibi) as well as the principles relevant to the toxicology of organometallic compounds (e.g., methylmercury). Consequently, bioorganometallic chemistry is increasingly relevant to medicine and pharmacology.

QPNC-PAGE, or quantitative preparative native continuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, is a bioanalytical, high-resolution and highly accurate technique applied in biochemistry and bioinorganic chemistry to separate proteins quantitatively by isoelectric point. This standardized variant of native gel electrophoresis is used by biologists to isolate biomacromolecules in solution, for example, active or native metalloproteins in biological samples or properly and improperly folded metal cofactor-containing proteins or protein isoforms in complex protein mixtures.

Body composition may be analyzed in various ways. This can be done in terms of the chemical elements present, or by molecular type e.g., water, protein, fats, hydroxylapatite, carbohydrates and DNA. In terms of tissue type, the body may be analyzed into water, fat, connective tissue, muscle, bone, etc. In terms of cell type, the body contains hundreds of different types of cells, but notably, the largest number of cells contained in a human body are not human cells, but bacteria residing in the normal human gastrointestinal tract.

Stephen J. Lippard American chemist

Stephen James Lippard is the Arthur Amos Noyes Emeritus Professor of Chemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is considered one of the founders of bioinorganic chemistry, studying the interactions of nonliving substances such as metals with biological systems. He is also considered a founder of metalloneurochemistry, the study of metal ions and their effects in the brain and nervous system. He has done pioneering work in understanding protein structure and synthesis, the enzymatic functions of methane monooxygenase (MMO), and the mechanisms of cisplatin anticancer drugs. His work has applications for the treatment of cancer, for bioremediation of the environment, and for the development of synthetic methanol-based fuels.

Amy C. Rosenzweig is a professor of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences at Northwestern University. She was born in 1967 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. She received her BA in chemistry from Amherst College in 1988, and her Ph.D. from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1994. At MIT, Rosenzweig worked under the supervision of Stephen J. Lippard where she pioneered the structural studies of the hydroxylase component of methane monooxygenase from methyloccous capsulatus. Her current research interests include structural biology and bioinorganic chemistry, metal uptake and transport, oxygen activation by metalloenzymes, and characterization of membrane protein. For her work, she has been recognized by a number of national and international awards, including the MacArthur "Genius" Award in 2003.

The European Biological Inorganic Chemistry Conference, or EUROBIC as it is most commonly called, is a biannual conference on Bioinorganic chemistry founded in 1992. The conference is held in Europe but attracts scientists from all over the world. EUROBIC was the result of a merger of the Swiss-Italian SIMBIC conference and the French-German SAMBAS conference. The aim is to create a forum and promote collaboration between scientists in the highly multidisciplinary field of Biological Inorganic Chemistry, ranging from biology to inorganic chemistry.

Metals in medicine are used in organic systems for diagnostic and treatment purposes. Inorganic elements are also essential for organic life as cofactors in enzymes called metalloproteins. When metals are scarce or high quantities, equilibrium is set out of balance and must be returned to its natural state via interventional and natural methods.

Carbonic anhydrase class of enzymes

An enzyme is known as a substance that acts as a catalyst in living organisms which helps to speed up chemical reactions. Carbonic anhydrase is one important enzyme that is found in red blood cells, gastric mucosa, pancreatic cells, and even renal tubules. It is a very old enzyme that was discovered in the year 1932 and it has been categorized into three general classes. Class one being alpha carbonic anhydrase which is found in mammals, class two being beta carbonic anhydrase which is found in bacteria and plants and lastly, class three which is gamma carbonic anhydrase which is found in methanogen bacteria in hot springs. The three classes of carbonic anhydrase all have the same active site with a Zn metal centre however they are not structurally similar to each other. The main role of carbonic anhydrase in humans is to catalyze the conversion of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid and back again. However, it can also help with CO2 transport in the blood which in turn helps respiration. It can even function in the formation of hydrochloric acid by the stomach. Therefore the role of carbonic anhydrase depends on where it is found in the body.

Evolution of metal ions in biological systems refers to the incorporation of metallic ions into living organisms and how it has changed over time. Metal ions have been associated with biological systems for billions of years, but only in the last century have scientists began to truly appreciate the scale of their influence. Major and minor metal ions have become aligned with living organisms through the interplay of biogeochemical weathering and metabolic pathways involving the products of that weathering. The associated complexes have evolved over time.

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Literature