A Roman colonia (plural coloniae) was originally a Roman outpost established in conquered territory to secure it. Eventually, however, the term came to denote the highest status of a Roman city. It is also the origin of the modern term colony .
Under the Roman Republic, which had no standing army, bodies of their own citizens were planted in conquered towns as a kind of garrison. There were two types:
After 133 BC tribunes introduced reforms to support the urban poor to become farmers again in new colonies as agricultural settlements (e.g. Tarentum in 122 BC).
Under Caesar and Augustus thousands of Roman legionary veterans were granted lands in many coloniae in the empire[ citation needed ] and were responsible for the Romanization of many territories (mainly in the spread of Latin language and of Roman laws and customs).
According to Livy, Rome's first colonies were established in about 752 BC at Antemnae and Crustumerium, both in Latium.
Other early colonies were established at Signia in the 6th century BC, Velitrae and Norba in the 5th century BC, and Ostia, Antium, and Tarracina in the late 4th century. In this first period of colonization, which lasted down to the end of the Punic Wars, colonies were primarily military in purpose, being intended to defend Roman territory. There were colonies of citizens and colonies of Latins, which differed in size, constitution, and region. Colonies of citizens were typically coastal and known as coloniae maritimae. These were small (three hundred families), close to Rome, and enjoyed no civic life of their own. Sherwin-White suggested that they were similar to the Athenian cleruchy.The Latin colonies (coloniae juris latini), on the other hand, were much larger and populated by Latins, as well as by Romans who, however, did not retain Roman citizenship. The first Latin colonies were initially founded by the Latin league. During the Late Republic, prominent figures such as the tribune Gaius Gracchus proposed to settle Rome's landless citizens in colonies of recently conquered provinces. This concept, though popular and frequently reiterated by Roman contemporaries, failed to gain traction. Large scale settlement of landless Roman citizens in provinces would never really occur in the Roman Empire.
New bilateral defence contracts with Falerii, Tarquinii (Etruria) Caere (again), Pomptina and Poplilia tribus (tribes) formed in territories of Antium
New Roman municipiums made from small towns around Rome: Aricia, Lanuvium, Nomentum, Pedum, Tusculum. Latin ius contracts made with Tibur, Praeneste, Lavinium, Cora (Latium) Ius comercii contracts made with Circei, Notba, Setia, Signia, Nepi, Ardea, Gabii Ius migrationi and ius connubii Ufentina tribus established (on territories of Volscus city Antium), Privernum, Velitrae, Terracia, Fondi and Fotmiae made contract with Rome (cives sine suffragio)
Colonies were not founded on a large scale until the inception of the Principate. Augustus, who needed to settle over a hundred thousand of his veterans after the end of his civil wars, began a massive colony creation program throughout his empire. However, not all colonies were new cities. Many were created from already-occupied settlements and the process of colonization just expanded them. Some of these colonies would later grow into large cities (modern day Cologne was first founded as a Roman colony). During this time, provincial cities can gain the rank of colony, gaining certain rights and privileges. [ citation needed ]After the era of the Severan emperors the new "colonies" were only cities that were granted a status (often of tax exemption), and in most cases during the Late Imperial times there was no more settlement of retired legionaries.
Roman colonies sometimes served as a potential reserve of veterans which could be called upon during times of emergency. However, these colonies more importantly served to produce future Roman citizens and therefore recruits to the Roman army.
