5G

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5G
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5G (from "5th Generation") is the latest generation of cellular mobile communications. It succeeds the 4G (LTE-A, WiMax), 3G (UMTS, LTE) and 2G (GSM) systems. 5G performance targets high data rate, reduced latency, energy saving, cost reduction, higher system capacity, and massive device connectivity. The first phase of 5G specifications in Release-15 will be completed by April 2019 to accommodate the early commercial deployment. The second phase in Release-16 is due to be completed by April 2020 for submission to the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) as a candidate of IMT-2020 technology. [1]

4G is the fourth generation of broadband cellular network technology, succeeding 3G. A 4G system must provide capabilities defined by ITU in IMT Advanced. Potential and current applications include amended mobile web access, IP telephony, gaming services, high-definition mobile TV, video conferencing, and 3D television.

LTE Advanced

LTE Advanced is a mobile communication standard and a major enhancement of the Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard. It was formally submitted as a candidate 4G to ITU-T in late 2009 as meeting the requirements of the IMT-Advanced standard, and was standardized by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) in March 2011 as 3GPP Release 10.

WiMAX wireless broadband standard

WiMAX is a family of wireless broadband communication standards based on the IEEE 802.16 set of standards, which provide multiple physical layer (PHY) and Media Access Control (MAC) options.

Contents

The ITU IMT-2020 specification demands speeds of up to 20 Gbit/s, achievable with wide channel bandwidths and massive MIMO. [2] 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is going to submit 5G NR (New Radio) as its 5G communication standard proposal. 5G NR can include lower frequencies (FR1), below 6 GHz, and higher frequencies (FR2), above 24 GHz and into the millimeter waves range. However, the speed and latency in early deployments, using 5G NR software on 4G hardware (non-standalone), are only slightly better than new 4G systems, estimated at 15% to 50% better. [3] [4] [5] Simulation of standalone eMBB deployments showed improved throughput between 2.5×, in the FR1 range, and nearly 20×, in the FR2 range. [6]

MIMO Use of multiple antennas in radio

In radio, multiple-input and multiple-output, or MIMO, is a method for multiplying the capacity of a radio link using multiple transmission and receiving antennas to exploit multipath propagation. MIMO has become an essential element of wireless communication standards including IEEE 802.11n (Wi-Fi), IEEE 802.11ac (Wi-Fi), HSPA+ (3G), WiMAX (4G), and Long Term Evolution. More recently, MIMO has been applied to power-line communication for 3-wire installations as part of ITU G.hn standard and HomePlug AV2 specification.

The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is a standards organization which develops protocols for mobile telephony. Its best known work is the development and maintenance of:

5G NR is a new radio access technology (RAT) developed by 3GPP for the 5G mobile network. It is supposed to be the global standard for the air interface of 5G networks.

Overview

Like the earlier generation 2G, 3G, and 4G mobile networks, 5G networks are digital cellular networks, in which the service area covered by providers is divided into a mosaic of small geographical areas called cells. Analog signals representing sounds and images are digitized in the phone, converted by an analog to digital converter and transmitted as a stream of bits. All the 5G wireless devices in a cell communicate by radio waves with a local antenna array and low power automated transceiver (transmitter and receiver) in the cell, over frequency channels assigned by the transceiver from a common pool of frequencies, which are reused in geographically separated cells. The local antennas are connected with the telephone network and the Internet by a high bandwidth optical fiber or wireless backhaul connection. Like existing cellphones, when a user crosses from one cell to another, their mobile device is automatically "handed off" seamlessly to the antenna in the new cell.

2G is short for second-generation cellular technology. Second-generation 2G cellular networks were commercially launched on the GSM standard in Finland by Radiolinja in 1991. Three primary benefits of 2G networks over their predecessors were that phone conversations were digitally encrypted; 2G systems were significantly more efficient on the spectrum enabling far greater wireless penetration levels; and 2G introduced data services for mobile, starting with SMS text messages. 2G technologies enabled the various networks to provide the services such as text messages, picture messages, and MMS. All text messages sent over 2G are digitally encrypted, allowing the transfer of data in such a way that only the intended receiver can receive and read it.

Digital signal A signal used to represent a sequence of discrete values

A digital signal is a signal that is being used to represent data as a sequence of discrete values; at any given time it can only take on one of a finite number of values. This contrasts with an analog signal, which represents continuous values; at any given time it represents a real number within a continuous range of values.

