World TeamTennis

Last updated
World TeamTennis
Current season, competition or edition:
Tennisball current event.svg 2021 World TeamTennis season
World TeamTennis logo.png
Sport Team tennis
Owner(s) Fred Luddy and Eric Davidson
COO Allen Hardison
CountryFlag of the United States.svg United States
Headquarters Rancho Santa Fe, California, United States
Most recent
Orange County Breakers
Most titles Sacramento Capitals (6)
Washington Kastles (6)
TV partner(s)US
CBS Sports Network (also available in CAN)
Tennis Channel
Outside US and CAN
Latin America
Claro TV
Official website

World TeamTennis (WTT) is a mixed-gender professional tennis league played with a team format in the United States, which was founded in 1973.


The league's season normally takes place in the summer months. Players from the ATP and WTA take a break from their tour schedules to partake in World TeamTennis.

WTT was the first professional sports league to grant equal status to each man and woman competing for their teams. [1]

Many top tennis players have participated in the league over the years, including Billie Jean King, Rod Laver, Björn Borg, Chris Evert, John McEnroe, Evonne Goolagong, Jimmy Connors, Martina Navratilova, [2] Andre Agassi, Pete Sampras, Michael Chang, Serena Williams, Venus Williams, Lindsay Davenport, Kim Clijsters, Martina Hingis, John Isner, Sam Querrey, Sloane Stephens, Naomi Osaka, and Frances Tiafoe.


Originally played on a no-line court, each match consists of five sets. Each set features a different configuration (men's singles, men's doubles, women's singles, women's doubles, and mixed doubles). Prior to each match, coaches decide the order in which the sets will be played. Each player on a team usually plays in at least one of the five sets. Scoring is no-advantage; there is no requirement to win a game by two points; at deuce, whoever scores the next point wins the game. The first team to reach five games wins each set. A nine-point tiebreaker is played if a set reaches four-all. One point is awarded for each game won. If necessary, extended play and a supertiebreaker are played to determine the winner of the match.

The original league format included a four-colored tennis court, a 44-contest season, and teams of at least two men and two women. A match consisted of the first player or team to win five games, with a nine-point tiebreaker at four-all, and no-ad scoring in women's singles and doubles, men's singles and doubles, and mixed doubles.


For much of World Team Tennis' history, its distinct court was an instant symbol for fans to recognize what they were watching. The iconic four-color (calico) court originated in the early 1970s and was unveiled for the third season in 1976. [3] It was originally created to eliminate court lines (no-line court). Originally, the service boxes were blue and green, the baseline area brown and the doubles alleys maroon. [4] These colors were chosen to represent the different tennis court surfaces: green for grass, blue for hard, maroon for clay and brown for dirt.

The league's technicolor playing surface served as a trendsetter for the rest of the tennis world. The Indian Wells Masters has purple courts. [5]

Over time, lines were introduced to WTT's courts, purple replaced the brown and they reverted to traditional solid-colored courts. But in 2006, the league returned full-time to the signature calico/checkerboard pattern. [6]

In 2019, the league made efforts to modernize and update its look and branding, including a switch to a deep blue playing surface and gray outer court. In partnership with DecoTurf, these colors were determined to be the best for livestreaming and television. [7]

First league


WTT was founded in 1973 by Dennis Murphy, Dick Butera, Fred Barman, Jordan Kaiser, and attorney and promoter Larry King, each of whom organized and owned the various participating teams of the fledgling professional tennis league. Murphy had previously founded the World Hockey Association, and gave a number of WHA club owners preferential options on WTT franchises.

Charles "Chuck" Reichblum (now popularly known as "Dr. Knowledge"), [8] industrialist John H. Hillman III, and lawyer William "Bill" Sutton, who became the owners of the Pittsburgh Triangles, had, in 1972, founded the similar National Tennis League (NTL), a forerunner to WTT and Reichblum's brainchild. Founding members of WTT were reported to have been invited to join the NTL prior to formation of the competing WTT in 1973. [9] [10]

Teams, 1974–1978

In 1974, Billie Jean King began the first WTT season by securing the professional women tennis players. Dr. Leonard Bloom, Arthur Ashe, and Wilt Chamberlain helped to secure the professional men tennis players. Two WTT players, Connors and Goolagong, were not allowed to participate in the 1974 French Open due to their associations with WTT. [11] [12] Connors' exclusion from the French Open denied him the opportunity to become the first male player since Rod Laver to win all four Major singles titles in a calendar year.

