Okrug (Bulgarian : окръг, romanized: okrag, pronounced [ˈɔkrɐk] ; Russian : о́круг, romanized: ókrug; Serbian : округ, romanized: okrug, pronounced [ôkruːɡ] ; Ukrainian : о́круг, romanized: о́kruh; Belarusian : акруга, romanized: akruha; Polish : okręg ; Abkhazian : оқрҿс; Meadow Mari : йырвел, romanized:jyrvel) is an administrative division of some Slavic states. The word "okrug" is a loanword in English, but it is nevertheless often translated as "area", "district", or "region".
Etymologically, "okrug" literally means "circuit". In meaning, the word is similar to the German term Bezirk ("district") and the French word Arrondissement ; all of which refer to something "encircled" or "surrounded".
In Bulgaria, okrăgs are the abolished primary unit of the administrative division and implied "districts" or "counties". They existed in the post-War Bulgaria between 1946 and 1987 and corresponded approximately to today's oblasts.
As historical administrative subdivisions of Poland, okręgi existed in the later part of the Congress Poland period, from 1842, when the name was applied to the former powiats (the name powiat being transferred to the former obwody ).See Administrative division of Congress Poland.
Okręgi were also created temporarily from 1945 to 1946, in the areas annexed to Poland from Germany as a result of the Soviet military advance. An okręg was then subdivided into obwody. These okręgi were later replaced by voivodeships, and the obwody by powiats.
Okrugs were one of the several types of administrative division for oblasts and selected governorates in Imperial Russia. Until the 1920s, okrugs were administrative districts in Cossack hosts such as the Don Cossacks.
Inherited from the Imperial Russia, in the 1920s, okrugs were administrative divisions of several other primary divisions such as oblasts, krais, and others. For sometime in the 1920s they also served as the primary unit upon the abolishment of guberniyas and were divided into raions. On July 30, 1930 most of the okrugs were abolished. The remaining okrugs were phased away in the Russian SFSR during 1930–1946, although they were retained in Zakarpattia Oblast of the Ukrainian SSR in status equivalent to that of a raion.
National okrugs were first created in the Mountain ASSR of the Russian SFSR in 1921 as units of the Soviet autonomy and additional national okrugs were created in the Russian SFSR for the peoples of the north and Caucasus region. In 1977, all national okrugs were renamed autonomous okrugs.
In the present-day Russian Federation, the term "okrug" is either translated as "district" or rendered directly as "okrug", and is used to describe the following types of divisions:
After the series of mergers in 2005–2008, several autonomous okrugs of Russia lost their federal subject status and are now considered to be administrative territories within the federal subjects they had been merged into:
"Okrug" is also used to describe the administrative divisions of the two "federal cities" in Russia:
In the federal city of Sevastopol, municipal okrugs are a type of a municipal formation.
In Tver Oblast, the term "okrug" also denotes a type of an administrative division which is equal in status to that of the districts.
Furthermore, the designation "okrug" denotes several selsoviet -level administrative divisions:
In some cities, the term "okrug" is used to refer to the administrative divisions of those cities. "Administrative okrugs" are such divisions in the cities of Murmansk, Omsk, and Tyumen; "city okrugs" are used in Krasnodar; "municipal okrugs" are the divisions of Nazran; "okrugs" exist in Belgorod, Kaluga, Kursk, and Novorossiysk; and "territorial okrugs" are the divisions of Arkhangelsk and Lipetsk.
The term "okrug" is also used to describe a type of a municipal formation, the "municipal urban okrug"—a municipal urban settlement not incorporated into a municipal district.
The Republic of Serbia is divided into twenty-nine okrugs as well as the City of Belgrade. The term okrug in Serbia is often translated as either "district" or "county".
Russia is divided into several types and levels of subdivisions.
Urban-type settlement is an official designation for a semi-urban settlement, used in several Eastern European countries. The term was historically used in Bulgaria, Poland, and the Soviet Union, and remains in use today in 10 of the post-Soviet states.
Komi-Permyak Okrug, or Permyakia is a territory with special status within Perm Krai, Russia. Its administrative center is the town of Kudymkar. Population: 116,157 (2010 Census); 136,076 (2002 Census); 159,689 (1989 Census).
Ust-Orda Buryat Okrug, or Ust-Orda Buryatia, is an administrative division of Irkutsk Oblast, Russia. It was a federal subject of Russia from 1993 to January 1, 2008, when it merged with Irkutsk Oblast. It also had autonomous okrug status from September 26, 1937 to 1993. Prior to the merger, it was called Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug.
Agin-Buryat Okrug, or Aga Buryatia, is an administrative division of Zabaykalsky Krai, Russia. It was a federal subject of Russia until it merged with Chita Oblast to form Zabaykalsky Krai on March 1, 2008. Prior to the merger, it was called Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug. Its administrative center is the urban-type settlement of Aginskoye.