Cellular network communication network where the last link is wireless

A cellular network or mobile network is a communication network where the last link is wireless. The network is distributed over land areas called cells, each served by at least one fixed-location transceiver, but more normally three cell sites or base transceiver stations. These base stations provide the cell with the network coverage which can be used for transmission of voice, data, and other types of content. A cell typically uses a different set of frequencies from neighboring cells, to avoid interference and provide guaranteed service quality within each cell.

Their major advantage is that 5G networks achieve much higher data rates than previous cellular networks, up to 10 Gbit/s; which is faster than current cable internet, and 100 times faster than the previous cellular technology, 4G LTE. [7] [8] Another advantage is lower network latency (faster response time), below 1 ms (millisecond), compared with 30 - 70 ms for 4G. [8] Because of the higher data rates, 5G networks will serve not just cellphones but are also envisioned as a general home and office networking provider, competing with wired internet providers like cable. Previous cellular networks provided low data rate internet access suitable for cellphones, but a cell tower could not economically provide enough bandwidth to serve as a general internet provider for home computers.

In telecommunications and computing, bit rate is the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time.

5G networks achieve these higher data rates by using higher frequency radio waves, in or near the millimeter wave band [7] from 30 to 300  GHz, whereas previous cellular networks used frequencies in the microwave band between 700 MHz and 3 GHz. A second lower frequency range in the microwave band, below 6 GHz, will be used by some 5G providers, but this will not have the high speeds of the new frequencies. Because of the more plentiful bandwidth at millimeter wave frequencies, 5G networks will use wider frequency channels to communicate with the wireless device, up to 400 MHz compared with 20 MHz in 4G LTE, which can transmit more data (bits) per second. OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) modulation is used, in which multiple carrier waves are transmitted in the frequency channel, so multiple bits of information are being transferred simultaneously, in parallel.

Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time. It is also referred to as temporal frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency. The period is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. For example: if a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second. Frequency is an important parameter used in science and engineering to specify the rate of oscillatory and vibratory phenomena, such as mechanical vibrations, audio signals (sound), radio waves, and light.

Radio wave type of electromagnetic radiation

Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light. Radio waves have frequencies as high as 300 gigahertz (GHz) to as low as 30 hertz (Hz). At 300 GHz, the corresponding wavelength is 1 mm, and at 30 Hz is 10,000 km. Like all other electromagnetic waves, radio waves travel at the speed of light. They are generated by electric charges undergoing acceleration, such as time varying electric currents. Naturally occurring radio waves are emitted by lightning and astronomical objects.

Hertz SI unit for frequency

The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second. It is named for Heinrich Rudolf Hertz, the first person to provide conclusive proof of the existence of electromagnetic waves. Hertz are commonly expressed in multiples: kilohertz (103 Hz, kHz), megahertz (106 Hz, MHz), gigahertz (109 Hz, GHz), terahertz (1012 Hz, THz), petahertz (1015 Hz, PHz), and exahertz (1018 Hz, EHz).

Millimeter waves are absorbed by gases in the atmosphere and have shorter range than microwaves, therefore the cells are limited to smaller size; 5G cells will be the size of a city block, as opposed to the cells in previous cellular networks which could be many kilometers across. The waves also have trouble passing through building walls, requiring multiple antennas to cover a cell. [7] Millimeter wave antennas are smaller than the large antennas used in previous cellular networks, only a few inches (several cm) long, so instead of a cell tower 5G cells will be covered by many antennas mounted on telephone poles and buildings. [8] Another technique used for increasing the data rate is massive MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output). [7] Each cell will have multiple antennas communicating with the wireless device, each over a separate frequency channel, received by multiple antennas in the device, thus multiple bitstreams of data will be transmitted simultaneously, in parallel. In a technique called beamforming the base station computer will continuously calculate the best route for radio waves to reach each wireless device, and will organise multiple antennas to work together as phased arrays to create beams of millimeter waves to reach the device. [7] [8] The smaller, more numerous cells makes 5G network infrastructure more expensive to build per square kilometer of coverage than previous cellular networks. Deployment is currently limited to cities, where there will be enough users per cell to provide an adequate investment return, and there are doubts about whether this technology will ever reach rural areas. [7]

A bitstream, also known as binary sequence, is a sequence of bits.

