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Community development bank (CDB) or Community Development Financial Institution (CDFI) is a development bank or credit union that focus on serving people who have been locked out of the traditional financial systems such as the unbanked or underbanked in deprived local communities. They emphasize the long term development of communities and provide loans such as micro-finance or venture capital.
A credit union is a member-owned financial cooperative, controlled by its members and operated on the principle of people helping people, providing its members credit at competitive rates as well as other financial services.
The unbanked are adults who do not have their own bank accounts. Along with the underbanked, they may rely on alternative financial services for their financial needs, where these are available.
The underbanked is a characteristic describing people or organizations who do not have sufficient access to mainstream financial services and products typically offered by retail banks and thus often deprived of banking services such as credit cards or loans. The underbanked are characterized by a strong reliance on non-traditional forms of finance and micro-finance often associated with disadvantaged and the poor, such as cheque cashers, loan sharks and pawnbrokers.
In the United States these became popular after 1994 when the US Congress created community development banks and allowed them to get funding at very low rates from the US treasury.
In the United States, community development banks are commercial banks that operate with a mission to generate economic development in low- to moderate-income (LMI) geographical areas and serve residents of these communities. In the United States, community development banks are certified as such by the Community Development Financial Institutions Fund, a department within the U.S. Department of the Treasury.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City. Most of the country is located contiguously in North America between Canada and Mexico.
A commercial bank is a type of bank that provides services such as accepting deposits, making business loans, and offering basic investment products that is operated as a business for profit.
The Community Development Financial Institutions Fund promotes economic revitalization in distressed communities throughout the United States by providing financial assistance and information to community development financial institutions (CDFI). An agency of the United States Department of the Treasury, it was established through the Riegle Community Development and Regulatory Improvement Act of 1994. Financial institutions, which may include banks, credit unions, loan funds, and community development venture capital funds, can apply to the CDFI Fund for formal certification as a CDFI. As of September 1, 2005, there were 747 certified CDFIs in the U.S. The CDFI Fund offers a variety of financial programs to provide capital to CDFIs, such as the Financial Assistance Program, Technical Assistance Program, Bank Enterprise Award Program, and the New Markets Tax Credit Program.
Organizers wishing to start a new CDB can seek a state or national bank charter. Federally chartered CDBs are regulated primarily by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, like any national bank. According to the OCC Charter Licensing Manual, CDBs are required "to lend, invest, and provide services primarily to LMI individuals or communities in which it is chartered to conduct business." State-chartered community development banks are subject to regulations, qualifications, and definitions that vary from state to state.
The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) is an independent bureau within the United States Department of the Treasury that was established by the National Currency Act of 1863 and serves to charter, regulate, and supervise all national banks and thrift institutions and the federally licensed branches and agencies of foreign banks in the United States. The Comptroller of the Currency is Joseph Otting.
In order to become a certified Community Development Financial Institution (CDFI), CD Banks must apply to the United States Community Development Financial Institutions Fund. Successful applicants will have a primary mission of promoting community development and principally serve under served markets and provide development services, in addition to meeting other requirements.CDFI Banks provide retail banking services, they usually target customers from "financially underserved" demographics. While community development banks are only one type of community development financial institution, or CDFI, some organizations use the terms interchangeably.
Retail banking, also known as consumer banking, is the provision of services by a bank to the general public, rather than to companies, corporations or other banks, which are often described as wholesale banking. Banking services which are regarded as retail include provision of savings and transactional accounts, mortgages, personal loans, debit cards, and credit cards. Retail banking is also distinguished from investment banking or commercial banking. It may also refer to a division or department of a bank which deals with individual customers.
A community development financial institution (US) or community development finance institution (UK) - abbreviated in both cases to CDFI - is a financial institution that provides credit and financial services to underserved markets and populations, primarily in the USA but also in the UK. A CDFI may be a community development bank, a community development credit union (CDCU), a community development loan fund (CDLF), a community development venture capital fund (CDVC), a microenterprise development loan fund, or a community development corporation.
Although a very small number of US banks are certified CDFIs,many more may be considered Community Development Banks based on their dedication to supporting local economic development and their focus on a particular underserved community. Minority Depository Institutions (MDIs), also known as Minority Banks, are owned by and serve a socially or economically disadvantaged minority community (designated by the FDIC). Community Development Banking Institution (CDBI) is an alternate designation designed by National Community Investment Fund (NCIF) to identify US banks that locate branches and provide loans in economically distressed communities.
One of the best known community development banks was ShoreBank , founded in Chicago in 1973.ShoreBank had branches in Chicago's South and West sides, Cleveland, and Detroit. The bank established subsidiaries that provide equity investing, consulting, and environmental banking services and affiliated nonprofits that provide related financing, technical assistance, and consulting services. ShoreBank and its affiliated companies have projects in 30 countries. Notably, ShoreBank incorporated environmental conservation into its mission during the 1990s. On August 20, 2010, ShoreBank's banking operations were closed by the FDIC, reopening under Urban Partnership Bank.
The Grameen Bank of Bangladesh is a microfinance organization and community development bank founded by Muhammad Yunus. The bank has grown into a family of over two dozen for-profit and nonprofit enterprises including the Grameen Foundation, and the Grameen Bank and its founder were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2006.
