Military alliance

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European military alliances prior to World War I - Triple Entente and Triple Alliance Map Europe alliances 1914-en.svg
European military alliances prior to World War ITriple Entente and Triple Alliance
Two military alliances (NATO and Warsaw Pact) in Europe during the Cold War Cold war europe military alliances map en.png
Two military alliances (NATO and Warsaw Pact) in Europe during the Cold War

A military alliance is an international agreement concerning national security in which the contracting parties agree to mutual protection and support in case of a crisis that has not been identified in advance. [1] Military alliances differ from coalitions, which formed for a crisis that already exists. [1]

National security defense and maintenance of a state through use of all powers at the states disposal

National security is the security of a nation state, including its citizens, economy, and institutions, which is regarded as a duty of government.

Crisis Unstable or dangerous event or situation

A crisis is any event that is going to lead to an unstable and dangerous situation affecting an individual, group, community, or whole society. Crises are deemed to be negative changes in the security, economic, political, societal, or environmental affairs, especially when they occur abruptly, with little or no warning. More loosely, it is a term meaning "a testing time" or an "emergency event".

The term "coalition" is the denotation for a group formed when two or more people, factions, states, political parties, militaries etc. agree to work together temporarily in a partnership to achieve a common goal. The word coalition connotes a coming together to achieve a goal.

Contents

Military alliances can be classified into defense pacts, non-aggression pacts , end ententes. [2] Alliances may be covert (as was common from 1870 to 1916) or may be public. [3]

A defense pact is a type of treaty or military alliance in which the signatories promise to support each other militarily and to defend each other. In general, the signatories point out the threats in the treaty and concretely prepare to respond to it together.

A non-aggression pact or neutrality pact is a treaty between two or more states/countries that includes a promise by the signatories not to engage in military action against each other. Such treaties may be described by other names, such as a treaty of friendship or non-belligerency, etc.

Entente – a type of treaty or military alliance where the signatories promise to consult each other or to cooperate with each other in case of a crisis or military action. An example of an entente is Entente Cordiale between France and United Kingdom.

Characteristics

Military alliances are related to collective security systems but can differ in nature. An early 1950s memorandum from the United States Department of State explained the difference by noting that historically, alliances "were designed to advance the respective nationalistic interests of the parties, and provided for joint military action if one of the parties in pursuit of such objectives became involved in war." A collective security arrangement "is directed against no one; it is directed solely against aggression. It seeks not to influence any shifting 'balance of power' but to strengthen the 'balance of principle.'" [4]

Collective security international security philosophy that everyone is safer together; that the security of one is the concern of all

Collective security can be understood as a security arrangement, political, regional, or global, in which each state in the system accepts that the security of one is the concern of all, and therefore commits to a collective response to threats to, and breaches to peace. Collective security is more ambitious than systems of alliance security or collective defense in that it seeks to encompass the totality of states within a region or indeed globally, and to address a wide range of possible threats. While collective security is an idea with a long history, its implementation in practice has proved problematic. Several prerequisites have to be met for it to have a chance of working. It is the theory or practice of states pledging to defend one another in order to deter aggression or to exterminate transgressor if international order has been breached.

United States Department of State United States federal executive department responsible for foreign affairs

The United States Department of State (DOS), commonly referred to as the State Department, is a federal executive department responsible for carrying out U.S. foreign policy and international relations. Established in 1789 as the nation's first executive department, its duties include advising the U.S. President, administering the nation's diplomatic missions, negotiating treaties and agreements with foreign entities, and representing the U.S. at the United Nations.

The obvious motivation in states engaging in military alliances is to protect themselves against threats from other countries. However, states have also entered into alliances to improve ties with a particular nation or to manage conflict with a particular nation. [5]

The nature of alliances, including their formation and cohesiveness (or lack thereof), is a subject of much academic study past and present, with the leading scholars generally considered to be Glenn H. Snyder and Stephen Walt. [6]

Stephen Walt American political scientist

Stephen Martin Walt is an American professor of international affairs at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government. He belongs to the realist school of international relations. He made important contributions to the theory of defensive neorealism and has authored the balance of threat theory. Books he has authored include Origins of Alliances, Revolution and War, and The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy.