Beamforming signal processing technique used in sensor arrays for directional signal transmission or reception

Beamforming or spatial filtering is a signal processing technique used in sensor arrays for directional signal transmission or reception. This is achieved by combining elements in an antenna array in such a way that signals at particular angles experience constructive interference while others experience destructive interference. Beamforming can be used at both the transmitting and receiving ends in order to achieve spatial selectivity. The improvement compared with omnidirectional reception/transmission is known as the directivity of the array.

Phased array type of array of antennas

In antenna theory, a phased array usually means an electronically scanned array, a computer-controlled array of antennas which creates a beam of radio waves that can be electronically steered to point in different directions without moving the antennas. In an array antenna, the radio frequency current from the transmitter is fed to the individual antennas with the correct phase relationship so that the radio waves from the separate antennas add together to increase the radiation in a desired direction, while cancelling to suppress radiation in undesired directions. In a phased array, the power from the transmitter is fed to the antennas through devices called phase shifters, controlled by a computer system, which can alter the phase electronically, thus steering the beam of radio waves to a different direction. Since the array must consist of many small antennas to achieve high gain, phased arrays are mainly practical at the high frequency end of the radio spectrum, in the UHF and microwave bands, in which the antenna elements are conveniently small.

The new 5G wireless devices also have 4G LTE capability, as the new networks use 4G for initially establishing the connection with the cell, as well as in locations where 5G access is not available. [9]

The high data rate and low latency of 5G are envisioned as opening up new applications in the near future. [9] One is practical virtual reality and augmented reality. Another is fast machine-to-machine interaction in the Internet of Things. For example, computers in vehicles on a road could continuously communicate with each other, and with the road, by 5G. [9]

Performance targets

5G systems in line with IMT-2020 specifications [10] are expected to provide enhanced device and network-level capabilities, tightly coupled with intended applications. The following eight parameters are key capabilities for IMT-2020 5G:

CapabilityDescription5G target Usage scenario
Peak data rateMaximum achievable data rate20 Gbit/seMBB
User experienced data rateAchievable data rate across the coverage area (hotspot cases)1 Gbit/seMBB
Achievable data rate across the coverage area100 Mbit/seMBB
LatencyRadio network contribution to packet travel time1 msURLLC
MobilityMaximum speed for handoff and QoS requirements500 km/heMBB/URLLC
Connection densityTotal number of devices per unit area106/km2MMTC
Energy efficiencyData sent/received per unit energy consumption (by device or network)Equal to 4GeMBB
Spectrum efficiencyThroughput per unit wireless bandwidth and per network cell3–4x 4GeMBB
Area traffic capacityTotal traffic across coverage area1000 (Mbit/s)/m2eMBB

Note that, for 5G NR, according to 3GPP specification when using spectrum below 6 GHz, the performance would be closer to 4G.

Usage scenario

ITU-R have defined three main types of usage scenario that the capability of 5G is expected to enable. They are Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB), Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communications (URLLC), and Massive Machine Type Communications (mMTC). [11]

Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB)

Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB) refers to the use case of using 5G as an evolution to 4G LTE mobile broadband services with faster connection with higher throughput and more capacity. 5G would need to deliver higher capacity, enhance connectivity, and higher user mobility to match these demands, which would require capabilities in the above table with eMBB mark to deliver. [12]

Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communications (URLLC)

Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Communications (URLLC) refers to the use case of using 5G in mission-critical applications such as factory automation, where uninterrupted and robust exchange of data is of the utmost importance.

Massive Machine Type Communications (mMTC)

Massive Machine-Type Communications (mMTC) refers to the wide area IoT use cases consisting of large numbers of low-cost devices with high requirements on scalability and increased battery lifetime.

Advantages

Speed

5G promises superior speeds in most conditions to the 4G network. Qualcomm presented a simulation at Mobile World Congress [13] [14] [15] that predicts 490 Mbit/s median speeds for 3.5 GHz 5G Massive MIMO and 1.4 Gbit/s median speed for 28 GHz mmWave. [16] 5G NR speed in sub-6 GHz bands can be slightly higher than the 4G with a similar amount of spectrum and antennas, [17] [18] though some 3GPP 5G networks will be slower than some advanced 4G networks, such as T-Mobile's LTE/LAA network, which achieves 500+ Mbit/s in Manhattan. [19]

The 5G specification allows LAA (License Assisted Access) as well but it has not yet been demonstrated. Adding LAA to an existing 4G configuration can add hundreds of megabits per second to the speed, but this is an extension of 4G, not a new part of the 5G standard. [19]