Other CDBs in the United States include:
Organizations that support, advocate, and convene Community Development Banks in the US:
The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) is one of two agencies that provide deposit insurance to depositors in U.S. depository institutions, the other being the National Credit Union Administration, which regulates and insures credit unions. The FDIC is a United States government corporation providing deposit insurance to depositors in U.S. commercial banks and savings institutions. The FDIC was created by the 1933 Banking Act, enacted during the Great Depression to restore trust in the American banking system. More than one-third of banks failed in the years before the FDIC's creation, and bank runs were common. The insurance limit was initially US$2,500 per ownership category, and this was increased several times over the years. Since the passage of the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act in 2011, the FDIC insures deposits in member banks up to US$250,000 per ownership category.
Banking in the United States began in the late 1790s along with the country's founding and has developed into highly influential and complex system of banking and financial services. Anchored by New York City and Wall Street, it is centered on various financial services namely private banking, asset management, and deposit security.
Financial institutions, otherwise known as banking institutions, are corporations that provide services as intermediaries of financial markets. Broadly speaking, there are three major types of financial institutions:
A banking license is a legal prerequisite for a financial institution that wants to carry on a banking business. Under the laws of most jurisdictions, a business is not permitted to carry words like a bank, insurance, national in their name, unless it holds a corresponding license. Depending to their banking regulations, jurisdictions may offer different types of banking licenses, such as
The Community Reinvestment Act is a United States federal law designed to encourage commercial banks and savings associations to help meet the needs of borrowers in all segments of their communities, including low- and moderate-income neighborhoods. Congress passed the Act in 1977 to reduce discriminatory credit practices against low-income neighborhoods, a practice known as redlining.
Chicago Community Loan Fund (CCLF) is a certified community development financial institution (CDFI) that provides loans and grants to community development organizations engaged in affordable housing, social service and economic development initiatives in Chicago.
All regulated financial institutions in the United States are required to file periodic financial and other information with their respective regulators and other parties. For banks in the U.S., one of the key reports required to be filed is the quarterly Consolidated Report of Condition and Income, generally referred to as the call report or RC report. Specifically, every National Bank, State Member Bank and insured Nonmember Bank is required by the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC) to file a call report as of the close of business on the last day of each calendar quarter, i.e. the report date. The specific reporting requirements depend upon the size of the bank and whether or not it has any foreign offices. Call reports are due no later than 30 days after the end of each calendar quarter. Revisions may be made without prejudice up to 30 days after the initial filing period. Form FFIEC 031 is used for banks with both domestic (U.S.) and foreign (non-U.S.) offices; Form FFIEC 041 is for banks with domestic (U.S.) offices only.
ShoreBank was a community development bank founded and headquartered in Chicago. At the time of its closing it was the oldest and largest such institution, and in 2008 had $2.6 billion in assets. It was owned by ShoreBank Corporation, a regulated bank holding company.
Ron Grzywinski is a community development banker from Chicago, and one of four founders of ShoreBank. In May 2010 he retired as chair of ShoreBank Corporation and took the position of Advisor to the Board of Directors of ShoreBank Corporation.
The Office of Financial Institutions (OFI) is an agency of the United States federal government in the United States Department of the Treasury. OFI coordinates the department's efforts regarding financial institutions legislation and regulation, legislation affecting Federal agencies that regulate or insure financial institutions, and securities markets legislation and regulation. The office coordinates the department's efforts on financial education policy and ensuring the resiliency of the financial services sector in the wake of a terrorist attack.
Bank regulation in the United States is highly fragmented compared with other G10 countries, where most countries have only one bank regulator. In the U.S., banking is regulated at both the federal and state level. Depending on the type of charter a banking organization has and on its organizational structure, it may be subject to numerous federal and state banking regulations. Apart from the bank regulatory agencies the U.S. maintains separate securities, commodities, and insurance regulatory agencies at the federal and state level, unlike Japan and the United Kingdom. Bank examiners are generally employed to supervise banks and to ensure compliance with regulations.
Opportunity finance refers to socially responsible investing by an institution in an organization or group of individuals.
The Conservation Fund is an American environmental non-profit with a dual charter to pursue environmental preservation and economic development. Since its founding in 1985, the organization has protected more than 7 million acres of land and water in all 50 states, including parks, historic battlefields, and wild areas. The Fund works with community and government leaders, businesses, landowners, conservation nonprofits and other partners to create innovative solutions that integrate economic and environmental objectives. The Fund also works with communities to strategically plan development and green space and offer training in conservation and the sustainable use of natural resources.
The Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act is a United States federal law that was enacted on July 21, 2010. The law overhauled financial regulation in the aftermath of the financial crisis of 2007–2008, and it made changes affecting all federal financial regulatory agencies and almost every part of the nation's financial services industry.
This article details the history of banking in the United States. Banking in the United States is regulated by both the federal and state governments.
The Support Center is a not-for-profit organization and a community development financial institution(CDFI), based in Raleigh, North Carolina. It is a statewide nonprofit that partners with Community Development Credit Unions (CDCUs) and community-based organizations to provide small business and mortgage lending services to its members; and to provide training, grants, and loans to create economic opportunities for individuals, families, and communities in underserved markets.
Urban Partnership Bank is a U.S. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation-insured, full-service community development bank in the United States with $1.4 billion in assets. It was established August 20, 2010, when it acquired the deposits and some of the assets of ShoreBank from the FDIC, and is headquartered in Chicago, Illinois.
Pan American Bank & Trust is a U.S. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation-insured, privately held bank based in Melrose Park, Illinois with $316 million in assets and $288 million in deposits. The bank is wholly owned by American Bancorp of Illinois, Inc., a bank holding company duly registered with the Federal Reserve System. It has six offices in and around Chicago, IL: Melrose Park, Bellwood, Bloomingdale, Palatine, Little Village and Sauganash in Chicago.