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Community development bank (CDB) or Community Development Financial Institution (CDFI) is a development bank or credit union that focus on serving people who have been locked out of the traditional financial systems such as the unbanked or underbanked in deprived local communities. They emphasize the long term development of communities and provide loans such as micro-finance or venture capital.
In the United States these became popular after 1994 when the US Congress created community development banks and allowed them to get funding at very low rates from the US treasury.
In the United States, community development banks are commercial banks that operate with a mission to generate economic development in low- to moderate-income (LMI) geographical areas and serve residents of these communities. In the United States, community development banks are certified as such by the Community Development Financial Institutions Fund, a department within the U.S. Department of the Treasury.
Organizers wishing to start a new CDB can seek a state or national bank charter. Federally chartered CDBs are regulated primarily by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, like any national bank. According to the OCC Charter Licensing Manual, CDBs are required "to lend, invest, and provide services primarily to LMI individuals or communities in which it is chartered to conduct business." State-chartered community development banks are subject to regulations, qualifications, and definitions that vary from state to state.
In order to become a certified Community Development Financial Institution (CDFI), CD Banks must apply to the United States Community Development Financial Institutions Fund. Successful applicants will have a primary mission of promoting community development and principally serve under served markets and provide development services, in addition to meeting other requirements.CDFI Banks provide retail banking services, they usually target customers from "financially underserved" demographics. While community development banks are only one type of community development financial institution, or CDFI, some organizations use the terms interchangeably.
Although a very small number of US banks are certified CDFIs,many more may be considered Community Development Banks based on their dedication to supporting local economic development and their focus on a particular underserved community. Minority Depository Institutions (MDIs), also known as Minority Banks, are owned by and serve a socially or economically disadvantaged minority community (designated by the FDIC). Community Development Banking Institution (CDBI) is an alternate designation designed by National Community Investment Fund (NCIF) to identify US banks that locate branches and provide loans in economically distressed communities.
One of the best known community development banks was ShoreBank , founded in Chicago in 1973.ShoreBank had branches in Chicago's South and West sides, Cleveland, and Detroit. The bank established subsidiaries that provide equity investing, consulting, and environmental banking services and affiliated nonprofits that provide related financing, technical assistance, and consulting services. ShoreBank and its affiliated companies have projects in 30 countries. Notably, ShoreBank incorporated environmental conservation into its mission during the 1990s. On August 20, 2010, ShoreBank's banking operations were closed by the FDIC, reopening under Urban Partnership Bank.
The Grameen Bank of Bangladesh is a microfinance organization and community development bank founded by Muhammad Yunus. The bank has grown into a family of over two dozen for-profit and nonprofit enterprises including the Grameen Foundation, and the Grameen Bank and its founder were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2006.
Other CDBs in the United States include:
Organizations that support, advocate, and convene Community Development Banks in the US:
The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) is one of two agencies that provide deposit insurance to depositors in U.S. depository institutions, the other being the National Credit Union Administration, which regulates and insures credit unions. The FDIC is a United States government corporation providing deposit insurance to depositors in U.S. commercial banks and savings banks. The FDIC was created by the 1933 Banking Act, enacted during the Great Depression to restore trust in the American banking system. More than one-third of banks failed in the years before the FDIC's creation, and bank runs were common. The insurance limit was initially US$2,500 per ownership category, and this was increased several times over the years. Since the passage of the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act in 2011, the FDIC insures deposits in member banks up to US$250,000 per ownership category.
Banking in the United States began in the late 1790s along with the country's founding and has developed into highly influential and complex system of banking and financial services. Anchored by New York City and Wall Street, it is centered on various financial services namely private banking, asset management, and deposit security.
A banking license is a legal prerequisite for a financial institution that wants to carry on a banking business. Under the laws of most jurisdictions, a business is not permitted to carry words like a bank, insurance, national in their name, unless it holds a corresponding license. Depending to their banking regulations, jurisdictions may offer different types of banking licenses, such as
A savings and loan association (S&L), or thrift institution, is a financial institution that specializes in accepting savings deposits and making mortgage and other loans. The terms "S&L" or "thrift" are mainly used in the United States; similar institutions in the United Kingdom, Ireland and some Commonwealth countries include building societies and trustee savings banks. They are often mutually held, meaning that the depositors and borrowers are members with voting rights, and have the ability to direct the financial and managerial goals of the organization like the members of a credit union or the policyholders of a mutual insurance company. While it is possible for an S&L to be a joint-stock company, and even publicly traded, in such instances it is no longer truly a mutual association, and depositors and borrowers no longer have membership rights and managerial control. By law, thrifts can have no more than 20 percent of their lending in commercial loans — their focus on mortgage and consumer loans makes them particularly vulnerable to housing downturns such as the deep one the U.S. experienced in 2007.