Roman colonies played a major role in the spread of the Latin language within the central and southern Italian peninsula during the early empire.The colonies showed surrounding native populations an example of Roman life.
|Modern name||Latin name||Modern country||Roman province||Foundation or Promotion||Founder or Promotor||additional Info|
|Arles||Colonia Iulia Paterna Arelatensis Sextanorum||France||Gallia Narbonensis||45 BC||Julius Caesar|
|Belgrade||Singidunum||Serbia||Moesia Superior||239 AD||founded by Celts c.279 BC, conquered by Romans in 15 BC|
|Carteia||Carteia||Spain||Hispania Ulterior||171 BC||Roman Senate|
|Colchester||Colonia Claudia Victricensis Camulodunum||United Kingdom||Britannia / Britannia Superior / Maxima Caesariensis||49||Claudius|
|Köln||Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium||Germany||Germania Inferior||50||Claudius|
|Jerusalem (on the site of)||Colonia Aelia Capitolina Hierosoloma||Israel and Palestine||Judaea||After Bar Kokhba's revolt||Hadrian|
|Lincoln||Lindum Colonia or Colonia Domitiana Lindensium||United Kingdom||Britannia / Britannia Inferior / Flavia Caesariensis||71||Domitian|
|Narbonne||Colonia Iulia Paterna Claudius Narbo Martius Decumanorum||France||Gallia / Gallia Narbonensis||118 BC||Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus||refounded by Caesar in 45 BC|
|Patras||Colonia Augusta Achaica Patrensis||Greece||Achaia||After the battle of Actium||Augustus|
|Şebinkarahisar||Colonia (Κολώνεια)||Turkey||Bithynia et Pontus||1st century BC||Pompey|
|Colonia Iulia Concordia Apamea||Turkey||Bithynia-Pontus||ca. 45 BC||Iulius Caesar|
|York||Eboracum||United Kingdom||Britannia / Britannia Inferior / Britannia Secunda||early 3rd century||Caracalla|
|Mérida||Colonia Emerita Augusta||Spain||Hispania / Lusitania||25 BC||Augustus||for war veterans of V Alaudae and X Gemina legions|
|Sarmizegetusa||Colonia Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa||Romania||Dacia||106-110||Trajan|
|Cluj Napoca||Napoca||Romania||Dacia||2nd half of 2nd century||Commodus|
|Drobeta-Turnu Severin||Drobeta||Romania||Dacia||198-208||Septimius Severus|
|Ljubljana||Colonia Iulia Aemona||Slovenia||Illyricum||35 BC|
|Debelt||Colonia Flavia Pancensis Deultum||Bulgaria||Thracia||After the Year of the Four Emperors||Vespasian||for veterans of VIII Augusta|
The First, Second, and Third Samnite Wars were fought between the Roman Republic and the Samnites, who lived on a stretch of the Apennine Mountains south of Rome and north of the Lucanian tribe.
Lavinium was a port city of Latium, 6 km (3.7 mi) to the south of Rome, midway between the Tiber river at Ostia and Antium. The coastline then, as now, was a long strip of beach. Lavinium was on a hill at the southernmost edge of the Silva Laurentina, a dense laurel forest, and the northernmost edge of the Pontine Marshes, a vast malarial tract of wetlands. The basis for the port, the only one between Ostia and Antium, was evidently the mouth of the Numicus river.
Colonies in antiquity were post-Iron Age city-states founded from a mother-city, not from a territory-at-large. Bonds between a colony and its metropolis remained often close, and took specific forms during the period of classical antiquity. Generally, colonies founded by the ancient Phoenicians, Carthage, Rome, Alexander the Great and his successors remained tied to their metropolis, but Greek colonies of the Archaic and Classical eras were sovereign and self-governing from their inception. While Greek colonies were often founded to solve social unrest in the mother-city, by expelling a part of the population, Hellenistic, Roman, Carthaginian, and Han Chinese colonies were used for trade, expansion and empire-building.
Lucania was a historical region of Southern Italy. It was the land of the Lucani, an Oscan people. It extended from the Tyrrhenian Sea to the Gulf of Taranto.
Antium was an ancient coastal town in Latium, south of Rome. An oppidum was founded by people of Latial culture, then it was the main stronghold of the Volsci people until it was conquered by the Romans.
The gens Artoria was a minor plebeian family at ancient Rome. Few members of this gens are mentioned in history, but a number are known from inscriptions. Under the later Empire at least some of them were of senatorial rank.
