Deposit account

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A deposit account is a bank account maintained by a financial institution in which a customer can deposit and withdraw money. Deposit accounts can be savings accounts, current accounts or any of several other types of accounts explained below.

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Transactions on deposit accounts are recorded in a bank's books, and the resulting balance is recorded as a liability of the bank and represents an amount owed by the bank to the customer. Some banks charge fees for transactions on a customer's account. Additionally, some banks pay customers interest on their account balances.

Types of accounts

SNAccount TypeDescription of account functionality
1 Transactional accounts Also known as "current accounts" in Commonwealth countries and "checking accounts" in the United States.

A deposit account for the purpose of securely and quickly providing frequent access to funds on demand, through various different channels. Because money is available on demand, these accounts are also referred to as "demand accounts" or "demand deposit accounts", except in the case of NOW (negotiable order of withdrawal) accounts, which are rare checking accounts that require a seven-day notice before withdrawals.

2 Money market account A deposit account that pays interest at money market rates, and for which no notice or very short notice is required for withdrawals. In the United States, they are similar to checking accounts in that they offer check-writing privileges and instant access but they are subject to the same regulations as savings accounts, including monthly transaction limits.
3 Savings account Accounts maintained by retail banks that pay interest but can not be used directly as money (for example, by writing a cheque or using a debit card at a point of sale), although cash can be withdrawn from these accounts at an automated teller machine. While they are not as convenient to use as checking accounts, these accounts generally offer consumers a higher rate of interest than a transactional account and will usually be linked to a transactional account.
4 Time deposit Also known as a certificate of deposit in the United States.

A money deposit at a banking institution that cannot be withdrawn for a preset fixed 'term' or period of time and will incur penalties for withdrawals before a certain date. When the term is over it can be withdrawn or it can be rolled over for another term. Generally speaking, the longer the term the higher the interest rate offered by the bank.

5Call depositA deposit account that allows for the withdrawal of funds without penalty but requires a higher minimum balance to earn interest. [1]
6 Sweep account A deposit account in which amounts over a certain balance are automatically transferred to another account pursuant to a pre-determined set of arrangements.
7Automatic transfer service accountA deposit account that allows the transfer of funds from a savings account to a checking account in order to cover a check written or to maintain a minimum balance.
8Short term deposit accountAn account where deposits are held for no longer than a year. [2]

How banking works

In banking, the verbs "deposit" and "withdraw" mean a customer paying money into, and taking money out of, an account, respectively. From a legal and financial accounting standpoint, the noun "deposit" is used by the banking industry in financial statements to describe the liability owed by the bank to its depositor, and not the funds that the bank holds as a result of the deposit, which are shown as assets of the bank.

Subject to restrictions imposed by the terms and conditions of the account, the account holder (customer) retains the right to have the deposited money repaid on demand. The terms and conditions may specify the methods by which a customer may move money into or out of the account, e.g., by cheque, internet banking, EFTPOS or other channels.

For example, a depositor depositing $100 in cash into a checking account at a bank in the United States surrenders legal title to the $100 in cash, which becomes an asset of the bank.[ citation needed ] On the bank's books, the bank debits its cash account for the $100 in cash, and credits a "deposits" liability account for an equal amount. (See double-entry bookkeeping system.)

In the financial statements of the bank, the $100 in currency would be shown on the balance sheet as an asset of the bank and the deposit account would be shown as a liability owed by the bank to its customer. The bank's financial statement reflects the economic substance of the transaction, which is that the bank has borrowed $100 from its customer and has contractually obliged itself to repay the customer according to the terms of the agreement. These "physical" reserve funds may be held as deposits at the relevant central bank and will receive interest as per monetary policy.

Typically, a bank will not hold the entire sum in reserve, but will lend most of the money to other clients, in a process known as fractional-reserve banking. This allows providers to earn interest on the asset and hence to pay interest on deposits.

By transferring the ownership of deposits from one party to another, banks can avoid using physical cash as a method of payment. Commercial bank deposits account for most of the money supply in use today. For example, if a bank in the United States makes a loan to a customer by depositing the loan proceeds in that customer's checking account, the bank typically records this event by debiting an asset account on the bank's books (called loans receivable or some similar name) and credits the deposit liability or checking account of the customer on the bank's books. From an economic standpoint, the bank has essentially created economic money (although not legal tender). The customer's checking account balance has no dollar bills in it, as a demand deposit account is simply a liability owed by the bank to its customer. In this way, commercial banks are allowed to increase the money supply (without printing currency).

