|Alternative names||Samoosa, samusa|
|Course||Entrée, side dish, snack|
|Region or state||South Asia, Southeast Asia, Middle East, North Africa, West Africa, East Africa|
|Main ingredients||flour, vegetables (e.g. potatoes, onions, peas, lentils), spices, chili peppers, cheese,|
A samosa ( // ) is a South Asian fried or baked pastry with a savory filling like spiced potatoes, onions, peas, beef and other meats, or lentils. It may take different forms, including triangular, cone, or half-moon shapes, depending on the region. Samosas are often accompanied by chutney, and have origins in medieval times or earlier. Samosas are a popular entrée, appetizer, or snack in the local cuisines of South Asia, Western Asia, Southeast Asia, the Mediterranean, and Africa. Due to emigration and cultural diffusion from these areas, samosas today are often prepared in other regions.
The English word samosa derives from Hindi/Urdu word 'samosa', : سنبوسگ). and has the meaning of the "triangular pastry". Similar pastries are referred to as sambusak in the Arabic-speaking world, Medieval Arabic recipe books sometimes spell it sambusaj. The word samoosa is used in South Africa.traceable to the Middle Persian word sanbosag (Persian
South Asian samosa has central Asian or middle eastern origin.The samosa appeared in the Indian subcontinent, following the invasion of the Central Asian Turkic dynasties in the region. A praise of the precursor of the samosa (as sanbusaj) can be found in a ninth century poem by Persian poet Ishaq al-Mawsili. Recipes are found in 10th–13th-century Arab cookery books, under the names sanbusak, sanbusaq, and sanbusaj, all deriving from the Persian word sanbosag. In Iran, the dish was popular until the 16th century, but by the 20th century, its popularity was restricted to certain provinces (such as the sambusas of Larestan). Abolfazl Beyhaqi (995-1077), an Iranian historian, mentioned it in his history, Tarikh-e Beyhaghi .
Central Asian samsa was introduced to the Indian subcontinent in the 13th or 14th century by traders from Central Asia. CE that the princes and nobles enjoyed the "samosa prepared from meat, ghee, onion, and so on". Ibn Battuta, a 14th-century traveler and explorer, describes a meal at the court of Muhammad bin Tughluq, where the samushak or sambusak, a small pie stuffed with minced meat, almonds, pistachios, walnuts and spices, was served before the third course, of pulao . Nimmatnama-i-Nasiruddin-Shahi , a medieval Indian cookbook started for Ghiyath al -Din Khalji, the ruler of the Malwa Sultanate in central India, mentions the art of making samosa. The Ain-i-Akbari , a 16th-century Mughal document, mentions the recipe for qutab, which it says, "the people of Hindustan call sanbúsah".Amir Khusro (1253–1325), a scholar and the royal poet of the Delhi Sultanate, wrote in around 1300
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The samosa is prepared with an all-purpose flour (locally known as maida) and stuffed with a filling, often a mixture of Diced and cooked or mashed boiled potato (Preferably Diced), onions, green peas, lentils, ginger, spices and green chili.A samosa can be vegetarian or non-vegetarian, depending on the filling. The entire pastry is deep-fried in vegetable oil or rarely ghee to a golden brown. It is served hot, often with fresh green chutney, such as mint, coriander, or tamarind. It can also be prepared in a sweet form. Samosas are often served in chaat , along with the traditional accompaniments of either a chickpea or a white pea preparation, served with yogurt, tamarind paste and green chutney, garnished with chopped onions, coriander, and chaat masala
In the Indian states of Odisha, West Bengal, and Jharkhand, shingaras (the East Indian version of samosas) are popular snacks found almost everywhere. They are a bit smaller than in other parts of India, with a filling consisting chiefly of cooked diced potato, peanuts, and sometimes raisins.Shingaras are wrapped in a thin sheet of dough (made of all purpose flour) and fried. Good shingaras are distinguished by flaky textures akin to that of a savory pie crust.