The Via Aurelia is a Roman road in Italy constructed in approximately 241 BC. The project was undertaken by Gaius Aurelius Cotta, who at that time was censor. Cotta had a history of building roads for Rome, as he had overseen the construction of a military road in Sicily connecting Agrigentum and Panormus.
Roman Italy was the homeland of the ancient Romans and of the Roman empire. According to Roman mythology, Italy was the ancestral home promised by Jupiter to Aeneas of Troy and his descendants, who were the founders of Rome. Aside from the legendary accounts, Rome was an Italic city-state that changed its form of government from Kingdom to Republic and then grew within the context of a peninsula dominated by the Gauls, Ligures, Veneti, Camunni and Histri in the North, the Etruscans, Latins, Falisci, Picentes and Umbri tribes in the Centre, and the Iapygian tribes, the Oscan tribes and Greek colonies in the South.
Latin rights were a set of legal rights that were originally granted to the Latins under Roman law in their original territory and therefore in their colonies. "Latinitas" was commonly used by Roman jurists to denote this status. With the Roman expansion in Italy, many settlements and coloniae outside of Latium had Latin rights.
Latium is the region of central western Italy in which the city of Rome was founded and grew to be the capital city of the Roman Empire.
Ius Italicum was a law in the early Roman Empire that allowed the emperors to grant cities outside Italy the legal fiction that they were on Italian soil. This meant that the city would be governed under Roman law rather than local law, would have a greater degree of autonomy in their relations with provincial governors, and that people born in the city automatically gained Roman citizenship. As Rome citizens, people were able to buy and sell property, were exempt from land tax, and the poll tax and were entitled to protection under Roman law. Ius Italicum was the highest liberty a municipality or province could obtain and was considered very favorable. Emperors, such as Augustus and Septimius Severus, made use of the law during their reign.
The military campaigns of the Samnite Wars were an important stage in Roman expansion in the Italian Peninsula.
The socii or foederati were confederates of Rome and formed one of the three legal denominations in Roman Italy (Italia) along with the Roman citizens (Cives) and the Latini. The Latini, who were simultaneously special confederates and semi-citizens, should not be equated with the homonymous Italic people of which Rome was part. This tripartite organisation lasted from the Roman expansion in Italy to the Social War, when all peninsular inhabitants were awarded Roman citizenship.
Roman colonies in Berber Africa are the cities—populated by Roman citizens—created in Berber North Africa by the Roman Empire, mainly in the period between the reigns of Augustus and Trajan. These colonies were created in the area—now called Tamazgha by the Berbers—located between Morocco and Libyan Tripolitania.
The gens Orbia was a minor plebeian family at Rome. No members of this gens are known to have held any magistracies, but many of them are known from inscriptions. The most illustrious of the family may have been the jurist Publius Orbius, a contemporary of Cicero.
The gens Petillia or Petilia was a plebeian family at ancient Rome. Members of this gens first appear in history at the beginning of the second century BC, and the first to obtain the consulship was Quintus Petillius Spurinus in 176 BC.
The gens Resia was an obscure plebeian family at ancient Rome. The Resii traced their ancestry to Fertor Resius, King of the Aequicoli, in the time of the Roman monarchy. However, few members of this gens are mentioned in history.
The gens Romania was an obscure plebeian family at ancient Rome. No members of this gens appear in history, but many are known from inscriptions.
The gens Tampia was a minor plebeian family at ancient Rome. Members of this gens are first mentioned in history during the time of Nero, but few achieved any distinction in the Roman state. The nomen Tampius is easily confused with that of Ampius. The most illustrious of the Tampii was Lucius Tampius Flavianus, who held the consulship twice during the latter half of the first century.
The gens Travia was an obscure plebeian family at ancient Rome. Few members of this gens are mentioned by Roman writers, but a number are known from inscriptions.
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Colonization in the Roman Empire