A krai is a type of federal subject of Russia. The country is divided into 85 federal subjects, of which nine are krais. Oblasts, another type of federal subject, are legally identical to krais and the difference between a political entity with the name "krai" or "oblast" is purely traditional, similar to the commonwealths in the United States; both are constituent entities equivalent in legal status in Russia with representation in the Federation Council. During the Soviet era, the autonomous oblasts could be subordinated to republics or krais, but not to oblasts. Outside of political terminology, both words have very similar general meaning and can often be used interchangeably.
Autonomous okrug, occasionally referred to as "autonomous district", "autonomous area", and "autonomous region", is a type of federal subject of Russia and simultaneously an administrative division type of some federal subjects. As of 2014, Russia has four autonomous okrugs of its 85 federal subjects. The Chukotka Autonomous Okrug is the only okrug which is not subordinate to an oblast. The other three are Arkhangelsk Oblast's Nenets Autonomous Okrug, and Tyumen Oblast's Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, and Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug.
The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation or simply as the subjects of the federation, are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia. Since March 18, 2014, the Russian Federation constitutionally consists of 85 federal subjects. The two located on the Crimean Peninsula, Sevastopol and the Republic of Crimea, are not internationally recognized as part of Russia. Kaliningrad Oblast is the only federal subject separated by other countries.
Selsoviet is a shortened name for a rural council and for the area governed by such a council (soviet). The full names for the term are, in Belarusian: се́льскi саве́т, Russian: се́льский сове́т, Ukrainian: сільська́ ра́да. Selsoviets were the lowest level of administrative division in rural areas in the Soviet Union. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, they were preserved as a third tier of administrative-territorial division throughout Ukraine, Belarus, and some of the federal subjects of Russia.
Labinsk is a town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Bolshaya Laba River 145 kilometers (90 mi) southeast of Krasnodar and 50 kilometers (31 mi) southwest of Armavir. Population: 59,330 (2020), 62,864 (2010 Census); 61,446 (2002 Census); 57,958 (1989 Census); 53,000 (1972).
Lysva is a town in Perm Krai, Russia, located in the eastern part of the krai on the river Lysva, 86 kilometers (53 mi) from Perm. Population: 65,918 (2010 Census); 71,148 (2002 Census); 76,614 (1989 Census).
Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug was an autonomous okrug of Russia, administered by Perm Oblast. It was established on February 26, 1925 as an administrative division for Komi-Permyaks, a branch of the Komis. The territory is now administrated as Komi-Permyak Okrug of Perm Krai.
Maykopsky District is an administrative and a municipal district (raion), one of the seven in the Republic of Adygea, Russia. It is located in the south of the republic and borders with Giaginsky District in the north, Mostovsky District of Krasnodar Krai in the east, the territory of the City of Sochi in Krasnodar Krai in the south, Apsheronsky District of Krasnodar Krai in the west and southwest, and with Belorechensky District of Krasnodar Krai in the northwest. The area of the district is 3,667.43 square kilometers (1,416.00 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Tulsky. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 58,439, with the population of Tulsky accounting for 18.4% of that number.
Beloyarsky is a town and the administrative center of Beloyarsky District in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, Russia, located on the Kazim River, northwest of Khanty-Mansiysk, the administrative center of the autonomous okrug. Population: 20,283 (2010 Census); 18,721 (2002 Census); 20,534 (1989 Census).
Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug was a federal subject of the Russian Federation. On 1 March 2008, the region merged with Chita Oblast to form the new Zabaykalsky Krai. The territory of the former ABAO is now the Agin-Buryat Okrug of Zabaykalsky Krai, in which it has a special status.
Kovdorsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the six in Murmansk Oblast, Russia. It is located to the west of the Kola Peninsula. The area of the district is 4,066 square kilometers (1,570 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Kovdor. Population: 21,297 (2010 Census); 24,404 (2002 Census); 36,786 (1989 Census). The population of Kovdor accounts for 88.4% of the district's total population.
Town of district significance is an administrative division of a district in a federal subject of Russia. It is equal in status to a selsoviet or an urban-type settlement of district significance, but is organized around a town ; often with surrounding rural territories.
Oktyabrsky Administrative Okrug is a territorial division of the City of Murmansk in Murmansk Oblast, Russia. Population: 95,569 (2010 Census); 104,831 (2002 Census); 144,431 (1989 Census).
Leninsky Administrative Okrug is an okrug of the City of Murmansk in Murmansk Oblast, Russia. Population: 90,331 (2010 Census); 97,755 (2002 Census); 147,235 (1989 Census).