Low communication latency

Network latency is the time it takes to pass a message from sender to receiver. [20] 5G will have much lower latency than previous cellular networks; below 1 millisecond, compared with 30 - 70 ms for 4G. [8]

New use cases

Features of 5G network, including extreme high bandwidth, ultra low latency, and high density connections, are expected to enable many new use cases that are impossible to be done via older network standards. [21] (See Usage scenario) 5G can also increase the effectiveness of ecommerce vendors' activities. [22]

Standards

Initially, the term was defined by the International Telecommunication Union's IMT-2020 standard, which required a theoretical peak download capacity of 20 gigabits, along with other requirements for 5G networks. [23] Then, the industry standards group 3GPP have prepared the 5G NR (New Radio) standard together with LTE as their proposal for submission to the IMT-2020 standard. [24] [25]

ITU has divided 5G network services into three categories: enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB) or handsets; Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Communications (URLLC), which includes industrial applications and autonomous vehicles; and Massive Machine Type Communications (MMTC) or sensors. [26] Initial 5G deployments will focus on eMBB [27] and fixed wireless, [28] which makes use of many of the same capabilities as eMBB. 5G will use spectrum in the existing LTE frequency range (600 MHz to 6 GHz) and also in millimeter wave (mmWave) bands (24–86 GHz). 5G technologies have to satisfy ITU IMT-2020 requirements and/or 3GPP Release 15;[ citation needed ] while IMT-2020 specifies data rates of 20 Gbit/s, 5G speed in sub-6 GHz bands is similar to 4G. [17] [18]

IEEE covers several areas of 5G with a core focus in wireline sections between the Remote Radio Head (RRH) and Base Band Unit (BBU). The 1914.1 standards focus on network architecture and dividing the connection between the RRU and BBU into two key sections. Radio Unit (RU) to the Distributor Unit (DU) being the NGFI-I (Next Generation Fronthaul Interface) and the DU to the Central Unit (CU) being the NGFI-II interface allowing a more diverse and cost-effective network. NGFI-I and NGFI-II have defined performance values which should be compiled to ensure different traffic types defined by the ITU are capable of being carried. 1914.3 standard is creating a new Ethernet frame format capable of carrying IQ data in a much more efficient way depending on the functional split utilized. This is based on the 3GPP definition of functional splits. Multiple network synchronization standards within the IEEE groups are being updated to ensure network timing accuracy at the RU is maintained to a level required for the traffic carried over it.

Air interface

5G NR

5G NR (New Radio) is a new air interface developed for the 5G network. [29] It is supposed to be the global standard for the air interface of 5G networks. [30]

Pre-standard implementations

  • 5GTF: The 5G network implemented by American carrier Verizon for Fixed Wireless Access in late 2010s uses an pre-standard specification known as 5GTF (Verizon 5G Technical Forum). The 5G service provided to customers in this standard is incompatible with 5G NR. There are plans to upgrade 5GTF to 5G NR "Once [it] meets our strict specifications for our customers," according to Verizon. [31]
  • 5G-SIG is another pre-standard specification of 5G developed by KT Corporation. It is the version of implementation deployed at Pyeongchang 2018 Winter Olympics. [32]

NB-IoT/eMTC

3GPP is going to submit evolution of NB-IoT and eMTC(LTE-M) as the 5G technology for the LPWA (Low Power Wide Area) use case. [33]

Deployment

Development of 5G is being led by companies such as Huawei, [34] Intel [35] and Qualcomm, [36] for modem technology and Cisco,[ citation needed ] Ericsson, [37] Huawei,[ citation needed ] Nokia,[ citation needed ] Samsung [ citation needed ] and ZTE,[ citation needed ] for infrastructure.

Worldwide commercial launch is expected in 2020. Numerous operators have demonstrated 5G as well, including Korea Telecom for the 2018 Winter Olympics [38] [39] and Telstra at the 2018 Commonwealth Games. [40] In the United States, the four major carriers have all announced deployments: AT&T's [41] millimeter wave commercial deployments in 2018, Verizon's 5G TF fixed wireless launches in four U.S. cities and millimeter-wave deployments, [42] Sprint's launch in the 2.5 GHz band, [43] and T-Mobile's 600 MHz 5G launch in 30 cities. [44] Vodafone performed the first UK trials in April 2018 using mid-band spectrum, [45] and China Telecom's initial 5G buildout in 2018 will use mid-band spectrum as well. [46] The world first service of 5G was in South Korea, as the South Korean telecoms deployed it all at once on 1 December 2018. [47]

Beyond mobile operator networks, 5G is also expected to be widely utilized for private networks with applications in industrial IoT, enterprise networking, and critical communications.