Samosas generally are deep-fried to a golden brown in vegetable oil. They are served hot and consumed with ketchup or chutney (mint, coriander, or tamarind), or are served in chaat, traditionally accompanied by yogurt, chutney, chopped onions, coriander, and chaat masala. Shingaras may be eaten aa a tea time snack. They can also be prepared in a sweet form. Bengali shingaras tend to be triangular, filled with potato, peas, onions, diced almonds, or other vegetables, and are more heavily fried and crunchier than either shingaras or their Indian samosa cousins. Fulkopir shingara (shingara filled with cauliflower mixture) is a popular variation. In Bengal, non-vegetarian varieties of shingaras are called mangsher shingaras (mutton shingaras) and macher shingaras (fish shingaras). There are also sweeter versions, such as narkel er shingara (coconut shingara), as well as others filled with khoya and dipped in sugar syrup.
In the city of Hyderabad, India, a smaller version of samosa with a thicker pastry crust and mince-meat filling, referred to as lukhmi ,is consumed, as is another variation with an onion filling.
In the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu, samosas are slightly different, being folded differently, more like Portuguese chamuças, with a different style of pastry. The filling also differs, typically featuring mashed potatoes with spices, fried onions, peas, carrots, cabbage, curry leaves, and green chilis, and is mostly eaten without chutney. Samosas in South India are made in different sizes, whose fillings are influenced by local food habits, and may include meat.
Nowadays, another version of samosa (noodle samosa) is also popular in India. It is a samosa filled with noodles and raw or cooked vegetables as well.
Both flat-shaped (triangular) and full-shaped (tetrahedron/triangular pyramid) samosas are popular snacks in Bangladesh. A Bengali version of the full-shaped samosa is called a সিঙাড়া (shingara) and is normally smaller than the standard variety. The shingara is usually filled with pieced potatoes, vegetables, nuts, etc. However, shingaras filled with beef liver are very popular in some parts of the country. The flat-shaped samosa is called a somosa or somucha, and is usually filled with onions and minced meat.
Samosas are called singadas in the eastern zone of Nepal; the rest of the country calls it samosa. As in India, it is a very popular snack in Nepalese cuisine. Vendors sell the dish in various markets and restaurants.
Samosas of various types are available throughout Pakistan. In general, most samosa varieties sold in the southern Sindh province and in the eastern Punjab, especially the city of Lahore, are spicier and mostly contain vegetable or potato-based fillings. However, the samosas sold in the west and north of the country mostly contain minced meat-based fillings and are comparatively less spicy. The meat samosa contains minced meat (lamb, beef, or chicken) and are very popular as snack food in Pakistan.
In Pakistan, samosas of Karachi are famous for their spicy flavour, whereas samosas from Faisalabad are noted for being unusually large. Another distinct variety of samosa, available in Karachi, is called kaghazi samosa (Urdu : کاغذی سموسہ; "paper samosa" in English) due to its thin and crispy covering, which resembles a wonton or spring roll wrapper. Another variant, popular in Punjab, consists of samosas with side dishes of mashed spiced chickpeas, onions, and coriander leaf salad, as well as various chutneys to top the samosas. The samosas are a fried or baked pastry with a savory filling, such as spiced potatoes, onions, peas, lentils, and minced meat (lamb, beef or chicken). Sweet samosas are also sold in the cities of Pakistan including Peshawar; these sweet samosas contain no filling and are dipped in thick sugar syrup.
Another Pakistani snack food, which is popular in Punjab, is known as "samosa chaat". This is a combination of a crumbled samosa, along with spiced chickpeas (channa chaat), yogurt, and chutneys. Alternatively, the samosa can be eaten on its own with a side of chutney.
In Pakistan, samosas are a staple iftaar food for many Pakistani families, during the month of Ramzan.
The types and varieties of samosa made in Maldivian cuisine are known as bajiyaa. They are filled with a mixture including fish or tuna and onions.