The league began play in May 1974, with George MacCall as Commissioner of the 16 teams, many with tennis-themed nicknames. The Eastern Division consisted of the Atlantic Section: Baltimore Banners, Boston Lobsters, New York Sets, Philadelphia Freedoms; and the Central Section: Cleveland Nets, Detroit Loves, Pittsburgh Triangles, Toronto-Buffalo Royals. The Western Division consisted of the Gulf Plains Section: Chicago Aces, Florida Flamingos, Houston E-Z Riders, Minnesota Buckskins; and the Pacific Section: Denver Racquets, Hawaii Leis, Los Angeles Strings, San Francisco Golden Gaters.

Following the initial 1974 season several teams moved, folded, or failed to meet the financial requirements of the league, and the league also added one expansion team, the San Diego Friars. For the 1975 season World Team Tennis consisted of 10 teams, and it remained with that number of teams throughout the rest of the existence of the first league. [13]

The teams that played from 1974 to 1978 were:

WTT was the first professional sports experience for Jerry Buss (eventual owner of the NBA's Los Angeles Lakers and the NHL's Los Angeles Kings), and for Bob Kraft (eventual owner of the NFL's New England Patriots and MLS's New England Revolution).

All-star games and MVPs

WTT also held annual All-Star games for the seasons from 1975 to 1978. Marty Riessen (Cleveland) and Greer Stevens (Boston) won Most Valuable Players (MVP) honors for the inaugural all-star gala won by the East, 28–21, at the Inglewood Forum in Los Angeles. In 1976 the West All-Stars, led by Chris Evert and Betty Stöve, capped an incredible comeback when they defeated Billie Jean King and Evonne Goolagong in a super tiebreaker, 5–4, giving the West a stunning 28–27 overtime victory at the Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum. After trailing at one stage by 24–17, the West, led by Stove and Dianne Fromholtz, won the final set plus two games in overtime to draw the West All-Stars even at 27. [17] Tom Okker (San Francisco) and Dianne Fromholtz (Los Angeles) won MVP honors that year. In the 1977 All Star Game held at the San Diego Sports Arena, Björn Borg (Cleveland–Pittsburgh) and Betty Stöve (Seattle–Portland) captured MVP awards as the East bested the West, 23–18. WTT held its final All-Star event in Las Vegas in 1978. [18]


The first league ended play in 1978.

Second league


League play resumed in 1981 as TeamTennis, with four California teams, expanding to eight teams in 1982. In 2005, the league had twelve teams.

In 1984, Billie Jean King became Commissioner and major owner of the league, following her retirement from tournament tennis competition.

In 1985 a recreational league for non-professionals was added, which was co-branded with the professional league.


In 1992, the name of the league was changed back to World TeamTennis.


In 2000 the current logo was adopted. In February 2001, Billie Jean King retired as Commissioner and Ilana Kloss became the new commissioner.

In 2005 and 2006 the league consisted of 12 teams and in 2007 the Hartford FoxForce ceased operations. Prior to the 2008 season, the Houston Wranglers ceased operations and the Washington Kastles joined the league. In the 2009 season, 10 teams competed: Boston, New York Buzz, New York Sportime, Philadelphia, Washington, D.C., Kansas City, Newport Beach, Sacramento, Springfield, and St. Louis. Sacramento won the year-end championship six times.

Before the start of the 2011 season the New York Buzz and the New York Sportimes merged into one New York team, the Sportimes. [19] During the 2011 season the Washington Kastles completed a perfect 16–0 schedule, winning their second championship in three seasons.

In 2012, the Washington Kastles completed their second consecutive perfect season, going 16–0 for the second season in a row to become the first professional sports franchise to go two complete seasons without a loss. Their 32-match winning streak is one shy of the major professional sports record of 33 consecutive wins set by the 1971–72 Los Angeles Lakers of the National Basketball Association. They began the next season with 2 wins making their streak 34 games, setting the new record.