Initial 5G NR launches will depend on existing LTE 4G infrastructure in non-standalone (NSA) mode, before maturation of the standalone (SA) mode with the 5G core network.

In December 2018, Nokia and Telefónica Deutschland start testing 5G in Berlin, with five sites. [48]

Spectrum

In order to support increased throughput requirements of 5G, large quantities of new spectrum (5G NR frequency bands) have been allocated to 5G, particularly in millimeter-wave bands. [49] For example, in July 2016, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) of the United States freed up vast amounts of bandwidth in underutilised high-band spectrum for 5G. The Spectrum Frontiers Proposal (SFP) doubled the amount of millimeter-wave unlicensed spectrum to 14 GHz and created four times the amount of flexible, mobile-use spectrum the FCC had licensed to date. [50] In March 2018, European Union lawmakers agreed to open up the 3.6 and 26 GHz bands by 2020. [51]

5G modems

Traditional cellular modem suppliers have significant investment in the 5G modem market. Qualcomm announced its X50 5G Modem in October 2016, [52] and in November 2017, Intel announced its XMM8000 series of 5G modems, including the XMM8060 modem, both of which have expected productization dates in 2019. [53] [54] In February 2018, Huawei announced the Balong 5G01 terminal device [55] with an expected launch date for 5G-enabled mobile phones of 2018 [56] and Mediatek announced its own 5G solutions targeted at 2020 production. [57] Samsung is also working on the Exynos 5G modem, but has not announced a production date. [58]

Technology

New radio frequencies

The air interface defined by 3GPP for 5G is known as New Radio (NR), and the specification is subdivided into two frequency bands, FR1 (below 6 GHz) and FR2 (mmWave), [59] each with different capabilities.

Frequency range 1 (< 6 GHz)

The maximum channel bandwidth defined for FR1 is 100 MHz, due to the scarcity of continuous spectrum in this crowded frequency range. The band that is most likely to be universally used for 5G in this range is around 3.5 GHz.

Frequency range 2 (> 24 GHz)

The minimum channel bandwidth defined for FR2 is the 50 MHz and the maximum is 400 MHz, with two-channel aggregation supported in 3GPP Release 15. The maximum Physical layer (PHY) rate potentially supported by this configuration is approximately 40 Gbit/s. There is no particular band that is likely to be universally used for 5G in this range, though there are some regional proposals do converge around certain bands. [60]

Massive MIMO

Massive MIMO (multiple input and multiple output) antennas increases sector throughput and capacity density using large numbers of antennae and Multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO). Each antenna is individually-controlled and may embed radio transceiver components. Nokia claimed a five-fold increase in the capacity increase for a 64-Tx/64-Rx antenna system. The term "massive MIMO" was coined by Nokia Bell Labs researcher Dr. Thomas L. Marzetta in 2010, and has been launched in 4G networks, such as Softbank in Japan.[ citation needed ]

Edge computing

Edge computing is a method of optimizing cloud computing systems by taking the control of computing applications, data, and services away from some central nodes (the "core area"). In a 5G network, it would promote faster speeds and low-latency data transfer on edge devices. [61] [62]

Small cell

Beamforming

Radio convergence

One expected benefit of the transition to 5G is the convergence of multiple networking functions to achieve cost, power and complexity reductions. LTE has targeted convergence with Wi-Fi via various efforts, such as License Assisted Access (LAA) and LTE-WLAN Aggregation (LWA), but the differing capabilities of cellular and Wi-Fi have limited the scope of convergence. However, significant improvement in cellular performance specifications in 5G, combined with migration from Distributed Radio Access Network (D-RAN) to Cloud- or Centralized-RAN (C-RAN) and rollout of cellular small cells can potentially narrow the gap between Wi-Fi and cellular networks in dense and indoor deployments. Radio convergence could result in sharing ranging from the aggregation of cellular and Wi-Fi channels to the use of a single silicon device for multiple radio access technologies.