The Community Reinvestment Act is a United States federal law designed to encourage commercial banks and savings associations to help meet the needs of borrowers in all segments of their communities, including low- and moderate-income neighborhoods. Congress passed the Act in 1977 to reduce discriminatory credit practices against low-income neighborhoods, a practice known as redlining.
The Community Development Financial Institutions Fund promotes economic revitalization in distressed communities throughout the United States by providing financial assistance and information to community development financial institutions (CDFI). An agency of the United States Department of the Treasury, it was established through the Riegle Community Development and Regulatory Improvement Act of 1994. Financial institutions, which may include banks, credit unions, loan funds, and community development venture capital funds, can apply to the CDFI Fund for formal certification as a CDFI. As of September 1, 2005, there were 747 certified CDFIs in the U.S. The CDFI Fund offers a variety of financial programs to provide capital to CDFIs, such as the Financial Assistance Program, Technical Assistance Program, Bank Enterprise Award Program, and the New Markets Tax Credit Program.
A community development financial institution (US) or community development finance institution (UK) - abbreviated in both cases to CDFI - is a financial institution that provides credit and financial services to underserved markets and populations, primarily in the USA but also in the UK. A CDFI may be a community development bank, a community development credit union (CDCU), a community development loan fund (CDLF), a community development venture capital fund (CDVC), a microenterprise development loan fund, or a community development corporation.
The Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act of 1989 (FIRREA), is a United States federal law enacted in the wake of the savings and loan crisis of the 1980s.
ShoreBank was a community development bank founded and headquartered in Chicago. At the time of its closing it was the oldest and largest such institution, and in 2008 had $2.6 billion in assets. It was owned by ShoreBank Corporation, a regulated bank holding company.
The Office of Financial Institutions (OFI) is an agency of the United States federal government in the United States Department of the Treasury. OFI coordinates the department's efforts regarding financial institutions legislation and regulation, legislation affecting Federal agencies that regulate or insure financial institutions, and securities markets legislation and regulation. The office coordinates the department's efforts on financial education policy and ensuring the resiliency of the financial services sector in the wake of a terrorist attack.
Bank regulation in the United States is highly fragmented compared with other G10 countries, where most countries have only one bank regulator. In the U.S., banking is regulated at both the federal and state level. Depending on the type of charter a banking organization has and on its organizational structure, it may be subject to numerous federal and state banking regulations. Apart from the bank regulatory agencies the U.S. maintains separate securities, commodities, and insurance regulatory agencies at the federal and state level, unlike Japan and the United Kingdom. Bank examiners are generally employed to supervise banks and to ensure compliance with regulations.
A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits and recurring accounts from the people and creates a demand deposit. Lending activities can be performed either directly or indirectly through capital markets.
The New York State Banking Department was created by the New York Legislature on April 15, 1851, with a chief officer to be known as the Superintendent. The New York State Banking Department was the oldest bank regulatory agency in the United States.
The Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act is a United States federal law that was enacted on July 21, 2010. The law overhauled financial regulation in the aftermath of the Great Recession, and it made changes affecting all federal financial regulatory agencies and almost every part of the nation's financial services industry.
This article details the history of banking in the United States. Banking in the United States is regulated by both the federal and state governments.
The Support Center is a not-for-profit organization and a community development financial institution(CDFI), based in Raleigh, North Carolina. It is a statewide nonprofit that partners with Community Development Credit Unions (CDCUs) and community-based organizations to provide small business and mortgage lending services to its members; and to provide training, grants, and loans to create economic opportunities for individuals, families, and communities in underserved markets.
Urban Partnership Bank was a U.S. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation-insured, full-service community development bank in the United States with $1.4 billion in assets. It was established August 20, 2010, when it acquired the deposits and some of the assets of ShoreBank from the FDIC, and was headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. After chronic losses, it was acquired by Providence Bank on Jan 30, 2019.
Pan American Bank & Trust is a U.S. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation-insured, privately held bank based in Melrose Park, Illinois with $316 million in assets and $288 million in deposits. The bank is wholly owned by American Bancorp of Illinois, Inc., a bank holding company duly registered with the Federal Reserve System. It has six offices in and around Chicago, IL: Melrose Park, Bellwood, Bloomingdale, Palatine, Little Village and Sauganash in Chicago.
Capital Impact Partners, or simply Capital Impact, is a Congressionally chartered, District of Columbia nonprofit and certified community development financial institution that provides credit and financial services to underserved markets and populations in the United States. S&P Global issued Capital Impact its first rating in 2017.
Peoples Bank is a $300 million community bank based in Mendenhall, Mississippi. Brick and mortar branches are located in Collins, Magee, Mendenhall and Richland in addition to ITM/ATM services in Puckett and New Hebron. Peoples Bank operates under a parent company Peoples Bancshares, Inc. and is affiliated with Peoples Bank Mortgage, based in North Charleston, South Carolina and Main Street Realty, based in Magee, Mississippi.