Similar snacks and variants of samosas are found in many other countries. They are derived either from the South Asian somasa or are derived from the medieval precursor that originated in the Middle East.
Sambusa baraki are meat-filled pastries, usually triangle-shaped, in Tajik cuisine. The filling can be made with ground beef (or the more traditional mutton mixed with tail fat) and then onions, spices, cumin seeds and other seasonings before being baked in a tandyr.
Samosas are called samusas in Burmese, and are an extremely popular snack in Burma.
In Indonesia, samosas are locally known as samosa, filled with potato, cheese, curry, rousong or noodles as adapted to local taste. It usually served as snack with sambal. Samosa is almost similar to Indonesian pastel , panada and epok-epok .
Sambusas are also a key part of Swahili people food—often seen in Tanzania, Kenya, and Uganda.
Samosas are a staple of local cuisine in the Horn of Africa countries of Djibouti, Somalia and Somaliland, where they are known as sambuus. Also made in Ethiopia and Eritrea where the "sambusa" is usually made from lentils and blended with traditional spices. They are traditionally made with a thinner pastry dough, similar to egg roll, and stuffed with ground beef. While they can be eaten at any time of the year, they are usually reserved for special occasions.
Called samoosas in South Africa,they tend to be smaller than Indian variants, and form part of South African Indian and Cape Malay cuisine.
Samosas also exist in West African countries such as Ghana and Nigeria where they are a common street food. In Nigeria, it is usually served in parties along with chicken or beef, puff puff, Spring roll and plantain and it is called small chops.
Samosas, locally called Samoussas are also a very popular snack on Réunion and Mauritius as both countries have faced huge waves of labor immigration from the Indian subcontinent. The samosas there are generally smaller and filled with chicken, cheese, crabs or potatoes. There are however also varieties such as chocolate and banana or pizza.
Sambousek (Arabic : سمبوسك) are usually filled with either meat, onion, and pine nuts, or cheese. They are widely consumed in the holy month of Ramadan.
Sambuseh (Persian : سمبوسه) can be found all over Iran.
In Israel, a sambusaq (Hebrew : סמבוסק) may be a semicircular pocket of dough filled with mashed chickpeas, fried onions, and spices. Another variety is filled with meat, fried onions, parsley, spices, and pine nuts, which is sometimes mixed with mashed chickpeas and breakfast version with feta or tzfat cheese and za'atar . Other common fillings are potato and "pizza", which is somewhat similar to Calzone. It is associated with Mizrahi Jewish cuisine, and various recipes have been brought to Israel by Jewish migrants from other countries in the Middle East and Africa. According to food historian Gil Marks, sambusak has been a traditional part of the Sephardic Sabbath meal since the 13th century in Spain.
In Goa (India) and Portugal, samosas are known as chamuças. They are usually filled with chicken, beef, pork, lamb or vegetables, and generally served quite hot. Samosas are an integral part of Goan and Portuguese cuisine, where they are a common snack.
A samosa-inspired snack is also very common in Brazil, and relatively common in several former Portuguese colonies in Africa, including Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, São Tomé and Príncipe, Angola, and Mozambique, where they are more commonly known as pastéis (in Brazil) or empadas (in Portuguese Africa; in Brazilian Portuguese, empada refers to a completely different snack, always baked, small in size, and in the form of an inverse pudding). They are related to the Hispanic empanada and to the Italian calzone.
Samosas are popular in the United Kingdom, Australia, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Uganda, South Africa, Rwanda, Kenya and Tanzania, and are also growing in popularity in Canada,and the United States. They may be called samboosa or sambusac, but in South Africa, they are often called samoosa. Frozen samosas are increasingly available from grocery stores in Australia, Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom.
Variations using filo,or flour tortillas are sometimes used.
Pakistani cuisine can be characterized by a blend of various regional cooking traditions from the Indian subcontinent, South Asia and Western Asia, as well as elements from its Mughal legacy. The country's various cuisines are derived from its ethnic and cultural diversity.