NOMA (non-orthogonal multiple access)

NOMA (non-orthogonal multiple access) is a proposed multiple-access technique for future cellular systems. In this, same time, frequency, and spreading-code resources are shared by the multiple users via allocation of power. The entire bandwidth can be exploited by each user in NOMA for entire communication time due to which latency has been reduced and users' data rates can be increased. For multiple access, the power domain has been used by NOMA in which different power levels are used to serve different users. 3GPP also included NOMA in LTE-A due to its spectral efficiency and is known as multiuser superposition transmission (MUST) which is two user special case of NOMA. [63]

SDN/NFV

Initially, cellular mobile communications technologies were designed in the context of providing voice services and Internet access. Today a new era of innovative tools and technologies is inclined towards developing a new pool of applications. This pool of applications consists of different domains such as the Internet of Things (IoT), web of connected autonomous vehicles, remotely controlled robots, and heterogeneous sensors connected to serve versatile applications. [64] [65] [66]

Operation in unlicensed spectrum

Like LTE in unlicensed spectrum, 5G NR will also support operation in unlicensed spectrum (NR-U). [67] In addition to License Assisted Access (LAA) from LTE that enable carriers to use those unlicensed spectrum to boost their operational performance for users, in 5G NR it will support standalone NR-U unlicensed operation which will allow new 5G NR networks to be established in different environments without acquiring operational license in licensed spectrum, for instance for localized private network or lower the entry barrier for providing 5G internet services to the public. [67]

Confusion

In various parts of the world, carriers have launched numerous differently branded technologies like "5G Project" or "5G Evolution" which advertise improving existing networks with the use of "5G technology". [68] [69] However, these pre-5G networks are actually existing improvement on specification of LTE networks that are not exclusive to 5G. [70] [71]

Regional progress

On 15 May 2018, Qatari telecommunications company Ooredoo launched the world's first commercial 5G network in several areas of the capital, Doha. [72]

Other applications

Digital television

3GPP have been studying mixed mode multicast and terrestrial broadcast based on equivalent of MBMS for 5G NR and a further development based on LTE's EnTV. [73]

Automobiles

5G Automotive Association have been promoting the C-V2X communication technology that is based on 5G NR for communication between vehicles and communication between vehicles and infrastructures. [74]

Automation (factory and process)

5G Alliance for Connected Industries and Automation - 5G-ACIA promotes 5G for factory automation and process industry. [75]

Public safety

Mission-critical push-to-talk (MCPTT) and mission-critical video and data are expected to be furthered in 5G. [76]

See also

History

Related Research Articles

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Mobile broadband is the marketing term for wireless Internet access through a portable modem, USB wireless modem, or a tablet/smartphone or other mobile device. The first wireless Internet access became available in 1991 as part of the second generation (2G) of mobile phone technology. Higher speeds became available in 2001 and 2006 as part of the third (3G) and fourth (4G) generations. In 2011, 90% of the world's population lived in areas with 2G coverage, while 45% lived in areas with 2G and 3G coverage. Mobile broadband uses the spectrum of 225 MHz to 3700 MHz.

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Evolved High Speed Packet Access, or HSPA+, or HSPA(Plus), or HSPAP is a technical standard for wireless broadband telecommunication. It is the second phase of HSPA which has been introduced in 3GPP release 7 and being further improved in later 3GPP releases. HSPA+ can achieve data rates of up to 42.2 Mbit/s. It introduces antenna array technologies such as beamforming and multiple-input multiple-output communications (MIMO). Beam forming focuses the transmitted power of an antenna in a beam towards the user's direction. MIMO uses multiple antennas at the sending and receiving side. Further releases of the standard have introduced dual carrier operation, i.e. the simultaneous use of two 5 MHz carriers. The technology also delivers significant battery life improvements and dramatically quicker wake-from-idle time, delivering a true always-on connection. HSPA+ is an evolution of HSPA that upgrades the existing 3G network and provides a method for telecom operators to migrate towards 4G speeds that are more comparable to the initially available speeds of newer LTE networks without deploying a new radio interface. HSPA+ should not be confused with LTE though, which uses an air interface based on Orthogonal frequency-division multiple access modulation and multiple access.

Many antennas is a smart antenna technique which overcomes the performance limitation of single user multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques. In cellular communication, the maximum number of considered antennas for downlink is 2 and 4 to support 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) and IMT Advanced requirements, respectively. Since the available spectrum band will probably be limited while the data rate requirement will continuously increase beyond IMT-A to support the mobile multimedia services, it is highly probable that the number of transmit antennas at the base station must be increased to 8–64 or more. The installation of many antennas at single base stations introduced many challenges and required development of several high technologies: a new SDMA engine, a new beamforming algorithm and a new antenna array.

