Money supply

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China M2 money supply vs USA M2 money supply China M2 money supply vs USA money supply.png
China M2 money supply vs USA M2 money supply
nature vs nurture Money supply growth vs inflation rates.png
nature vs nurture
M2 as a % of GDP M2 as a %25 of GDP.png
M2 as a % of GDP


The money supply (or money stock) is the total value of money available in an economy at a point of time. There are several ways to define "money", but standard measures usually include currency in circulation and demand deposits (depositors' easily accessed assets on the books of financial institutions). [1] [2] Each country’s central bank may use its own definitions of what constitutes money for its purposes.

Economy system of agents and processes of the production, distribution or trade, and consumption of limited goods and services by agents

An economy is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents. Understood in its broadest sense, 'The economy is defined as a social domain that emphasize the practices, discourses, and material expressions associated with the production, use, and management of resources'. Economic agents can be individuals, businesses, organizations, or governments. Economic transactions occur when two groups or parties agree to the value or price of the transacted good or service, commonly expressed in a certain currency. However, monetary transactions only account for a small part of the economic domain.

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Money supply data is recorded and published, usually by the government or the central bank of the country. Public and private sector analysts monitor changes in the money supply because of the belief that such changes affect the price level of securities, inflation, the exchange rates and the business cycle. [3]

Central bank public institution that manages a states currency, money supply, and interest rates

A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages the currency, money supply, and interest rates of a state or formal monetary union, and oversees their commercial banking system. In contrast to a commercial bank, a central bank possesses a monopoly on increasing the monetary base in the state, and also generally controls the printing/coining of the national currency, which serves as the state's legal tender. A central bank also acts as a lender of last resort to the banking sector during times of financial crisis. Most central banks also have supervisory and regulatory powers to ensure the solvency of member institutions, to prevent bank runs, and to discourage reckless or fraudulent behavior by member banks.

The general price level is a hypothetical daily measure of overall prices for some set of goods and services, in an economy or monetary union during a given interval, normalized relative to some base set. Typically, the general price level is approximated with a daily price index, normally the Daily CPI. The general price level can change more than once per day during hyperinflation.

Inflation increase in the general price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time

In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in the general price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time. When the general price level rises, each unit of currency buys fewer goods and services; consequently, inflation reflects a reduction in the purchasing power per unit of money – a loss of real value in the medium of exchange and unit of account within the economy. The opposite of inflation is deflation, a sustained decrease in the general price level of goods and services. The common measure of inflation is the inflation rate, the annualized percentage change in a general price index, usually the consumer price index, over time.

The relationship between money and prices has historically been associated with the quantity theory of money. There is strong empirical evidence of a direct relationship between the growth of the money supply and long-term price inflation, at least for rapid increases in the amount of money in the economy. For example, a country such as Zimbabwe which saw extremely rapid increases in its money supply also saw extremely rapid increases in prices (hyperinflation). This is one reason for the reliance on monetary policy as a means of controlling inflation. [4] [5]

In monetary economics, the quantity theory of money (QTM), invented by Milton Friedman, states that the general price level of goods and services is directly proportional to the amount of money in circulation, or money supply.

Zimbabwe Republic in southern Africa

Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare and the second largest being Bulawayo. A country of roughly 16 million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used.

Hyperinflation Rapidly accelerating inflation

In economics, hyperinflation is very high and typically accelerating inflation. It quickly erodes the real value of the local currency, as the prices of all goods increase. This causes people to minimize their holdings in that currency as they usually switch to more stable foreign currencies, often the US Dollar. Prices typically remain stable in terms of other relatively stable currencies.

The nature of this causal chain is the subject of some debate. Some heterodox economists argue that the money supply is endogenous (determined by the workings of the economy, not by the central bank) and that the sources of inflation must be found in the distributional structure of the economy. [6]

Heterodox economics schools of economic thought or methodologies that are outside "mainstream economics", contrasting with or going beyond neoclassical economics

Heterodoxy is a term that may be used in contrast with orthodoxy in schools of economic thought or methodologies, that may be beyond neoclassical economics. Heterodoxy is an umbrella term that can cover various schools of thought or theories. These might for example include institutional, evolutionary, Georgist, Austrian, feminist, social, post-Keynesian, ecological, Marxian, socialist and anarchist economics, among others.

Endogenous money is an economy’s supply of money that is determined endogenously—that is, as a result of the interactions of other economic variables, rather than exogenously (autonomously) by an external authority such as a central bank.