In 2013, World TeamTennis was renamed Mylan World TeamTennis after Mylan, a generics and specialty pharmaceuticals company, signed a three-year deal as the title sponsor. [20] The Kansas City Explorers relocated to Irving, Texas, and became the Texas Wild. On November 21, 2013, the Orange County Breakers were sold, relocated to Austin, Texas and renamed the Austin Aces. [21] On January 16, 2014, the New York Sportimes were sold, relocated to San Diego and renamed the San Diego Aviators. [22] On February 4, 2014, the Sacramento Capitals were relocated to Las Vegas and renamed the Las Vegas Neon. [23] On March 5, 2014, the Las Vegas Neon franchise was terminated, leaving the league with seven teams. [24]

On February 23, 2015, WTT announced that a new ownership group had taken control of the Texas Wild and moved the team to Citrus Heights, California, renaming it the California Dream. [25]

On January 13, 2016, WTT announced that the California Dream franchise had been terminated. [26] On February 17, 2016, the Boston Lobsters had ceased operations [27] and had been replaced with a new franchise called the New York Empire. [28]

In March 2017, Billie Jean King announced the sale of her majority share in WTT to venture capitalist Mark Ein, the founder and owner of the Washington Kastles, and Fred Luddy, the founder of ServiceNow and owner of the San Diego Aviators. [29] [30]

In January 2019, Carlos Silva became the CEO and ushered in new deals with CBS and ESPN creating the largest-ever audience for WTT on July 21, 2019, on a CBS broadcast.

In March 2019, the league announced its expansion to eight teams for the 2019 season, with the creation of the Orlando Storm and the Vegas Rollers. [31]

On October 23, 2019, the league announced it would be awarding a record $5 million in prize money, including an additional $1 million for the postseason, during its 45th season and would be expanding again, adding two new franchises in 2020. [32]

In February 2020, the league announced its expansion to nine teams for the 2020 season with the Chicago Smash. [33]

In June 2020, WTT announced it would be the first major professional tennis league to resume operations since the worldwide outbreak of COVID-19. The league committed to play the entirety of its 45th season at The Greenbrier in White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia from July 12 through August 2. [34]

In March 2021, Carlos Silva stepped down as CEO. [35]

The current COO is Allen Hardison. [36] The 2021 season was November 13–28 at the Indian Wells Tennis Garden.

Current teams

Chicago Smash Chicago, Illinois Credit Union 1 Arena
New York Empire New York City Cary Leeds Center for Tennis & Learning
Orange County Breakers Newport Beach, California Palisades Tennis Club
Orlando Storm Orlando, Florida USTA National Campus
Philadelphia Freedoms Philadelphia Michael J. Hagan Arena
San Diego Aviators Carlsbad, California Omni La Costa Resort and Spa
Springfield Lasers Springfield, Missouri Mediacom Stadium at Cooper Tennis Complex
Vegas Rollers Paradise, Nevada Orleans Arena
Washington Kastles Washington, D.C. Kastles Stadium at Union Market [37]


References: [38] [39] [40]

1974 Denver Racquets Philadelphia Freedoms 55–45
1975 Pittsburgh Triangles San Francisco Golden Gaters 74–65
1976 New York Sets San Francisco Golden Gaters 91–57
1977 New York Apples Phoenix Racquets 55–39
1978 Los Angeles Strings Boston Lobsters 108–93
1979–1980 no tournament
1981 Los Angeles Strings regular season champion, no playoffs
1982Dallas StarsPhoenix Sunsets27–22
1983Chicago Fyre Los Angeles Strings 26–20
1984 San Diego Buds Long Beach Breakers30–13
1985 San Diego Buds St. Louis Slims25–24
1986San Antonio Racquets Sacramento Capitals 25–23
1987Charlotte HeatSan Antonio Racquets25–20
1988Charlotte Heat New Jersey Stars 27–22
1989San Antonio Racquets Sacramento Capitals 27–25
1990 Los Angeles Strings Raleigh Edge27–16
1991Atlanta Thunder Los Angeles Strings 27–16
1992Atlanta ThunderNewport Beach Dukes30–17
1993Wichita AdvantageNewport Beach Dukes26–23
1994 New Jersey Stars Idaho Sneakers 28–25
1995 New Jersey Stars Atlanta Thunder28–20
1996 St. Louis Aces Delaware Smash 27–16
1997 Sacramento Capitals regular season champion, finals rained out
1998 Sacramento Capitals New York OTBzz 30–13
1999 Sacramento Capitals Springfield Lasers 23–15
2000 Sacramento Capitals Delaware Smash 21–20
2001 Philadelphia Freedoms Springfield Lasers 20–18
2002 Sacramento Capitals New York Buzz 21–13
2003 Delaware Smash Sacramento Capitals 21–14
2004 Newport Beach Breakers Delaware Smash 23–17
2005 New York Sportimes Newport Beach Breakers 21–18
2006 Philadelphia Freedoms Newport Beach Breakers 21–14
2007 Sacramento Capitals New York Buzz 24–20
2008 New York Buzz Kansas City Explorers 21–18
2009 Washington Kastles Springfield Lasers 23–20
2010 Kansas City Explorers New York Sportimes 21–18
2011 Washington Kastles St. Louis Aces 23–19
2012 Washington Kastles Sacramento Capitals 20–19
2013 Washington Kastles Springfield Lasers 25–12
2014 Washington Kastles Springfield Lasers 25–13
2015 Washington Kastles Austin Aces 24–18
2016 San Diego Aviators Orange County Breakers 25–14
2017 Orange County Breakers San Diego Aviators 22–18
2018 Springfield Lasers Philadelphia Freedoms 19–18
2019 Springfield Lasers New York Empire 20–19
2020 New York Empire Chicago Smash 21–20
2021 Orange County Breakers Springfield Lasers 21–13