Regulations

Banking operates under an intricate system of customs and conventions developed over many centuries. It is also normally subject to statutory regulations, such as reserve requirements developed to reduce the risk of failure of the bank. It may also have the purpose of reducing the extent of depositor losses in the event of bank failure.

To reduce the risk to depositors of a bank failure, some bank deposits may also be secured by a deposit insurance scheme, or be protected by a government guarantee scheme.

See also

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Balance sheet Accounting financial summary

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The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) is one of two agencies that supply deposit insurance to depositors in American depository institutions, the other being the National Credit Union Administration, which regulates and insures credit unions. The FDIC is a United States government corporation supplying deposit insurance to depositors in American commercial banks and savings banks. The FDIC was created by the 1933 Banking Act, enacted during the Great Depression to restore trust in the American banking system. More than one-third of banks failed in the years before the FDIC's creation, and bank runs were common. The insurance limit was initially US$2,500 per ownership category, and this was increased several times over the years. Since the passage of the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act in 2010, the FDIC insures deposits in member banks up to US$250,000 per ownership category. FDIC insurance is backed by the full faith and credit of the government of the United States of America, and since its start in 1933 no depositor has ever lost a penny of FDIC-insured funds.

A commercial bank is a financial institution which accepts deposits from the public and gives loans for the purposes of consumption and investment to make profit.

Bank account Financial institution holding

A bank account is a financial account maintained by a bank or other financial institution in which the financial transactions between the bank and a customer are recorded. Each financial institution sets the terms and conditions for each type of account it offers, which are classified in commonly understood types, such as deposit accounts, credit card accounts, current accounts, loan accounts or many other types of account. A customer may have more than one account. Once an account is opened, funds entrusted by the customer to the financial institution on deposit are recorded in the account designated by the customer. Funds can be withdrawn from loan loaders.

Debits and credits

Debits and credits in double entry bookkeeping are entries made in account ledgers to record changes in value resulting from business transactions. A debit entry in an account represents a transfer of value to that account, and a credit entry represents a transfer from the account. Each transaction transfers value from credited accounts to debited accounts. For example, a tenant who writes a rent cheque to a landlord would enter a credit for the bank account on which the cheque is drawn, and a debit in a rent expense account. Similarly, the landlord would enter a credit in the rent income account associated with the tenant and a debit for the bank account where the cheque is deposited.

Fractional-reserve banking System of banking

Fractional-reserve banking is the system of banking operating in almost all countries worldwide, under which banks that take deposits from the public are required to hold a proportion of their deposit liabilities in liquid assets as a reserve, and are at liberty to lend the remainder to borrowers. Bank reserves are held as cash in the bank or as balances in the bank's account at the central bank. The country's central bank determines the minimum amount that banks must hold in liquid assets, called the "reserve requirement" or "reserve ratio". Most commercial banks hold more than this minimum amount as excess reserves.

Full-reserve banking is a system of banking where banks do not lend demand deposits and instead, only lend from time deposits. It differs from fractional-reserve banking, in which banks may lend funds on deposit, while fully reserved banks would be required to keep the full amount of each depositor's funds in cash, ready for immediate withdrawal on demand.

A transaction account, also called a checking account, chequing account, current account, demand deposit account, or share draft account at credit unions, is a deposit account held at a bank or other financial institution. It is available to the account owner "on demand" and is available for frequent and immediate access by the account owner or to others as the account owner may direct. Access may be in a variety of ways, such as cash withdrawals, use of debit cards, cheques (checks) and electronic transfer. In economic terms, the funds held in a transaction account are regarded as liquid funds. In accounting terms, they are considered as cash.

Cheque clearing or bank clearance is the process of moving cash from the bank on which a cheque is drawn to the bank in which it was deposited, usually accompanied by the movement of the cheque to the paying bank, either in the traditional physical paper form or digitally under a cheque truncation system. This process is called the clearing cycle and normally results in a credit to the account at the bank of deposit, and an equivalent debit to the account at the bank on which it was drawn, with a corresponding adjustment of accounts of the banks themselves. If there are not enough funds in the account when the cheque arrived at the issuing bank, the cheque would be returned as a dishonoured cheque marked as non-sufficient funds.