In addition, those economists seeing the central bank's control over the money supply as feeble say that there are two weak links between the growth of the money supply and the inflation rate. First, in the aftermath of a recession, when many resources are underutilized, an increase in the money supply can cause a sustained increase in real production instead of inflation. Second, if the velocity of money (i.e., the ratio between nominal GDP and money supply) changes, an increase in the money supply could have either no effect, an exaggerated effect, or an unpredictable effect on the growth of nominal GDP.

Economist professional in the social science discipline of economics

An economist is a practitioner in the social science discipline of economics.

Velocity of money Rate of money changing hands

The velocity of money is a measure of the number of times that the average unit of currency is used to purchase goods and services within a given time period. The concept relates the size of economic activity to a given money supply and the speed of money exchange is one of the variables that determine inflation. The measure of the velocity of money is usually the ratio of gross national product (GNP) to a country's money supply.

Money creation by commercial banks

Commercial banks play a role in the process of money creation, especially under the fractional-reserve banking system used throughout the world. In this system, money is created whenever a bank gives out a new loan. This is because the loan, when drawn on and spent, mostly finishes up as a deposit in the banking system, which is counted as part of money supply. After putting aside a part of these deposits as mandated bank reserves, the balance is available for the making of further loans by the bank. This process continues multiple times, and is called the multiplier effect.

Fractional-reserve banking banking system where bank holds reserves equal to fraction of deposit liabilities

Fractional-reserve banking is currently the most common practice by commercial banks worldwide. It involves banks accepting deposits from customers and making loans to others, while holding in reserves a fraction of the bank's deposit liabilities. The minimum amount that banks are required to hold in liquid assets is determined by the relevant central bank as a reserve requirement, also called the reserve ratio. A bank’s reserves are held as cash in the bank or as balances in the bank's account at the central bank.

Bank reserves commercial banks holdings deposited in central banks

Bank reserves are a commercial bank's cash holdings, that are physically held by the bank, and deposits held in the bank's account with the central bank. Under the fractional-reserve banking system used in most countries, central banks typically set minimum reserve requirements that require commercial banks under its purview to hold cash or deposits at the central bank equivalent to at least a prescribed percentage of their liabilities, such as customer deposits. Such sums are usually termed required reserves, and any funds above the required amount are called excess reserves. These reserves are prescribed to ensure that, in the normal events, there is sufficient liquidity in the banking system to provide funds to bank customers wishing to withdraw cash. Even when there are no reserve requirements, banks often as a matter of prudent management hold reserves in case of unexpected events, such as unusually large net withdrawals by customers or bank runs. In general, banks do not earn any interest on its reserves. Funds in banks that are not retained as a reserve are available to be lent, at interest.

This new money makes up the non-M0 components in the M1-M3 statistics. In short, there are two types of money in a fractional-reserve banking system: [7] [8]

In the money supply statistics, central bank money is MB while the commercial bank money is divided up into the M1-M3 components. Generally, the types of commercial bank money that tend to be valued at lower amounts are classified in the narrow category of M1 while the types of commercial bank money that tend to exist in larger amounts are categorized in M2 and M3, with M3 having the largest.

In the United States, a bank's reserves consist of U.S. currency held by the bank (also known as "vault cash" [9] ) plus the bank's balances in Federal Reserve accounts. [10] [11] For this purpose, cash on hand and balances in Federal Reserve ("Fed") accounts are interchangeable (both are obligations of the Fed). Reserves may come from any source, including the federal funds market, deposits by the public, and borrowing from the Fed itself. [12]

A reserve requirement is a ratio a bank must maintain between deposit liabilities and reserves. [13] Reserve requirements do not apply to the amount of money a bank may lend out. The ratio that applies to bank lending is its capital requirement. [14]

Open market operations by central banks

Central banks can influence the money supply by open market operations. They can increase the money supply by purchasing government securities, such as government bonds or treasury bills. This increases the liquidity in the banking system by converting the illiquid securities of commercial banks into liquid deposits at the central bank. This also causes the price of such securities to raise due to the increased demand, and interest rates to fall. These funds become available to commercial banks for lending, and by the multiplier effect from fractional-reserve banking, loans and bank deposits go up by many times the initial injection of funds into the banking system.

In contrast, when the central bank "tightens" the money supply, it sells securities on the open market, drawing liquid funds out of the banking system. The prices of such securities fall as supply is increased, and interest rates raise. This also has a multiplier effect.