Historical results

Current WTT teams are shown in bold, non-championship teams are shown in italics.

By team

#TeamTitlesRunner-upsYears Won
1 Sacramento Capitals 641997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2007
2 Washington Kastles 602009, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015
3 Newport Beach/Orange County Breakers 332004, 2017, 2021
4 Los Angeles Strings 311978, 1981, 1990
5 Springfield Lasers 26 2018, 2019
6 Philadelphia Freedoms 222001, 2006
7Atlanta Thunder211991, 1992
New Jersey Stars 211994, 1995
San Antonio Racquets211986, 1989
10Charlotte Heat201987, 1988
New York Sets/Apples 201976, 1977
San Diego Buds 201984, 1985
13 Delaware Smash 132003
New York OTBuzz/Buzz 13 2008
15 Denver/Phoenix Racquets 11 1974
Kansas City Explorers 11 2010
New York Empire 11 2020
New York Sportimes 112005
San Diego Aviators 11 2016
St. Louis Aces 111996
21Chicago Fyre101983
Dallas Stars101982
Pittsburgh Triangles 10 1975
Wichita Advantage101993
25Newport Beach Dukes02
San Francisco Golden Gaters02
27 Austin Aces 01
Boston Lobsters 01
Chicago Smash 01
Idaho Sneakers 01
Long Beach Breakers01
Phoenix Sunsets01
Raleigh Edge01
St. Louis Slims01

By city

1 Sacramento, California Capitals 64
2 Washington, D.C. Kastles 60
3New York City, New York Sets/Apples, Sportimes, Empire 42
4 Newport Beach, CaliforniaDukes, Breakers 35
5Los Angeles, California Strings 31
San Diego, California Buds, Aviators 31
7 Springfield, Missouri Lasers 26
8 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Freedoms 22
9 Atlanta, GeorgiaThunder21
Franklin Township, New Jersey Stars 21
San Antonio, TexasRacquets21
12 Charlotte, North CarolinaHeat20
13 Albany, New York OTBuzz/Buzz 13
Wilmington, Delaware Smash 13
15 St. Louis, MissouriSlims, Aces 12
16 Chicago, IllinoisFyre, Smash 11
Kansas City, Missouri Explorers 11
18 Dallas, TexasStars10
Denver, Colorado Racquets 10
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Triangles 10
Wichita, KansasAdvantage10
22 Phoenix, Arizona Racquets , Sunsets02
San Francisco, CaliforniaGolden Gaters02
24 Austin, Texas Aces 01
Boise, Idaho Sneakers 01
Boston, Massachusetts Lobsters 01
Long Beach, CaliforniaBreakers01
Raleigh, North CarolinaEdge01

See also

Related Research Articles

The New York Sportimes were a professional tennis team competing in World TeamTennis (WTT). The team was originally based in eastern Long Island from 2000 to 2002, before moving to Westchester County, New York in 2003, and then to New York City in 2009. The team was founded as the New York Hamptons in 2000, before changing its name to the New York Sportimes in 2003. In 2005, the team made its first playoff appearance and went on to defeat the Newport Beach Breakers in the WTT Final to win its first King Trophy.

Washington Kastles American tennis team

The Washington Kastles is one of eight franchises that compete in World TeamTennis.

The 2014 World TeamTennis season was the 39th season of the top professional team tennis league in the United States. Pursuant to a sponsorship agreement with Mylan N.V., the official name of the league was Mylan World TeamTennis in 2014. The Washington Kastles defeated the Springfield Lasers in the WTT Final to win their fourth consecutive King Trophy.

