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An industrial loan company (ILC) or industrial bank is a financial institution in the United States that lends money, and may be owned by non-financial institutions. They provide niche financial services nationwide. ILCs offer FDIC-insured deposits and are subject to FDIC and state regulator oversight. All "FDIC-insured entities are subject to Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act, which limits bank transactions with affiliates, including the non-bank parent company." (FDIC.gov) ILCs are permitted to have branches in multiple states (which is permitted by many states on a reciprocal basis). They are regulated and supervised by state-charters and insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. They are authorized to make consumer and commercial loans and accept federally insured deposits. Banks may not accept demand deposits if the bank has total assets greater than $100 million. ILCs are exempted from the Bank Holding Company Act.
Financial institutions, otherwise known as banking institutions, are corporations that provide services as intermediaries of financial markets. Broadly speaking, there are three major types of financial institutions:
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City. Most of the country is located contiguously in North America between Canada and Mexico.
The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) is one of two agencies that provide deposit insurance to depositors in U.S. depository institutions, the other being the National Credit Union Administration, which regulates and insures credit unions. The FDIC is a United States government corporation providing deposit insurance to depositors in U.S. commercial banks and savings institutions. The FDIC was created by the 1933 Banking Act, enacted during the Great Depression to restore trust in the American banking system. More than one-third of banks failed in the years before the FDIC's creation, and bank runs were common. The insurance limit was initially US$2,500 per ownership category, and this was increased several times over the years. Since the passage of the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act in 2011, the FDIC insures deposits in member banks up to US$250,000 per ownership category.
ILCs assist numerous charities and provide millions of dollars annually in grants, low interest loans, and service through the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA). Currently, only seven states offer an ILC bank charter. Most ILCs have been chartered by the Utah Department of Financial Institutions. Other states permitting ILCs include California, Colorado, Minnesota, Indiana, Hawaii, and Nevada.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents across a total area of about 163,696 square miles (423,970 km2), California is the most populous U.S. state and the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento. The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, and the country's second-most populous, after New York City. California also has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs.
Colorado is a state of the Western United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains. It is the 8th most extensive and 21st most populous U.S. state. The estimated population of Colorado was 5,695,564 on July 1, 2018, an increase of 13.25% since the 2010 United States Census.
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest, Great Lakes, and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U.S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, and is known by the slogan the "Land of 10,000 Lakes". Its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord.
2018 Report on performance of Industrial Loan Corporations.
|US Industrial Banks||Assets as of June 30, 2018|
|Balboa Thrift and Loan Association||284,487,000|
|Beal Bank USA||683,563,000|
|BMW Bank of North America||9,996,155,000|
|Comenity Capital Bank||8,624,574,000|
|Community Commerce Bank||234,119,000|
|Finance Factors, Ltd||572,188,000|
|First Electronic Bank||23,789,000|
|LCA Bank Corporation||175,556,000|
|Minnesota First Credit and Savings||27,243,000|
|Optum Bank, Inc||8,737,662,000|
|Pitney Bowes Bank, Inc .||710,268,000|
|Rancho Santa Fe Thrift and Loan||74,420,000|
|Sallie Mae Bank||24,054,263,000|
|Toyota Financial Savings Bank||920,495,000|
|The Morris Plan Company of Terre Haute||75,005,000|
|UBS Bank USA||54,066,956,000|
|USAA Savings Bank||1,770,200,000|
In 1910, attorney Arthur J. Morris (1881-1973) opened the Fidelity Savings and Trust Company in Norfolk, Virginia, which made small loans to working people under a concept he called the "Morris Plan." Under this lending approach, would-be borrowers had to submit references from two people of like character and earning-power to prove the borrower's creditworthiness, and agreed to repay the loan through the purchase of Installment Thrift Certificates in weekly installments equal to the face value of the loan, less origination and investigative fees.[ dubious ] Morris Plan Banks expanded to more than 100 locations in the United States.
