XVIII Airborne Corps

Last updated

II Armored Corps
XVIII Corps
XVIII Airborne Corps
Patch of the United States Army XVIII Airborne Corps.png
XVIII Army Airborne Corps shoulder sleeve insignia
Active1942–1945
1951–present
CountryFlag of the United States.svg United States
BranchFlag of the United States Army.svg  United States Army
Type Corps
Part of United States Army Forces Command SSI.svg U.S. Army Forces Command
Garrison/HQ Fort Bragg, North Carolina, U.S.
Motto(s)Sky Dragons
Color of Beret  Maroon
Engagements World War II

Persian Gulf War
Global War on Terrorism

Website https://www.army.mil/xviiicorps
Commanders
Current
commander
LTG Michael "Erik" Kurilla [1]
Notable
commanders
Matthew Ridgway
John W. Leonard
James J. Lindsay
Thomas J. H. Trapnell
William C. Westmoreland
Henry E. Emerson
Hugh Shelton
Insignia
Combat service identification badge
US Army 18th Airborne Corps CSIB.png
Distinctive unit insignia
XVIII Airborne Corps DUI.svg
Flag
Flag of the United States Army XVIII Airborne Corps.svg
Beret flash
HHC18ABCorpsBeretFlash.PNG
Background trimming
XVIII Airborne Corps BT.png
U.S. Corps (1939–present)
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XVI Corps (United States) XIX Corps (United States)

The XVIII Airborne Corps is a corps of the United States Army that has been in existence since 1942 and saw extensive service during World War II. The corps is designed for rapid deployment anywhere in the world and is referred to as "America's Contingency Corps". Its headquarters are at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. [2]

Contents

Leadership

Its command group includes:

History

World War II

The corps was first activated on 17 January 1942, five weeks after the entry of the United States into World War II, as the II Armored Corps at Camp Polk, Louisiana, under the command of Major General William Henry Harrison Morris, Jr.. When the concept of armored corps proved unnecessary, II Armored Corps was re-designated as XVIII Corps on 9 October 1943 at the Presidio of Monterey, California. [4]

XVIII Corps deployed to Europe on 17 August 1944 and became the XVIII Airborne Corps on 25 August 1944 at Ogbourne St. George, England, assuming command of the 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions, as part of the preparation for Operation Market Garden. Prior to this time, the two divisions were assigned to VII Corps and jumped into Normandy during Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of Normandy, as part of VII Corps. [5] Major General Matthew Bunker Ridgway, a highly professional, competent and experienced airborne commander who had led the 82nd Airborne Division in Sicily, Italy and Normandy, was chosen to command the corps, which then consisted of the 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions and was part of the newly created First Allied Airborne Army.

The corps headquarters did not see service in Operation Market Garden, with the British I Airborne Corps being chosen instead to exercise operational command of all Allied airborne forces in the operation, including the 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions.

Following the Battle of the Bulge, in which the corps played a significant part (and which, during the early stages of the battle, the corps was commanded by Major General James M. Gavin of the 82nd Airborne), all American airborne units on the Western Front fell under command of the corps. XVIII Airborne Corps planned and executed Operation Varsity, the airborne component of Operation Plunder, the crossing of the River Rhine into Germany. It was one of the largest airborne operations of the war, with the British 6th and U.S. 17th Airborne Divisions under command. After taking part in the Western Allied invasion of Germany, the XVIII Airborne Corps, still under Ridgway, returned to the United States in June 1945 and was initially to take part in the invasion of Japan, codenamed Operation Downfall. However, the Japanese surrendered just weeks later and XVIII Airborne Corps was inactivated on 15 October 1945 at Fort Campbell, Kentucky. [6]

World War II units


Cold War

The Corps was reactivated at Fort Bragg on 21 May 1951 under the command of Major General John W. Leonard. Since then, the corps has been the primary strategic response force, with subordinate units participating in over a dozen major operations (listed below) in both combat and humanitarian roles, primarily in Central America and the CENTCOM area of responsibility. [7]

In 1958 the XVIII Airborne Corps was given the additional mission of becoming the Strategic Army Corps. The corps was now tasked, in addition, to provide a flexible strike capability that could deploy worldwide, on short notice, without a declaration of an emergency. The 4th Infantry Division at Fort Lewis, Washington, and the 101st Airborne Division at Fort Campbell, Kentucky, were designated as STRAC's first-line divisions, while the 1st Infantry Division at Fort Riley, Kansas, and the 82nd Airborne Division at Fort Bragg were to provide backup in the event of general war. The 5th Logistical Command (later inactivated), also at Fort Bragg, would provide the corps with logistics support, while Fort Bragg's XVIII Airborne Corps Artillery would control artillery units. [8]

The Corps deployed forces to the United States occupation of the Dominican Republic ('Operation Power Pack') in 1965.

The Corps deployed forces to the Vietnam War, including the entire 101st Airborne Division and the 3rd Brigade of the 82nd Airborne division.

In 1967 elements of the Corps were deployed to Detroit to suppress riots, and also to The Congo to support the government there and to rescue civilian hostages as part of Operation Dragon Rouge.

In 1982 the Corps first rotated elements to the Sinai Peninsula as part of the Multinational Force and Observers (UN) to guarantee the Camp David Peace Accords. [9]

In 1983 elements of the Corps were deployed to the island of Grenada as part of Operation Urgent Fury, with the stated goal of reestablishing the democratically elected government.