This kind of activity reduces or increases the supply of short term government debt in the hands of banks and the non-bank public, also lowering or raising interest rates. In parallel, it increases or reduces the supply of loanable funds (money) and thereby the ability of private banks to issue new money through issuing debt.

The simple connection between monetary policy and monetary aggregates such as M1 and M2 changed in the 1970s as the reserve requirements on deposits started to fall with the emergence of money funds, which require no reserves. Then in the early 1990s, reserve requirements, for example in Canada, were dropped to zero [15] on savings deposits, CDs, and Eurodollar deposit. At present, reserve requirements apply only to "transactions deposits" – essentially checking accounts. The vast majority of funding sources used by private banks to create loans are not limited by bank reserves. Most commercial and industrial loans are financed by issuing large denomination CDs. Money market deposits are largely used to lend to corporations who issue commercial paper. Consumer loans are also made using savings deposits, which are not subject to reserve requirements. This means that instead of the value of loans supplied responding passively to monetary policy, we often see it rising and falling with the demand for funds and the willingness of banks to lend.

Some economists argue that the money multiplier is a meaningless concept, because its relevance would require that the money supply be exogenous, i.e. determined by the monetary authorities via open market operations. If central banks usually target the shortest-term interest rate (as their policy instrument) then this leads to the money supply being endogenous. [16]

Neither commercial nor consumer loans are any longer limited by bank reserves. Nor are they directly linked proportional to reserves. Between 1995 and 2008, the value of consumer loans has steadily increased out of proportion to bank reserves. Then, as part of the financial crisis, bank reserves rose dramatically as new loans shrank.

Individual Consumer Loans at All Commercial Banks, 1990-2008 Consumer Loans 1990 2008.png
Individual Consumer Loans at All Commercial Banks, 1990–2008

In recent years, some academic economists renowned for their work on the implications of rational expectations have argued that open market operations are irrelevant. These include Robert Lucas, Jr., Thomas Sargent, Neil Wallace, Finn E. Kydland, Edward C. Prescott and Scott Freeman. Keynesian economists point to the ineffectiveness of open market operations in 2008 in the United States, when short-term interest rates went as low as they could go in nominal terms, so that no more monetary stimulus could occur. This zero bound problem has been called the liquidity trap or "pushing on a string" (the pusher being the central bank and the string being the real economy).

Empirical measures in the United States Federal Reserve System

CPI-Urban (blue) vs M2 money supply (red); recessions in gray CPI vs M2 money supply increases.png
CPI-Urban (blue) vs M2 money supply (red); recessions in gray
See also European Central Bank for other approaches and a more global perspective.

Money is used as a medium of exchange, a unit of account, and as a ready store of value. Its different functions are associated with different empirical measures of the money supply. There is no single "correct" measure of the money supply. Instead, there are several measures, classified along a spectrum or continuum between narrow and broad monetary aggregates. Narrow measures include only the most liquid assets, the ones most easily used to spend (currency, checkable deposits). Broader measures add less liquid types of assets (certificates of deposit, etc.).

This continuum corresponds to the way that different types of money are more or less controlled by monetary policy. Narrow measures include those more directly affected and controlled by monetary policy, whereas broader measures are less closely related to monetary-policy actions. [5] It is a matter of perennial debate as to whether narrower or broader versions of the money supply have a more predictable link to nominal GDP.

The different types of money are typically classified as "M"s. The "M"s usually range from M0 (narrowest) to M3 (broadest) but which "M"s are actually focused on in policy formulation depends on the country's central bank. The typical layout for each of the "M"s is as follows:

Type of moneyM0MBM1M2 M3 MZM
Notes and coins in circulation (outside Federal Reserve Banks and the vaults of depository institutions) (currency) [17]
Notes and coins in bank vaults (vault cash)
Federal Reserve Bank credit (required reserves and excess reserves not physically present in banks)
Traveler's checks of non-bank issuers
Demand deposits
Other checkable deposits (OCDs), which consist primarily of negotiable order of withdrawal (NOW) accounts at depository institutions and credit union share draft accounts. [18]
Savings deposits
Time deposits less than $100,000 and money-market deposit accounts for individuals
Large time deposits, institutional money market funds, short-term repurchase and other larger liquid assets [19]
All money market funds

The ratio of a pair of these measures, most often M2 / M0, is called an (actual, empirical) money multiplier.