According to a 2019 study, the overwhelming majority of alliances from.1870 to 1916 were covert. In other time periods, covert alliances have been rare. The study argues that 1870-1916 saw an unusual amount of covert alliances because the creation of one covert alliance incentivized the creation of additional covert alliances since the creation of public alliances would signal to the covert ally that the public alliance was more valuable. [3]

European historiography

In the European historical context, a military alliance can be viewed as a league between independent states, defined by treaty, for the purpose of combined action, defensive or offensive, or both. Alliances have often been directed to specific objects carefully defined in the treaties. Thus the Triple Alliance of 1668 between Great Britain, Sweden and the Netherlands, and the Grand Alliance of 1689 between the Holy Roman Empire, Holland, England, Spain and Saxony, were both directed against the power of Louis XIV of France. The Quadruple or Grand Alliance of 1814, defined in the Treaty of Chaumont, between Great Britain, Austria, Russia and Prussia, had for its object the overthrow of Napoleon and his dynasty, and the confining of France within her traditional boundaries. The Triple Alliance of 1882 between Germany, Austria and Italy was ostensibly directed to the preservation of European peace against any possible aggressive action of France or Russia; and this led in turn, some ten years later, to the Dual Alliance between Russia and France, for mutual support in case of any hostile action of the other powers. [7]

Occasionally, however, attempts have been made to give alliances a more general character. Thus the Holy Alliance of 26 September 1815 was an attempt, inspired by the religious idealism of the Emperor Alexander I of Russia, to find in the "sacred precepts of the Gospel", [7] a common basis for a general league of the European governments, its object being, primarily, the preservation of peace. So, too, by Article VI of the Quadruple Treaty signed at Paris on 20 November 1815 – which renewed that of Chaumont and was again renewed, in 1818, at Aix-la-Chapelle – the scope of the Grand Alliance was extended to objects of common interest not specifically stated in the treaties. The article runs: "In order to consolidate the intimate tie which unites the four sovereigns for the happiness of the world, the High Contracting Powers have agreed to renew at fixed intervals, either under their own auspices or by their respective ministers, meetings consecrated to great common objects and to the examination of such measures as at each one of these epochs shall be judged most salutary for the peace and prosperity of the nations and the maintenance of the tranquillity of Europe". [7]

It was this article of the treaty of the 20 November 1815, rather than the Holy Alliance, that formed the basis of the serious effort made by the great powers, between 1815 and 1822, to govern Europe in concert. In general it proved that an alliance, to be effective, must be clearly defined as to its objects, and that in the long run the treaty in which these objects are defined must – to quote Otto von Bismarck's somewhat cynical dictum – "be reinforced by the interests" of the parties concerned. [7] Yet the "moral alliance" of Europe, as Count Karl Nesselrode called it, [7] though it failed to secure the permanent harmony of the powers, was an effective instrument for peace during the years immediately following the downfall of Napoleon; and it set the precedent for those periodical meetings of the representatives of the powers, for the discussion and settlement of questions of international importance, which, though cumbrous and inefficient for constructive work, contributed much to the preservation of the general peace during much of the nineteenth century. [7]

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 Bergsmann, Stefan (2001). "The Concept of Military Alliance" (PDF). Small States and Alliances. pp. 25–37. ISBN   978-3-7908-2492-6. ISBN   978-3-662-13000-1 (Online)
  2. Krause, Volker; Singer, J. David (2001). "Minor Powers, Alliances, And Armed Conflict: Some Preliminary Patterns" (PDF). Small States and Alliances. pp. 15–23. ISBN   978-3-7908-2492-6. ( ISBN   978-3-662-13000-1 (Online)
  3. 1 2 Kuo, Raymond (2019-05-16). "Secrecy among Friends: Covert Military Alliances and Portfolio Consistency". Journal of Conflict Resolution: 0022002719849676. doi:10.1177/0022002719849676. ISSN   0022-0027.
  4. Tucker, Robert; Hendrickson, David C. (1992). The Imperial Temptation: The New World Order and America's Purpose. Council on Foreign Relations. pp. 64–65.
  5. Weitsman. Dangerous Alliances. pp. 18–19.[ full citation needed ]
  6. Byman, Daniel (October 2006). "Remaking Alliances for the War on Terrorism" (PDF). The Journal of Strategic Studies. 29 (5): 767–811.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Phillips 1911, p. 695.

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References

Further reading