Norfolk is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. At the 2010 census, the population was 242,803; in 2017, the population was estimated to be 244,703 making it the second-most populous city in Virginia after neighboring Virginia Beach and the 91st largest city in the nation.
Morris Plan Banks were part of a historic banking system in the United States created to assist the middle class in obtaining loans that were often difficult to obtain at traditional banks. They were established by Arthur J. Morris (1881–1973), a lawyer in Norfolk, Virginia, who noticed the difficulty his working clients had in getting loans. The first was started in 1910 in Norfolk, and the second in Atlanta in 1911.
Morris Plan banks pioneered the use of automotive financing (through arrangements between the Morris Plan Company of America, essentially a holding company for Morris Plan banks, and the Studebaker Corporation), and, through the subsidiary Morris Plan Insurance Society, credit life insurance (which provided for the loan to be repaid in case the borrower died during the term of the loan, with any residue going to the borrower's estate).
Banking in the United States began in the late 1790s along with the country's founding and has developed into highly influential and complex system of banking and financial services. Anchored by New York City and Wall Street, it is centered on various financial services namely private banking, asset management, and deposit security.
A savings and loan association (S&L), or thrift institution, is a financial institution that specializes in accepting savings, deposits, and making mortgage and other loans. The terms "S&L" or "thrift" are mainly used in the United States; similar institutions in the United Kingdom, Ireland and some Commonwealth countries include building societies and trustee savings banks. They are often mutually held, meaning that the depositors and borrowers are members with voting rights, and have the ability to direct the financial and managerial goals of the organization like the members of a credit union or the policyholders of a mutual insurance company. While it is possible for an S&L to be a joint-stock company, and even publicly traded; in such instances it is no longer truly a mutual association, and depositors and borrowers no longer have membership rights and managerial control. By law, thrifts can have no more than 20 percent of their lending in commercial loans — their focus on mortgage and consumer loans makes them particularly vulnerable to housing downturns such as the deep one the U.S. experienced in 2007.
The savings and loan crisis of the 1980s and 1990s was the failure of 1,043 out of the 3,234 savings and loan associations in the United States from 1986 to 1995: the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation (FSLIC) closed or otherwise resolved 296 institutions from 1986 to 1989 and the Resolution Trust Corporation (RTC) closed or otherwise resolved 747 institutions from 1989 to 1995.
The Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation is a Canadian federal Crown Corporation created by Parliament in 1967 to provide deposit insurance to depositors in Canadian commercial banks and savings institutions. CDIC insures Canadians' deposits held at Canadian banks up to C$100,000 in case of a bank failure. CDIC automatically insures many types of savings against the failure of a financial institution. However, the bank must be a CDIC member and not all savings are insured. CDIC is also Canada's resolution authority for banks, federally regulated credit unions, trust and loan companies as well as associations governed by the Cooperative Credit Associations Act that take deposits.
The Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act of 1989 (FIRREA), is a United States federal law enacted in the wake of the savings and loan crisis of the 1980s.
All regulated financial institutions in the United States are required to file periodic financial and other information with their respective regulators and other parties. For banks in the U.S., one of the key reports required to be filed is the quarterly Consolidated Report of Condition and Income, generally referred to as the call report or RC report. Specifically, every National Bank, State Member Bank and insured Nonmember Bank is required by the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC) to file a call report as of the close of business on the last day of each calendar quarter, i.e. the report date. The specific reporting requirements depend upon the size of the bank and whether or not it has any foreign offices. Call reports are due no later than 30 days after the end of each calendar quarter. Revisions may be made without prejudice up to 30 days after the initial filing period. Form FFIEC 031 is used for banks with both domestic (U.S.) and foreign (non-U.S.) offices; Form FFIEC 041 is for banks with domestic (U.S.) offices only.