In 1989 XVIII Airborne Corps, commanded by then LTG Carl Stiner, participated in the invasion of Panama in Operation Just Cause. Stiner served concurrently as Commander of Joint Task Force South.

Structure in 1989

NATO Symbol
XVIII (US)
NATO Map Symbol - Unit Size - Corps.svg
Military Symbol - Friendly Unit (Solid Light 1.5x1 Frame)- Airborne Forces (NATO APP-6).svg

At the end of the Cold War in 1989 the corps consisted of the following formations and units:

Desert Storm

In 1991, XVIII Airborne Corps participated in the Persian Gulf War. The corps was responsible for securing VII Corps' northern flank against a possible Iraqi counterattack. Along with the 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions, 24th Infantry Division and 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment, XVIII Airborne Corps also gained operational control of the French 6th Light Armor Division (LAD) (which also included units from the French Foreign Legion).

During Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm, XVIII Airborne Corps Artillery consisted of the 3d Battalion, 8th Field Artillery; 5th Battalion, 8th Field Artillery; and the 1st Battalion (Airborne), 39th Field Artillery. The living quarters for these three units were situated between the 82d Airborne Division and the Special Forces at Fort Bragg. Of the three units, only 1-39th was airborne qualified and served as the only fully airborne deployable 155 mm Field Artillery unit in history.[ citation needed ] The 1-39th FA and 3-8th FA were key components of the thrust into Iraq in the first Gulf War, providing fire support for the French Foreign Legion and the 82nd Airborne Division. The 5th Battalion, 8th Field Artillery also served in a major support role for 82d and French troops during the Gulf War. It consisted of three individual batteries. Batteries A and B were Airborne-qualified, while Battery C was air assault. Batteries A and B were assigned to Fort Bragg, North Carolina and Battery C was assigned to Fort Campbell, Kentucky. All of the battalions were subsequently re-flagged during the years following the Gulf War.

Task Force 118 had flown the OH-58D Kiowa Warrior off naval vessels during Operation Prime Chance in the 1980s, operating against Iran in the Persian Gulf. It was redesignated the 4th Squadron, 17th Cavalry on 15 January 1991. [42] During the Gulf War of 1991 it was part of the 18th Aviation Brigade.

Major formations, 1950–2006

The 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions have served with the corps since the 1950s. The 24th Infantry Division (Mechanized) was 'reflagged' as the 3rd Infantry Division (Mechanized) in April 1996. [43]

21st century

The XVIII Airborne Corps command group, led by LTG (later GEN) Lloyd J. Austin, returns home from Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2009 XVIII Abn. Corps headquarters, 2009.jpg
The XVIII Airborne Corps command group, led by LTG (later GEN) Lloyd J. Austin, returns home from Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2009

The Corps headquarters was deployed to Afghanistan from May 2002 – 2003, and became Combined Joint Task Force 180 for the deployment.

XVIII Airborne Corps was deployed from January 2005 to January 2006 to Baghdad, Iraq, where it served as the Multi-National Corps – Iraq. Following its return, XVIII Airborne Corps and its subordinate units began the process of modernization and reorganization.

Under the previous Army Chief of Staff's future restructure of the Army, the corps headquarters of the XVIII Airborne Corps will lose its airborne (specifically parachute) certification as a cost-cutting measure—the same will occur to the divisional headquarters of the 82nd Airborne Division. This plan is designed to follow the U.S. Army's restructuring plan to go from being division-based to brigade-based. This will mean that the largest units that will be airborne – specifically parachute certified – will be at the brigade level. Even so, for traditional and historical reasons, the formation will continue to be called the XVIII Airborne Corps.

The divisions that fall under the XVIII Airborne Corps (as well as the other two corps in the Army) are in a period of transition, shifting from corps control to fall directly under FORSCOM, eliminating the corps status as a middle man. This ties in with the Army's broad modularity plan, as a corps can deploy and support any unit, not just the units subordinate to the corps. The 3d Infantry Division, the 10th Mountain Division (Light Infantry), and the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) have already changed over to direct FORSCOM control. The 82nd Airborne Division will transfer after the division returns from Afghanistan.

In August 2006, XVIII Airborne Corps traveled to South Korea to participate in Ulchi Focus Lens, a joint training exercise between the Republic of Korea Army and coalition forces stationed there. [44]

In mid-April, 2007, the Department of the Army confirmed the next OIF deployment schedule, with XVIII Airborne Corps deploying to relieve III Corps as the MNC-I at Camp Victory, Baghdad, Iraq. XVIII Airborne Corps is scheduled to replace III Corps in November, 2007. The corps will deploy along with 1st Armored Division and 4th Infantry Division, as well as 1st Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division, and 1st BCT, 82nd Airborne Division. [45]

On 21 December 2016, Stars and Stripes reported that in August the XVIII Airborne Corps deployed to Iraq for Operation Inherent Resolve, in December this included the XVIII Airborne Corps headquarters and the 1st Special Forces Command, which is deployed as the Special Operations Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve. The 18th Field Artillery Brigade deployed into Iraq with High Mobility Artillery Rocket Systems. [46]

A Canadian Army General has served with the XVIII Corps since 2007. [47]

Current structure

XVIII Corps organization 2021 (click to enlarge) XVIII US Corps - Organization 2021.png
XVIII Corps organization 2021 (click to enlarge)

XVIII Airborne Corps CSIB.svg XVIII Airborne Corps, Fort Bragg [48]

Other supporting units:

Operations

The corps has participated in a number of operations since then:

Notable members

Related Research Articles

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