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Starostwo (literally "eldership")is an administrative unit established from the 14th century in the Polish Crown and later in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth until the partitions of Poland in 1795. Starostwos were established in the crown lands (królewszczyzna). The term is also used in modern Poland.
Each starostwo was administered by an official known as starosta. The starosta would receive the office from the king and would keep it until the end of his life. It usually provided a significant income for the starosta. His deputy was variously known as podstarosta, podstarości, burgrabia, włodarz, or surrogator.
There were several types of starosta:
When Poland regained independence in 1918 (until the beginning of the World War II in 1939) and in 1944–1950, the starosta was the head of powiat (county) administration, subordinate to the voivode.
Since the local government reforms, which came into effect on 1 January 1999, the starosta is the head of the powiat executive board (zarząd powiatu), and the head of the powiat starostwo(part of the powiat administration), being elected by the powiat council (rada powiatu).
A powiat is the second-level unit of local government and administration in Poland, equivalent to a county, district or prefecture in other countries. The term "powiat" is most often translated into English as "county" or "district".
The Ruthenian Voivodeship (Latin: Palatinatus russiae, Polish: województwo ruskie was a voivodeship of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland from 1434 until the 1772 First Partition of Poland with a center in the city of Lviv. Together with a number of other voivodeships of southern and eastern part of the Kingdom of Poland, it formed Lesser Poland Province of the Polish Crown, with its capital city in Kraków. Following the Partitions of Poland, most of Ruthenian Voivodeship, except for its northeastern corner, was annexed by the Habsburg Monarchy, as part of the province of Galicia. Today, the former Ruthenian Voivodeship is divided between Poland and Ukraine.
Volhynian Voivodeship was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from 1566 until 1569 and of the Polish Crown within the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from the 1569 Union of Lublin until the Third Partition of Poland in 1795. It was part of the Ruthenian lands in the Lesser Poland Province.
Sanok Land was a historical administrative division unit (ziemia) of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from the 14th-18th centuries. It consisted of land that now belongs to the powiats (counties) of: Sanok, Brzozów, Lesko and partially Krosno and Rzeszów. Ziemia Sanocka was a part of the Ruthenian Voivodeship with the capital at Lwów.
This article discusses the organizational and administrative structure of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Bełz Voivodeship was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland from 1462 to the Partitions of Poland in 1772–1795. Together with the Ruthenian Voivodeship it was part of Red Ruthenia, Lesser Poland Province of the Polish Crown. The voivodeship was created by King Kazimierz Jagiellonczyk, and had four senators in the Senate of the Commonwealth.
The Podolian Voivodeship or Palatinate of Podolia was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland, since 1434 until 1793, except for the period of Ottoman occupation (1672–1699), when the region was organized as Podolia Eyalet. Together with the Bracław Voivodeship it formed the region of Podolia, which in the Kingdom of Poland was part of Lesser Poland Province. Its capital was in Kamianets-Podilskyi, where local sejmiks took place and where the seat of the starosta was as well.
The Bracław Voivodeship was a unit of administrative division of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Created in 1566 as part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, it was passed to the Crown of Poland in 1569 following the Union of Lublin. After partitions of Poland in 1793 the voivodeship was taken by the Russian Empire and replaced with the Bratslav Viceroyalty.
The Malbork Voivodeship was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland from 1454/1466 until the partitions in 1772–1795. Together with the Pomeranian and Chełmno Voivodeships and the Prince-Bishopric of Warmia it formed the historical province of Royal Prussia. Its capital was at Marienburg (Malbork).
Mstislaw Voivodeship or Mścisław Voivodeship was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, since the 15th century until the Partitions of Poland in 1795.
Czernihów (Chernihiv) Voivodeship was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland from 1635 until Khmelnytsky Uprising in 1648. Also it was used as a fictitious title in the Commonwealth until the Partitions of Poland in 1772/1795. In 1635, Marcin Kalinowski was the first voivode (governor) of the Chernihiv Voivodeship.
The starost or starosta is a Slavic term denoting a community elder whose role was to administer the assets of a clan or family estates. The Slavic root of starost translates as "senior". Since the Middle Ages, it has meant an official in a leadership position in a range of civic and social contexts throughout the Slavic world. In terms of a municipality, a starosta was historically a senior royal administrative official, equivalent to the County Sheriff or the outdated Seneschal, and analogous to a gubernator. In Poland, a starosta would administer crown territory or a delineated district called a starostwo.
Subdivisions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth evolved over for centuries of its existence from the signing of the Union of Lublin to the third partition.
Nowy Sącz County is a unit of territorial administration and local government (powiat) in Lesser Poland Voivodeship, southern Poland, on the Slovak border. It came into being on January 1, 1999, as a result of the Polish local government reforms passed in 1998. Its administrative seat is the city of Nowy Sącz, although the city is not part of the county. The county contains five towns: Krynica-Zdrój, 31 km (19 mi) south-east of Nowy Sącz, Stary Sącz, 9 km (6 mi) south-west of Nowy Sącz, Grybów, 19 km (12 mi) east of Nowy Sącz, Piwniczna-Zdrój, 21 km (13 mi) south of Nowy Sącz, and Muszyna, 33 km (21 mi) south-east of Nowy Sącz.
The administrative division of Poland since 1999 has been based on three levels of subdivision. The territory of Poland is divided into voivodeships (provinces); these are further divided into powiats, and these in turn are divided into gminas. Major cities normally have the status of both gmina and powiat. Poland currently has 16 voivodeships, 380 powiats, and 2,478 gminas.
Bydgoszcz County is a unit of territorial administration and local government (powiat) in Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, north-central Poland. It was created on 1 January 1999 as a result of the Polish local government reforms passed in 1998. Its administrative seat is the city of Bydgoszcz, although the city is not part of the county. The only towns in Bydgoszcz County are Solec Kujawski, which lies 17 km (11 mi) east of Bydgoszcz, and Koronowo, 23 km (14 mi) north of Bydgoszcz.
The Pomeranian Voivodeship was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1454/1466 until the First partition of Poland in 1772. From 1613 the capital was at Skarszewy.
Kalisz Voivodeship 1314–1793 was an administrative unit of Poland from 1314 to the Second Partition of Poland in 1793. It was part of the Greater Polish Province. Its capital was in Kalisz, and together with neighboring Poznań Voivodeship, Kalisz elected general starosta of Greater Poland. The sejmiks for the two voivodeships took place at Środa Wielkopolska, while general sejmik for the whole Province of Greater Poland took place in Koło, at the Bernardine Abbey.
Poznań Voivodeship 14th century to 1793 was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland from the 14th century to the Second Partition of Poland in 1793. It was part of the Greater Polish prowincja.
Halych land was an historical administrative region of the Kingdom of Poland which existed from 1349 during the reign of king Casimir III the Great. Its legal system was based on Magdeburg rights, civil law from the 15th century was based on the Statutes of Casimir the Great and the judicial province was Lesser Poland. Its capital city was the urban centre of Halych. From 1434-1772 Halych land was one of five regions of the Ruthenian Voivodeship in the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland until the First Partition of Poland.