Definitions of "money"

United States

MB, M1 and M2 from 1981 to 2012 - Further Information: Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis MB, M1 and M2 aggregates from 1981 to 2012.png
MB, M1 and M2 from 1981 to 2012 – Further Information: Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis
Money supply decreased by several percent between Black Tuesday and the Bank Holiday in March 1933 when there were massive bank runs across the United States. Money supply during the great depression era.png
Money supply decreased by several percent between Black Tuesday and the Bank Holiday in March 1933 when there were massive bank runs across the United States.

The United States Federal Reserve published data on three monetary aggregates until 2006, when it ceased publication of M3 data [24] and only published data on M1 and M2. M1 consists of money commonly used for payment, basically currency in circulation and checking account balances; and M2 includes M1 plus balances that generally are similar to transaction accounts and that, for the most part, can be converted fairly readily to M1 with little or no loss of principal. The M2 measure is thought to be held primarily by households. Prior to its discontinuation, M3 comprised M2 plus certain accounts that are held by entities other than individuals and are issued by banks and thrift institutions to augment M2-type balances in meeting credit demands, as well as balances in money market mutual funds held by institutional investors. The aggregates have had different roles in monetary policy as their reliability as guides has changed. The principal components are: [29]

Although the Treasury can and does hold cash and a special deposit account at the Fed (fed funds), these assets do not count in any of the aggregates. So in essence, money paid in taxes paid to the Federal Government (Treasury) is excluded from the money supply. To counter this, the government created the Treasury Tax and Loan (TT&L) program in which any receipts above a certain threshold are redeposited in private banks. The idea is that tax receipts won't decrease the amount of reserves in the banking system. The TT&L accounts, while demand deposits, do not count toward M1 or any other aggregate either.

When the Federal Reserve announced in 2005 that they would cease publishing M3 statistics in March 2006, they explained that M3 did not convey any additional information about economic activity compared to M2, and thus, "has not played a role in the monetary policy process for many years." Therefore, the costs to collect M3 data outweighed the benefits the data provided. [24] Some politicians have spoken out against the Federal Reserve's decision to cease publishing M3 statistics and have urged the U.S. Congress to take steps requiring the Federal Reserve to do so. Congressman Ron Paul (R-TX) claimed that "M3 is the best description of how quickly the Fed is creating new money and credit. Common sense tells us that a government central bank creating new money out of thin air depreciates the value of each dollar in circulation." [31] Modern Monetary Theory disagrees. It holds that money creation in a free-floating fiat currency regime such as the U.S. will not lead to significant inflation unless the economy is approaching full employment and full capacity. Some of the data used to calculate M3 are still collected and published on a regular basis. [24] Current alternate sources of M3 data are available from the private sector. [32]

As of April 2013, the monetary base was $3 trillion [33] and M2, the broadest measure of money supply, was $10.5 trillion. [34]

United Kingdom

M4 money supply of the United Kingdom 1984-2007. In thousand millions (billions) of pounds sterling. M4 money supply.svg
M4 money supply of the United Kingdom 1984–2007. In thousand millions (billions) of pounds sterling.

There are just two official UK measures. M0 is referred to as the "wide monetary base" or "narrow money" and M4 is referred to as "broad money" or simply "the money supply".

There are several different definitions of money supply to reflect the differing stores of money. Owing to the nature of bank deposits, especially time-restricted savings account deposits, M4 represents the most illiquid measure of money. M0, by contrast, is the most liquid measure of the money supply.

Eurozone

The Euro money supply from 1998-2007. Euro money supply Sept 1998 - Oct 2007.jpg
The Euro money supply from 1998–2007.

The European Central Bank's definition of euro area monetary aggregates: [38]

Australia

The money supply of Australia 1984-2016 Australian Money Supply.PNG
The money supply of Australia 1984–2016

The Reserve Bank of Australia defines the monetary aggregates as: [39]

New Zealand

New Zealand money supply 1988-2008 New zealand money supply 1988-2008.jpg
New Zealand money supply 1988–2008

The Reserve Bank of New Zealand defines the monetary aggregates as: [40]

India

Components of the money supply of India in billions of Rupee for 1950-2011 India Money Supply Components--Larger Label Fonts.png
Components of the money supply of India in billions of Rupee for 1950–2011

The Reserve Bank of India defines the monetary aggregates as: [41]

Hong Kong

HKD vs USD over the year HKD vs USD over the year.svg
HKD vs USD over the year

In 1967, when sterling was devalued, the dollar's peg to the pound was increased from 1 shilling 3 pence to 1 shilling 4½ pence (14.5455 dollars = 1 pound) although this did not entirely offset the devaluation. In 1972 the Hong Kong dollar was pegged to the U.S. dollar at a rate of 5.65 H.K. dollar = 1 U.S. dollar. This was revised to 5.085 H.K. dollar = 1 U.S. dollar in 1973. Between 1974 and 1983 the Hong Kong dollar floated. On 17 October 1983 the currency was pegged at a rate of 7.8 H.K. dollar = 1 U.S. dollar, through the currency board system.