Bank fraud is the use of potentially illegal means to obtain money, assets, or other property owned or held by a financial institution, or to obtain money from depositors by fraudulently posing as a bank or other financial institution. In many instances, bank fraud is a criminal offence. While the specific elements of particular banking fraud laws vary depending on jurisdictions, the term bank fraud applies to actions that employ a scheme or artifice, as opposed to bank robbery or theft. For this reason, bank fraud is sometimes considered a white-collar crime.

Bank run Mass withdrawal of money from banks

A bank run or run on the bank occurs when many clients withdraw their money from a bank, because they believe the bank may cease to function in the near future. In other words, it is when, in a fractional-reserve banking system, numerous customers withdraw cash from deposit accounts with a financial institution at the same time because they believe that the financial institution is, or might become, insolvent; they keep the cash or transfer it into other assets, such as government bonds, precious metals or gemstones. When they transfer funds to another institution, it may be characterized as a capital flight. As a bank run progresses, it generates its own momentum: as more people withdraw cash, the likelihood of default increases, triggering further withdrawals. This can destabilize the bank to the point where it runs out of cash and thus faces sudden bankruptcy. To combat a bank run, a bank may limit how much cash each customer may withdraw, suspend withdrawals altogether, or promptly acquire more cash from other banks or from the central bank, besides other measures.

Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents (CCE) are the most liquid current assets found on a business's balance sheet. Cash equivalents are short-term commitments "with temporarily idle cash and easily convertible into a known cash amount". An investment normally counts as a cash equivalent when it has a short maturity period of 90 days or less, and can be included in the cash and cash equivalents balance from the date of acquisition when it carries an insignificant risk of changes in the asset value. If it has a maturity of more than 90 days, it is not considered a cash equivalent. Equity investments mostly are excluded from cash equivalents, unless they are essentially cash equivalents.

Cash management refers to a broad area of finance involving the collection, handling, and usage of cash. It involves assessing market liquidity, cash flow, and investments.

Overdraft Payments from a bank account exceeding the balance

An overdraft occurs when money is withdrawn in excess of what is on the current account. In this situation the account is said to be "overdrawn". If there is a prior agreement with the account provider for an overdraft, and the amount overdrawn is within the authorized overdraft limit, then interest is normally charged at the agreed rate. If the negative balance exceeds the agreed terms, then additional fees may be charged and higher interest rates may apply.

Bank statement Summary of financial transactions

A bank statement is an official summary of financial transactions occurring within a given period for each bank account held by a person or business with a financial institution. Such statements are prepared by the financial institution, are numbered and indicate the period covered by the statement, and may contain other relevant information for the account type, such as how much is payable by a certain date. The start date of the statement period is usually the day after the end of the previous statement period.

Bank failure

A bank failure occurs when a bank is unable to meet its obligations to its depositors or other creditors because it has become insolvent or too illiquid to meet its liabilities. A bank usually fails economically when the market value of its assets declines to a value that is less than the market value of its liabilities. The insolvent bank either borrows from other solvent banks or sells its assets at a lower price than its market value to generate liquid money to pay its depositors on demand. The inability of the solvent banks to lend liquid money to the insolvent bank creates a bank panic among the depositors as more depositors try to take out cash deposits from the bank. As such, the bank is unable to fulfill the demands of all of its depositors on time. A bank may be taken over by the regulating government agency if its shareholders' equity are below the regulatory minimum.

Diamond–Dybvig model

The Diamond–Dybvig model is an influential model of bank runs and related financial crises. The model shows how banks' mix of illiquid assets and liquid liabilities may give rise to self-fulfilling panics among depositors.

Bank Financial institution that accepts deposits

A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates a demand deposit while simultaneously making loans. Lending activities can be directly performed by the bank or indirectly through capital markets.

Liability (financial accounting)

In financial accounting, a liability is defined as the future sacrifices of economic benefits that the entity is obliged to make to other entities as a result of past transactions or other past events, the settlement of which may result in the transfer or use of assets, provision of services or other yielding of economic benefits in the future.

A deposit is the act of placing cash with some entity, most commonly with a financial institution, such as a bank.

References

  1. "Call Deposit". Financial Advisory. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
  2. Short Term Deposit, International Deposit, Interest Rates Exchange. Accessed 2012-05-14.