Pakora is a spiced fritter originating from the Indian subcontinent, sold by street vendors and served in restaurants in South Asia and worldwide. It consists of items, often vegetables such as potatoes and onions, coated in seasoned gram flour batter and deep fried.
A fritter is a portion of meat, seafood, fruit, vegetables or other ingredients which have been battered or breaded, or just a portion of dough without further ingredients, that is deep-fried. Fritters are prepared in both sweet and savory varieties.
Momo is a type of East and South Asian steamed filled dumpling. Momo is native to Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, the Indian Himalayan Region of Ladakh, Sikkim, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, and Darjeeling. It is popular across a wider region of the Indian subcontinent. Momo is similar to Chinese baozi, jiaozi, and mantou, Mongolian buuz, Japanese gyoza, Korean mandu and Turkic manti, but heavily influenced by Indian cuisine with South Asian spices and herbs. Momo are extremely popular in Nepal, Bhutan and India and can be found in every kind of shop from restaurants to street vendors.
Chaat or chat is a savoury snack that originated in India, typically served as an hors d'oeuvre at roadside tracks from stalls or food carts across South Asia in India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh. With its origins in Uttar Pradesh, India, chaat has become immensely popular in the rest of South Asia. The word derives from Hindi cāṭ चाट, from cāṭnā चाटना, from Prakrit caṭṭei चट्टेइ.
Iraqi cuisine or Mesopotamian cuisine has its origins from Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians, ancient Persians, Mesopotamian Arabs, and the other ethnic groups of the region.
Börek is a family of baked filled pastries made of a thin flaky dough such as phyllo or yufka. Common fillings are made with meat, cheese, leafy greens or potatoes. Börek are found in the cuisines of the Balkans, the South Caucasus, the Levant, Central Asia, and some Eastern and Central European countries. A börek may be prepared in a large pan and cut into portions after baking, or as individual pastries. Börek is occasionally sprinkled with sesame or nigella seeds.
Penang cuisine is the cuisine of the multicultural society of Penang, Malaysia. Most of these cuisine are sold at road-side stalls, known as "hawker food" and colloquially as "muckan carts". Local Penangites typically find these hawker fares cheaper and easier to eat out at due to the ubiquitousness of the hawker stalls and that they are open for much of the day and night. Penang island. On February 22, 2013, Penang was ranked by CNN Travel as one of the top ten street food cities in Asia. Penang has also been voted by Lonely Planet as the top culinary destination in 2014.
Kofta is a family of meatball or meatloaf dishes found in the Indian subcontinent, South Caucasian, Middle Eastern, Balkan, and Central Asian cuisines. In the simplest form, koftas consist of balls of ground meat - usually beef, chicken, lamb or mutton, or a mixture - mixed with spices or onions. In Turkish cuisine, vegetarian versions are known as Mercimek Köftesi, and often eaten during fasting periods such as Ramadan. An uncooked version is also made in Turkey, called çiğ köfte. In India, vegetarian varieties may use potato, calabash, paneer, or banana. In Europe, kofta is often served in a fast-food sandwich in kebab shops.
Levantine cuisine is the traditional cuisine of the Levant, known in Arabic as the Bilad al-Sham, which covers a large area of the Eastern Mediterranean. It is found in the modern states of Cyprus, Jordan, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, Syria, and parts of southern Turkey near Adana, Gaziantep, and Antakya. Conversely, some of the dishes listed below may have early origins in neighboring regions, but have long since become traditions in the Levant.
Shami kabab or shaami kabab, is a local variety of kebab, originating from the Indian subcontinent. It is part of the a popular dish in modern-day Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi cuisines. It is composed of a small patty of minced meat, generally beef, but occasionally lamb or mutton, with ground chickpeas, egg to hold it together, and spices. Shami kebab is eaten as a snack or an appetizer, and is served to guests especially in the regions of Dhaka, Deccan, Punjab, Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh and Sindh.
Stuffed peppers is a dish common in many cuisines. It consists of hollowed or halved peppers filled with any of a variety of fillings, often including meat, vegetables, cheese, rice, or sauce. The dish is usually assembled by filling the cavities of the peppers and then cooking.