As of 18 May 2005, in addition to the lower guaranteed limit, a new upper guaranteed limit was set for the Hong Kong dollar at 7.75 to the American dollar. The lower limit was lowered from 7.80 to 7.85 (by 100 pips per week from 23 May to 20 June 2005). The Hong Kong Monetary Authority indicated that this move was to narrow the gap between the interest rates in Hong Kong and those of the United States. A further aim of allowing the Hong Kong dollar to trade in a range is to avoid the HK dollar being used as a proxy for speculative bets on a renminbi revaluation.

The Hong Kong Basic Law and the Sino-British Joint Declaration provides that Hong Kong retains full autonomy with respect to currency issuance. Currency in Hong Kong is issued by the government and three local banks under the supervision of the territory's de facto central bank, the Hong Kong Monetary Authority. Bank notes are printed by Hong Kong Note Printing.

A bank can issue a Hong Kong dollar only if it has the equivalent exchange in US dollars on deposit. The currency board system ensures that Hong Kong's entire monetary base is backed with US dollars at the linked exchange rate. The resources for the backing are kept in Hong Kong's exchange fund, which is among the largest official reserves in the world. Hong Kong also has huge deposits of US dollars, with official foreign currency reserves of 331.3 billion USD as of September 2014. [42]

Japan

Japanese money supply (April 1998 - April 2008) Money supply of japan.gif
Japanese money supply (April 1998 – April 2008)

The Bank of Japan defines the monetary aggregates as: [43]

Monetary exchange equation

The money supply is important because it is linked to inflation by the equation of exchange in an equation proposed by Irving Fisher in 1911: [44]

where

In mathematical terms, this equation is an identity which is true by definition rather than describing economic behavior. That is, velocity is defined by the values of the other three variables. Unlike the other terms, the velocity of money has no independent measure and can only be estimated by dividing PQ by M. Some adherents of the quantity theory of money assume that the velocity of money is stable and predictable, being determined mostly by financial institutions. If that assumption is valid then changes in M can be used to predict changes in PQ. If not, then a model of V is required in order for the equation of exchange to be useful as a macroeconomics model or as a predictor of prices.

Most macroeconomists replace the equation of exchange with equations for the demand for money which describe more regular and predictable economic behavior. However, predictability (or the lack thereof) of the velocity of money is equivalent to predictability (or the lack thereof) of the demand for money (since in equilibrium real money demand is simply Q/V). Either way, this unpredictability made policy-makers at the Federal Reserve rely less on the money supply in steering the U.S.economy. Instead, the policy focus has shifted to interest rates such as the fed funds rate.

In practice, macroeconomists almost always use real GDP to define Q, omitting the role of all transactions except for those involving newly produced goods and services (i.e., consumption goods, investment goods, government-purchased goods, and exports). But the original quantity theory of money did not follow this practice: PQ was the monetary value of all new transactions, whether of real goods and services or of paper assets.

U.S. M3 money supply as a proportion of gross domestic product. Us proportionate m3.svg
U.S. M3 money supply as a proportion of gross domestic product.

The monetary value of assets, goods, and services sold during the year could be grossly estimated using nominal GDP back in the 1960s. This is not the case anymore because of the dramatic rise of the number of financial transactions relative to that of real transactions up until 2008. That is, the total value of transactions (including purchases of paper assets) rose relative to nominal GDP (which excludes those purchases).

Ignoring the effects of monetary growth on real purchases and velocity, this suggests that the growth of the money supply may cause different kinds of inflation at different times. For example, rises in the U.S. money supplies between the 1970s and the present encouraged first a rise in the inflation rate for newly produced goods and services ("inflation" as usually defined) in the ‘70’s and then asset-price inflation in later decades: it may have encouraged a stock market boom in the '80s and '90s and then, after 2001, a rise in home prices, i.e., the famous housing bubble. This story, of course, assumes that the amounts of money were the causes of these different types of inflation rather than being endogenous results of the economy's dynamics.

