at the Games of the XVII Olympiad
|Venue||Stadio Olimpico del Nuoto|
|Dates||26 August – 3 September|
|No. of events||15|
|Competitors||380 from 45 nations|
| Swimming at the|
1960 Summer Olympics
At the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome, 15 swimming events were contested, eight for men and seven for women. There was a total of 380 participants from 45 countries competing.For the first time, the 4×100 metres medley relay was contested. The United States topped the medal standings with a total of 15 medals (9 gold), while Australia finished close second with 13 medals (5 gold). 16-years-old phenom Chris von Saltza won four medals, three of them gold.
|1||United States (USA)||9||3||3||15|
|3||Great Britain (GBR)||1||1||1||3|
|5||United Team of Germany (EUA)||0||1||3||4|
|Totals (8 nations)||15||15||15||45|
|100 m freestyle|| John Devitt |
| Lance Larson |
| Manuel dos Santos |
|400 m freestyle|| Murray Rose |
| Tsuyoshi Yamanaka |
|4:21.4|| John Konrads |
|1500 m freestyle|| John Konrads |
| Murray Rose |
|17:21.7|| George Breen |
|100 m backstroke|| David Theile |
| Frank McKinney |
|1:02.1|| Bob Bennett |
|200 m breaststroke|| Bill Mulliken |
|2:37.4|| Yoshihiko Osaki |
|2:38.0|| Wieger Mensonides |
|200 m butterfly|| Mike Troy |
| Neville Hayes |
|2:14.6|| Dave Gillanders |
|4 × 200 m freestyle relay|| United States (USA)|
|8:10.2 (WR)|| Japan (JPN)|
|8:13.3|| Australia (AUS)|
|4 × 100 m medley relay|| United States (USA)|
|4:05.4 (WR)|| Australia (AUS)|
|4:12.0|| Japan (JPN)|
|100 m freestyle|| Dawn Fraser |
|1:01.2 (OR)|| Chris von Saltza |
|1:02.8|| Natalie Steward |
|400 m freestyle|| Chris von Saltza |
|4:50.6 (OR)|| Jane Cederqvist |
|4:53.9|| Tineke Lagerberg |
|100 m backstroke|| Lynn Burke |
|1:09.3 (OR)|| Natalie Steward |
|1:10.8|| Satoko Tanaka |
|200 m breaststroke|| Anita Lonsbrough |
|2:49.5 (WR)|| Wiltrud Urselmann |
United Team of Germany
|2:50.0|| Barbara Göbel |
United Team of Germany
|100 m butterfly|| Carolyn Schuler |
|1:09.5 (OR)|| Marianne Heemskerk |
|1:10.4|| Jan Andrew |
|4 × 100 m freestyle relay|| United States (USA)|
Chris von Saltza
|4:08.9 (WR)|| Australia (AUS)|
|4:11.3|| United Team of Germany (EUA)|
|4 × 100 m medley relay|| United States (USA)|
Chris von Saltza
|4:41.1 (WR)|| Australia (AUS)|
|4:45.9|| United Team of Germany (EUA)|
Results were decided by finish judges who relied on their eyes and did not use replays. Three judges were assigned to each finishing position. There were three official timers in 1960 for each lane and swimmer, all timing by hand. All three timers for Devitt, in lane three, timed him in 55.2 seconds. The three timers for lane four timed Lance Larson in 55.0, 55.1, and 55.1 seconds.
Former Olympic swimmer and FINA co-founder Max Ritter inspected the judge's scorecards. Two of the three first-place judges found that Devitt had finished first and the third found for Larson. Of the three-second-place judges, two found that Devitt finished second and one found that Larson was second. Ritter pointed out to chief judge Henry Runströmer of Sweden that the scorecards indicated a tie. Runstrümer cast the deciding vote and declared Devitt the winner. However, the rules at that time did not provide for the chief judge to have a vote or give him the right to break ties.Ties were supposed to be broken by referring to the timing machine. The official results placed Devitt first and Larson second, both with the identical time of 55.2 seconds. The United States team appealed, bolstered by videotaped footage of the finish that appeared to show Larson the winner. The appeal jury, headed by Jan de Vries, also the President of FINA in 1960, rejected the appeal, keeping Devitt the winner. This controversy would pave the way for electronic touchpads to be included in swimming events to determine finish and accurate timing.
380 swimmers from 45 nations competed.
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John Malcolm Henricks is an Australian Olympic swimmer who won two gold medals at the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne. Henricks set world records in two freestyle events.
John Thomas Devitt, AM is an Australian sprint freestyle swimmer of the 1950s and 1960s, who won a gold medal in the 100-metre freestyle at the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome. He won in controversial circumstances, being awarded the gold medal despite the timekeepers recording a slower time than the American silver medallist Lance Larson. He also claimed a gold medal at the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne, in the 4×200-metre freestyle relay.
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Jessica Adele Hardy is an American competition swimmer who specializes in breaststroke and freestyle events. Hardy earned a bronze medal in the 4×100-meter freestyle and a gold medal in the 4×100-meter medley relays at the 2012 Summer Olympics.
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Sun Yang is a Chinese Olympic and world-record-holding competitive swimmer. In 2012, Sun became the first Chinese man to win an Olympic gold medal in swimming. Sun is the first male swimmer in history to earn Olympic and World Championship gold medals at every freestyle distance from 200 to 1500 metres. A three-time Olympic gold medallist and eleven-time world champion, he is the most decorated Chinese swimmer in history. In 2017, NBC Sports described him as "arguably the greatest freestyle swimmer of all time".
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The men's 100 metre freestyle event at the 1960 Olympic Games took place between August 26 and 27. There were 51 competitors from 34 nations. Nations were limited to two swimmers each, down from three in previous Games. The event was won by John Devitt of Australia over Lance Larson of the United States in a controversial, disputed finish that resulted in a push for electronic timing. It was Australia's second consecutive victory in the event, third-most all-time behind the United States' 7 gold medals and Hungary's 3. Devitt, silver medalist four years earlier, was the fifth man to win multiple medals in the event. Manuel dos Santos earned Brazil's first medal in the men's 100 metre freestyle with his bronze.
The men's 100 metre freestyle event at the 1964 Olympic Games took place between October 11 and 12. There were 66 competitors from 33 nations. Nations were again able to bring up to three swimmers each after a one-Games limit of two in 1960. The event was won by Don Schollander of the United States, the nation's first victory in the event since 1952 and eighth overall. Great Britain and the United Team of Germany both earned their first medal in the men's 100 metre freestyle.
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David Edward Plummer is a retired American competition swimmer who specialized in backstroke events. He won bronze and gold medals at the 2016 Summer Olympics.
Jördis Steinegger is an Austrian swimmer, who specialized in freestyle and individual medley events. She is a two-time Olympian, a nine-time long and short course Austrian record holder, and a member of the Linz Amateur Swimming Club in Linz, under her personal coach Marco Wolf.
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A dead heat is a rare situation in various racing sports in which the performances of competitors are judged to be so close that no difference between them can be resolved. The result is declared a tie and the competitors are awarded a joint ranking. Dead heats can occur in both head-to-head races and competitions where competitors race sequentially and are ranked by finishing time.