Goan cuisine consists of regional foods popular in Goa, an Indian state located along India's west coast on the shore of the Arabian Sea. Rice, seafood, coconut, vegetables, meat, pork and local spices are some of the main ingredients in Goan cuisine. The area is located in a tropical climate, which means that flavors are intense. Use of kokum and vinegar is another distinct feature. Goan food is considered incomplete without fish.
Awadhi cuisine is a cuisine native to the Awadh region in Northern India. The cooking patterns of Lucknow are similar to those of Central Asia, the Middle East, and Northern India with the cuisine comprising both vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes. The Awadh region has been greatly influenced by Mughal cooking techniques, and the cuisine of Lucknow bears similarities to those of Central Asia, Kashmir, Punjab and Hyderabad. The city is also known for its Nawabi foods.
Bihari cuisine is eaten mainly in the eastern Indian state of Bihar, as well as in the places where people originating from the state of Bihar have settled: Jharkhand, Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bangladesh, Nepal, Mauritius, South Africa, Fiji, some cities of Pakistan, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, Suriname, Jamaica, and the Caribbean. Bihari cuisine includes Bhojpuri cuisine, Maithil cuisine and Magahi cuisine.
Malaysian Indian cuisine, or the cooking of the ethnic Indian communities in Malaysia consists of adaptations of authentic dishes from India, as well as original creations inspired by the diverse food culture of Malaysia. Because the vast majority of Malaysia's Indian community are of South Indian descent, and are mostly ethnic Tamils who are descendants of immigrants from a historical region which consists of the modern Indian state of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka's Northern Province, much of Malaysian Indian cuisine is predominantly South Indian inspired in character and taste. A typical Malaysian Indian dish is likely to be redolent with curry leaves, whole and powdered spice, and contains fresh coconut in various forms. Ghee is still widely used for cooking, although vegetable oils and refined palm oils are now commonplace in home kitchens. Before a meal it is customary to wash hands as cutlery is often not used while eating, with the exception of a serving spoon for each respective dish.
Dumpling is a broad class of dishes that consist of pieces of dough wrapped around a filling, or of dough with no filling. The dough can be based on bread, flour or potatoes, and may be filled with meat, fish, cheese, vegetables, fruits or sweets. Dumplings may be prepared using a variety of methods, including baking, boiling, frying, simmering or steaming and are found in many world cuisines.
Vada[vəɽɑː] or bada[bəɽɑː] is a category of savoury fried snacks from India. Different types of vadas can be described variously as fritters, cutlets, doughnuts, or dumplings. Alternative names for this food include wada, vade, vadai, wadeh and bara.
Arab Indonesian cuisine is characterized by the mixture of Middle Eastern cuisine with local Indonesian-style. Arab Indonesians brought their legacy of Arab cuisine—originally from Hadhramaut, Hejaz and Egypt—and modified some of the dishes with the addition of Indonesian ingredients. The Arabs arrived in the Nusantara archipelago to trading and spread Islam. In Java, since the 18th century AD, most of Arab traders settled on the north coast and diffuse with indigenous, thus affecting the local cuisine culture, especially in the use of mutton meat and ghee in cooking.
Indo cuisine is a fusion cooking and cuisine tradition, mainly existing in Indonesia and the Netherlands, as well as Belgium, South Africa and Suriname. This cuisine characterized of fusion cuisine that consists of original Indonesian cuisine with Eurasian-influences—mainly Dutch, also Portuguese, Spanish and British—and vice versa. Nowaday, not only Indo people who consume Indo cuisine, but also Indonesians and Dutch people.
Islam gave to Indian cookery its masterpiece dishes from the Middle East. These include pilau (from Iranian pollo and Turkish pilaf), samossa (Turkish sambussak), shir kurma (dates and milk), kebabs, sherbet, stuffed vegetables, oven bread, and confections (halvah).