When home prices went down, the Federal Reserve kept its loose monetary policy and lowered interest rates; the attempt to slow price declines in one asset class, e.g. real estate, may well have caused prices in other asset classes to rise, e.g. commodities.[ citation needed ]

Rates of growth

In terms of percentage changes (to a close approximation, under low growth rates) [45] , the percentage change in a product, say XY, is equal to the sum of the percentage changes %ΔX + %ΔY). So, denoting all percentage changes as per unit of time,

%ΔP + %ΔQ = %ΔM + %ΔV.

This equation rearranged gives the basic inflation identity:

%ΔP = %ΔM + %ΔV – %ΔQ.

Inflation (%ΔP) is equal to the rate of money growth (%ΔM), plus the change in velocity (%ΔV), minus the rate of output growth (%ΔQ). [46] So if in the long run the growth rate of velocity and the growth rate of real GDP are exogenous constants (the former being dictated by changes in payment institutions and the latter dictated by the growth in the economy’s productive capacity), then the monetary growth rate and the inflation rate differ from each other by a fixed constant.

As before, this equation is only useful if %ΔV follows regular behavior. It also loses usefulness if the central bank lacks control over %ΔM.

Arguments

Historically, in Europe, the main function of the central bank is to maintain low inflation. In the USA the focus is on both inflation and unemployment.[ citation needed ] These goals are sometimes in conflict (according to Phillips curve). A central bank may attempt to do this by artificially influencing the demand for goods by increasing or decreasing the nation's money supply (relative to trend), which lowers or raises interest rates, which stimulates or restrains spending on goods and services.

An important debate among economists in the second half of the twentieth century concerned the central bank's ability to predict how much money should be in circulation, given current employment rates and inflation rates. Economists such as Milton Friedman believed that the central bank would always get it wrong, leading to wider swings in the economy than if it were just left alone. [47] This is why they advocated a non-interventionist approach—one of targeting a pre-specified path for the money supply independent of current economic conditions—even though in practice this might involve regular intervention with open market operations (or other monetary-policy tools) to keep the money supply on target.

The former Chairman of the U.S. Federal Reserve, Ben Bernanke, suggested in 2004 that over the preceding 10 to 15 years, many modern central banks became relatively adept at manipulation of the money supply, leading to a smoother business cycle, with recessions tending to be smaller and less frequent than in earlier decades, a phenomenon termed "The Great Moderation" [48] This theory encountered criticism during the global financial crisis of 2008–2009.[ citation needed ] Furthermore, it may be that the functions of the central bank may need to encompass more than the shifting up or down of interest rates or bank reserves:[ citation needed ] these tools, although valuable, may not in fact moderate the volatility of money supply (or its velocity).[ citation needed ]

Impact of digital currencies and possible transition to a cashless society

See also

Related Research Articles

In economics, deflation is a decrease in the general price level of goods and services. Deflation occurs when the inflation rate falls below 0%. Inflation reduces the value of currency over time, but deflation increases it. This allows more goods and services to be bought than before with the same amount of currency. Deflation is distinct from disinflation, a slow-down in the inflation rate, i.e. when inflation declines to a lower rate but is still positive.

Monetary policy of the United States

Monetary policy concerns the actions of a central bank or other regulatory authorities that determine the size and rate of growth of the money supply. For example, in the United States, the Federal Reserve is in charge of monetary policy, and implements it primarily by performing operations that influence short-term interest rates.

Currency substitution Use of a foreign currency in parallel to or instead of a domestic currency

Currency substitution or dollarization is the use of a foreign currency in parallel to or instead of the domestic currency.

Monetary reform

Monetary reform is any movement or theory that proposes a system of supplying money and financing the economy that is different from the current system.

Monetary policy subclass of the economic policy

Monetary policy is the policy adopted by the monetary authority of a country that controls either the interest rate payable on very short-term borrowing or the money supply, often targeting inflation or the interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.

Currency board

A currency board is a monetary authority which is required to maintain a fixed exchange rate with a foreign currency. This policy objective requires the conventional objectives of a central bank to be subordinated to the exchange rate target.

Hong Kong Monetary Authority currency board and central banking authority of Hong Kong

The Hong Kong Monetary Authority is Hong Kong's currency board and de facto central bank. It is a government authority founded on 1 April 1993 when the Office of the Exchange Fund and the Office of the Commissioner of Banking merged. The organisation reports directly to the Financial Secretary.