San Diego Aviators

The San Diego Aviators are a World TeamTennis (WTT) team that plays at the Omni La Costa Resort and Spa in Carlsbad, California in the United States. The team is the successor to two WTT franchises. The first was created in 1995, as the New York OTBzz, later renamed the Schenectady County Electrics and then the New York Buzz. The second was created in 2000, as the New York Hamptons, later renamed the New York Sportimes. The Aviators, founded in 1995, are the oldest continuously operating franchise in WTT. The team has won the King Trophy as WTT champions three times: once playing as the New York Sportimes in 2005, once as the New York Buzz in 2008, and once as the San Diego Aviators in 2016. As of 2016, the three championships is the second most of any active WTT franchise behind the Washington Kastles, who have won six.

The 2014 San Diego Aviators season was the 20th season of the franchise in World TeamTennis (WTT) and its first playing in San Diego, California.

The 2013 New York Sportimes season was the 19th season of the franchise in World TeamTennis (WTT) including the history it inherited from the 2011 merger with the New York Buzz, the 15th season since the founding of the New York metropolitan area-franchise and its third playing home matches in both New York City and the Capital District.

San Francisco Golden Gaters

The San Francisco Golden Gaters were a charter franchise of World Team Tennis (WTT). The Golden Gaters won two Western Division Championships and lost in the WTT Finals both times. The team was founded in 1973 and made the playoffs in each of the five seasons in which it participated in the league. Following the 1978 season, eight of the then 10 WTT franchises folded leaving only the Golden Gaters and the Phoenix Racquets prepared to participate in the 1979 season. WTT suspended operations of the league in March 1979, ending the Golden Gaters existence.

The 2014 Springfield Lasers season was the 19th season of the franchise in World TeamTennis (WTT).

The 2014 Philadelphia Freedoms season was the 14th season of the franchise in World TeamTennis (WTT).

2015 World TeamTennis season Sports season

The 2015 World TeamTennis season was the 40th season of the top professional team tennis league in the United States. Pursuant to a sponsorship agreement with Mylan N.V., the official name of the league was Mylan World TeamTennis in 2015. The Washington Kastles defeated the Austin Aces in the WTT Final to win their fifth consecutive King Trophy.

The 2014 Boston Lobsters season was the tenth season of the franchise in World TeamTennis (WTT).

The 2015 Austin Aces season was the 13th season of the franchise in World TeamTennis (WTT) and its second and final season in Greater Austin, Texas.

New York Empire (tennis)

The New York Empire is a World TeamTennis (WTT) team that plays its home matches at the Cary Leeds Center for Tennis & Learning in the Bronx, New York City.

The 2016 New York Empire season was the inaugural season of the franchise in World TeamTennis (WTT). The Empire finished last in WTT with 2 wins and 10 losses.

The 2016 World TeamTennis season was the 41st season of the top professional team tennis league in the United States. Pursuant to a sponsorship agreement with Mylan N.V., the official name of the league was Mylan World TeamTennis in 2016.

The 2016 San Diego Aviators season was the 22nd season of the franchise in World TeamTennis (WTT) and its third playing in San Diego County, California.

The 2016 Orange County Breakers season was the 14th season of the franchise in World TeamTennis (WTT) and its 12th season in Orange County, California, the first after returning from playing two seasons in Greater Austin, Texas as the Austin Aces.

The 2017 World TeamTennis season was the 42nd season of the top professional team tennis league in the United States. Pursuant to a sponsorship agreement with Mylan N.V., the official name of the league was Mylan World TeamTennis in 2017.

The 2017 New York Empire season was the second season of the franchise in World TeamTennis (WTT). The Empire finished third in WTT with a record of 7 wins and 7 losses.

The 2017 San Diego Aviators season is the 23rd season of the franchise in World TeamTennis (WTT) and its fourth playing in San Diego County, California.


Inline citations

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  32. Baseline Staff (October 23, 2019). "WTT Adds $1 Million In Playoffs Prize Money For 2020" . Retrieved 2019-10-23.
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  34. World TeamTennis (June 1, 2020). "World TeamTennis Announces 2020 Season To Be Played At Historic Greenbrier Resort, July 12-Aug. 2" . Retrieved 2020-06-01.. The 2021 season will feature 5 teams and all matches will be played at the Indian Wells Tennis Club in California.
  35. "World TeamTennis CEO Carlos Silva stepping down after two years". Sports Business Journal. 2021-03-04.
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General references