Bank regulation in the United States is highly fragmented compared with other G10 countries, where most countries have only one bank regulator. In the U.S., banking is regulated at both the federal and state level. Depending on the type of charter a banking organization has and on its organizational structure, it may be subject to numerous federal and state banking regulations. Apart from the bank regulatory agencies the U.S. maintains separate securities, commodities, and insurance regulatory agencies at the federal and state level, unlike Japan and the United Kingdom. Bank examiners are generally employed to supervise banks and to ensure compliance with regulations.
The New York State Banking Department was created by the New York Legislature on April 15, 1851, with a chief officer to be known as the Superintendent. The New York State Banking Department was the oldest bank regulatory agency in the United States.
The Bank of New England Corporation was a regional banking institution based in Boston, Massachusetts, which was seized by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) in 1991 as a result of heavy losses in its loan portfolio and was placed into Chapter 7 liquidation. At the time, it was the 33rd largest bank in the United States, and its federal seizure bailout was the second largest on record. At its peak, it had been the 18th largest bank and had over 470 branch offices. The liquidation company was named Recoll Management Corporation and its bankruptcy estate has continued to exist to pay out claims against the company. As of 2016, most of what was once Bank of New England is now part of Bank of America.
Enterprise Bank is a Florida financial institution headquartered in the North Palm Beach, Florida. The bank has three branches in Palm Beach County.
The Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act is a United States federal law that was enacted on July 21, 2010. The law overhauled financial regulation in the aftermath of the financial crisis of 2007–2008, and it made changes affecting all federal financial regulatory agencies and almost every part of the nation's financial services industry.
Donna Tanoue served as the 17th chairperson of the U.S. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) from May 26, 1998, until July 11, 2001. Subsequently, in April 2002, she became Vice chairperson and Managing Committee member of the Bank of Hawaii.
Aurora Bank is a federal savings bank (FSB) headquartered in Wilmington, Delaware. It is a mid-size bank that offers full-scale banking services. Aurora Bank was founded on January 1, 1921, in Wilmington, Delaware, under the name of Delaware Savings And Loan Association. On January 2, 1958, deposits made to the bank were first insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). In 1988, the bank was renamed to Delaware Savings Bank, FSB. On April 1, 2009, the bank changed its name to Aurora Bank, FSB. Aurora Bank was a subsidiary of Lehman Brothers Bancorp. In June 2012, Aurora Bank exited most of the financial services business, with accounts transferred to other companies.
IberiaBank Corporation, stylized as IBERIABANK, is an American financial holding company headquartered in Lafayette, LA and the largest bank based in Louisiana. Founded in 1887, it now has over 250 combined offices in 10 states primarily throughout the South. The company has eight locations with representatives of IBERIA Wealth Advisors in four states, and one IBERIA Capital Partners, L.L.C. office in New Orleans.
This article details the history of banking in the United States. Banking in the United States is regulated by both the federal and state governments.
Urban Partnership Bank is a U.S. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation-insured, full-service community development bank in the United States with $1.4 billion in assets. It was established August 20, 2010, when it acquired the deposits and some of the assets of ShoreBank from the FDIC, and is headquartered in Chicago, Illinois.
A bridge bank is an institution created by a national regulator or central bank to operate a failed bank until a buyer can be found for its operations.
PacWest Bancorp is a bank holding company based in Los Angeles, California, with one wholly owned banking subsidiary, Pacific Western Bank. Pacific Western Bank has 79 full-service branches in California and one branch in Durham, North Carolina. Pacific Western provides commercial banking services, including real estate, construction, and commercial loans, and deposit and treasury management services to small and medium-sized businesses. Pacific Western offers additional products and services under the brands of its business groups, CapitalSource and Square 1 Bank, now known as National Lending and Venture Banking groups, respectively. National Lending Group provides cash flow, asset-based, equipment and real estate loans and treasury management services to established middle-market businesses on a national basis. Venture Banking Group focuses on entrepreneurial businesses and their venture capital and private equity investors.