Monetary base portion of the commercial banks reserves that are maintained in accounts with their central bank plus the total currency circulating in the public

In economics, the monetary base in a country is the total amount of bank notes and coins circulating in the economy. This includes:

An open market operation (OMO) is an activity by a central bank to give liquidity in its currency to a bank or a group of banks. The central bank can either buy or sell government bonds in the open market or, in what is now mostly the preferred solution, enter into a repo or secured lending transaction with a commercial bank: the central bank gives the money as a deposit for a defined period and synchronously takes an eligible asset as collateral. A central bank uses OMO as the primary means of implementing monetary policy. The usual aim of open market operations is—aside from supplying commercial banks with liquidity and sometimes taking surplus liquidity from commercial banks—to manipulate the short-term interest rate and the supply of base money in an economy, and thus indirectly control the total money supply, in effect expanding money or contracting the money supply. This involves meeting the demand of base money at the target interest rate by buying and selling government securities, or other financial instruments. Monetary targets, such as inflation, interest rates, or exchange rates, are used to guide this implementation.

The reserve requirement is a central bank regulation employed by most, but not all, of the world's central banks, that sets the minimum amount of reserves that must be held by a commercial bank. The minimum reserve is generally determined by the central bank to be no less than a specified percentage of the amount of deposit liabilities the commercial bank owes to its customers. The commercial bank's reserves normally consist of cash owned by the bank and stored physically in the bank vault, plus the amount of the commercial bank's balance in that bank's account with the central bank.

In monetary economics, a money multiplier is one of various closely related ratios of commercial bank money to central bank money under a fractional-reserve banking system. It measures the maximum amount of commercial bank money that can be created, given a certain amount of central bank money and ignoring leakages into currency held by the non-bank public. That is, in a fractional-reserve banking system, the total amount of loans that commercial banks are allowed to extend when there are no leakages is equal to a multiple of the amount of reserves. This multiple is the reciprocal of the reserve ratio, and it is an economic multiplier. The actual ratio of money to central bank money, also called the money multiplier, is lower because some funds are held by the non-bank public as currency and most banks hold excess reserves

Money creation is the process by which the money supply of a country, or of an economic or monetary region, is increased. In most modern economies, most of the money supply is in the form of bank deposits. Central banks monitor the amount of money in the economy by measuring the so-called monetary aggregates.

A linked exchange rate system is a type of exchange rate regime that pegs the exchange rate of one currency to another. It is the exchange rate system implemented in Hong Kong by Honorary Vice-President at the University of Hong Kong, Professor Y.C. Jao, to stabilise the exchange rate between the Hong Kong dollar (HKD) and the United States dollar (USD). The Macao pataca (MOP) is similarly linked to the Hong Kong dollar.

Monetary inflation is a sustained increase in the money supply of a country. Depending on many factors, especially public expectations, the fundamental state and development of the economy, and the transmission mechanism, it is likely to result in price inflation, which is usually just called "inflation", which is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services.

The Bernanke doctrine refers to measures, identified by Ben Bernanke while Chairman of the Board of Governors of the United States Federal Reserve, that the Federal Reserve can use in conducting monetary policy to combat deflation.

This article is about the history of monetary policy in the United States. Monetary policy is associated with interest rates and availability of credit.

Monetary policy is the monitoring and control of money supply by a central bank, such as the Federal Reserve Board in the United States of America, and the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas in the Philippines. This is used by the government to be able to control inflation, and stabilize currency. Monetary Policy is considered to be one of the two ways that the government can influence the economy – the other one being Fiscal Policy. Monetary Policy is generally the process by which the central bank, or government controls the supply and availability of money, the cost of money, and the rate of interest.