In telecommunication, Long-Term Evolution (LTE) is a standard for wireless broadband communication for mobile devices and data terminals, based on the GSM/EDGE and UMTS/HSPA technologies. It increases the capacity and speed using a different radio interface together with core network improvements. The standard is developed by the 3GPP and is specified in its Release 8 document series, with minor enhancements described in Release 9. LTE is the upgrade path for carriers with both GSM/UMTS networks and CDMA2000 networks. The different LTE frequencies and bands used in different countries mean that only multi-band phones are able to use LTE in all countries where it is supported.

International Mobile Telecommunications-Advanced are the requirements issued by the ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in 2008 for what is marketed as 4G mobile phone and Internet access service.

The Asia-Pacific Telecommunity (APT) band plan is a type of segmentation of the 698–806 MHz band formalized by the APT in 2008–2010 and specially configured for the deployment of mobile broadband technologies. This segmentation exists in two variants, FDD and TDD, that have been standardized by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) and recommended by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) as segmentations A5 and A6, respectively. The APT band plan has been designed to enable the most efficient use of available spectrum. Therefore, this plan divides the band into contiguous blocks of frequencies that are as large as possible taking account of the need to avoid interference with services in other frequency bands. As the result, the TDD option includes 100 MHz of continuous spectrum, while the FDD option comprises two large blocks, one of 45 MHz for uplink transmission in the lower part of the band and the other also of 45 MHz for downlink transmission in the upper part. As defined in the standard, both FDD and TDD schemes for the 700 MHz band include guard bands of 5 MHz and 3 MHz at their lower and upper edges, respectively. The FDD version also includes a center gap of 10 MHz. The guardbands serve the purpose of mitigating interference with adjacent bands while the FDD center gap is required to avoid interference between uplink and downlink transmissions. The two arrangements are shown graphically in figures 1 and 2.

The first smart antennas were developed for military communications and intelligence gathering. The growth of cellular telephone in the 1980s attracted interest in commercial applications. The upgrade to digital radio technology in the mobile phone, indoor wireless network, and satellite broadcasting industries created new opportunities for smart antennas in the 1990s, culminating in the development of the MIMO technology used in 4G wireless networks.

Bernhard Walke German electrical engineer

Bernhard H. Walke is a pioneer of mobile Internet access and professor emeritus at RWTH Aachen University in Germany. He is a driver of wireless and mobile 2G to 5G cellular radio networks technologies. In 1985 he proposed a local cellular radio network comprising technologies in use today in 2G to 4G and discussed for 5G systems, like self-organization of a radio mesh network, integration of circuit- and packet switching, de-centralized radio resource control, TDMA/spread spectrum data transmission, antenna beam steering, spatial beam multiplexing, interference coordination, S-Aloha based multiple access and demand assigned traffic channels, mobile broadband transmission using mm-waves, and multi-hop communication.

LTE in unlicensed spectrum is a proposed extension of the Long-Term Evolution (LTE) wireless standard intended to allow cellular network operators to offload some of their data traffic by accessing the unlicensed 5 GHz frequency band. LTE-Unlicensed is a proposal, originally developed by Qualcomm, for the use of the 4G LTE radio communications technology in unlicensed spectrum, such as the 5 GHz band used by 802.11a and 802.11ac compliant Wi-Fi equipment. It would serve as an alternative to carrier-owned Wi-Fi hotspots. Currently, there are number of variants of LTE operation in the unlicensed band, namely LTE-U, Licensed Spectrum Access (LAA), and MulteFire.

IEEE 802.11ax, labelled Wi-Fi 6 by Wi-Fi Alliance, is one of the two wireless specifications standards, of IEEE 802.11, both expecting full deployment late 2019; the other is ay. They can be thought of as High Efficiency Wireless.

Frequency bands for 5G NR are being separated into two different frequency ranges. First there is Frequency Range 1 (FR1) that includes sub-6GHz frequency bands, some of which are bands traditionally used by previous standards. The other is Frequency Range 2 (FR2) that includes frequency bands above 24 GHz and into the millimeter wave range, that has shorter range but higher available bandwidth than bands in the FR1.

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Preceded by
4th Generation (4G)
Mobile telephony generationsSucceeded by