References

  1. Alan Deardorff. "Money supply," Deardorff's Glossary of International Economics
  2. Karl Brunner, "money supply," The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics , v. 3, p. 527.
  3. The Money Supply – Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Newyorkfed.org.
  4. Milton Friedman (1987). "quantity theory of money", The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics , v. 4, pp. 15–19.
  5. 1 2 "money supply Definition" . Retrieved July 20, 2008.
  6. Lance Taylor: Reconstructing Macroeconomics, 2006
  7. Bank for International Settlements – The Role of Central Bank Money in Payment Systems. See page 9, titled, "The coexistence of central and commercial bank monies: multiple issuers, one currency": http://www.bis.org/publ/cpss55.pdf A quick quote in reference to the two different types of money is listed on page 3. It is the first sentence of the document:
    "Contemporary monetary systems are based on the mutually reinforcing roles of central bank money and commercial bank monies."
  8. European Central Bank – "Domestic payments in Euroland: commercial and central bank money": "At the beginning of the 20th almost the totality of retail payments were made in central bank money. Over time, this monopoly came to be shared with commercial banks, when deposits and their transfer via checks and giros became widely accepted. Banknotes and commercial bank money became fully interchangeable payment media that customers could use according to their needs. While transaction costs in commercial bank money were shrinking, cashless payment instruments became increasingly used, at the expense of banknotes"
  9. 12 C.F.R. sec. 204.2(k).
  10. 12 C.F.R. sec. 204.5(a).
  11. What is vault cash? definition and meaning. Investorwords.com.
  12. Net Free or Borrowed Reserves of Depository Institutions (NFORBRES) – FRED – St. Louis Fed. Research.stlouisfed.org.
  13. FRB: Reserve Requirements. Federal Reserve Bank.
  14. Bank Capital Requirements.
  15. "Implementation of Monetary Policy in a Regime with Zero Reserve Requirements" by Kevin Clinton, Bank of Canada Working Paper 97-8, April 1997
  16. Boermans, Martijn; Moore, Basil (2009). Locked-in and Sticky textbooks. Issuu.com.
  17. 1 2 "Gold, Oil, Stocks, Investments, Currencies, and the Federal Reserve: Growth of Global Money Supply". DollarDaze Economic Commentary Blog by Mike Hewitt.
  18. M1 Money Stock (M1) – FRED – St. Louis Fed. Research.stlouisfed.org.
  19. M3 Definition. Investopedia (February 15, 2009).
  20. M0 (monetary base). Moneyterms.co.uk.
  21. "M0". Investopedia. Retrieved July 20, 2008.
  22. "M2". Investopedia. Retrieved July 20, 2008.
  23. "M2 Definition". InvestorWords.com. Retrieved July 20, 2008.
  24. 1 2 3 4 Discontinuance of M3, Federal Reserve, November 10, 2005, revised March 9, 2006.
  25. Aziz, John (March 10, 2013). "Is Inflation Always And Everywhere a Monetary Phenomenon?". Azizonomics. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
  26. Thayer, Gary (January 16, 2013). "Investors should assume that inflation will exceed the Fed's target". Macro Strategy. Wells Fargo Advisors. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
  27. Carlson, John B.; Benjamin D. Keen (1996). "MZM: A monetary aggregate for the 1990s?" (PDF). Economic Review. Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. 32 (2): 15–23. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
  28. "Monetary Data – FRED". St. Louis Federal Reserve Bank. Retrieved November 20, 2016.
  29. "The Federal Reserve – Purposes and Functions''". Federalreserve.gov. April 24, 2013. Retrieved December 11, 2013.
  30. "M1 Money Multiplier". research.stlouisfed.org. Retrieved December 3, 2015.
  31. What the Price of Gold Is Telling Us. Lewrockwell.com (April 25, 2006).
  32. See, for example. Shadowstats.com.
  33. "Aggregate Reserves of Depository Institutions and the Monetary Base – H.3". Federal Reserve. Archived from the original on June 16, 2013.
  34. "H.6 Money Stock Measures". Federal Reserve Statistical Release. Federal Reserve. Archived from the original on June 16, 2013.
  35. https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/statistics/details/further-details-about-m0-data
  36. www.bankofengland.co.uk Archived August 9, 2007, at the Wayback Machine Explanatory Notes – M4 Retrieved August 13, 2007
  37. Lipsey, R. G. and Chrystal, K. A. (2011). Economics, 12th Edition, Oxford University Press. p. 455
  38. Bank, European Central. "Monetary aggregates" . Retrieved November 20, 2016.
  39. RBA Glossary
  40. Series description – Monetary and financial statistics. Rbnz.govt.nz.
  41. "Handbook of Statistics on Indian Economy". See the document at the bottom of the page titled, "Notes on Tables". The definitions are on the fourth page of the document
  42. "Hong Kong's Latest Foreign Currency Reserve Assets Figures Released". Hong Kong Monetary Authority. Retrieved November 20, 2016.
  43. click on the link to the exms01.pdf file. They are defined in Appendix 1 which on the 11th page of the pdf. Archived August 31, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  44. The Purchasing Power of Money, its Determination and Relation to Credit, Interest and Crises, Irving Fisher.
  45. Archived July 24, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  46. "Breaking Monetary Policy into Pieces", May 24, 2004
  47. Milton Friedman (1962). Capitalism and Freedom.
  48. Speech, Bernanke – The Great Moderation. Federal Reserve Bank (February 20, 2004).

Further reading