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This is a list of ancient cities, towns, villages, and fortresses in and around Thrace and Dacia. A number of these settlements were Dacian and Thracian, but some were Celtic, Greek, Roman, Paeonian, or Persian.
A number of cities in Dacia and Thrace were built on or close to the sites of preexisting Dacian or Thracian settlements. Some settlements in this list may have a double entry, such as the Paeonian Astibo and Latin Astibus. It is believed that Thracians did not build true cities even if they were named as such; the largest Thracian settlements were large villages.The only known attempt to build a polis by the Thracians was Seuthopolis., although Strabo considered the Thracian cities with "bria" ending polises. Some of the Dacian settlements and fortresses employed the traditional Murus Dacicus construction technique.
Note: Throughout these lists, an asterisk [*] indicates that the toponym is reconstructed.
Many city names were composed of an initial lexical element affixed to -dava, -daua, -deva, -deba, -daba, or -dova, which meant "city" or "town" Endings on more southern regions are exclusively -bria ("town, city"), -disza, -diza, -dizos ("fortress, walled settlement"), -para, -paron, -pera, -phara ("town, village"). Strabo translated -bria as polis, but that may not be accurate.Thracian -disza, -diza, and -dizos are derived from Proto-Indo-European *dheigh-, "to knead clay", hence to "make bricks", "build walls", "wall", "walls", and so on. These Thracian lexical items show a satemization of PIE *gh-. Cognates include Ancient Greek teichos ("wall, fort, fortified town", as in the town of Didymoteicho) and Avestan da?za ("wall").
It is suggested that the "dava" endings are from the Dacian language, while the rest from the Thracian language. However "dava" towns can be found as south as Sandanski and Plovdiv. Some "dava" toponyms contain the same linguistic features as "diza" toponyms, e.g. Pirodiza and Pirodava. The first written mention of the name "Dacians" is in Roman sources. Strabo specified that the Daci are the Getae, identified as a Thracian tribe. The Dacians, Getae and their kings were always considered as Thracians by the ancients (Dio Cassius, Trogus Pompeius, Appian, Strabo, Herodotus and Pliny the Elder) and were said to speak the same language. The Dacian language is considered a variety of the Thracian language.Such lexical differentiation -dava vs. para, would be hardly enough evidence to separate Dacian from Thracian, thus they are classified as dialects. It is also possible that '-dava' and '-bria' mean two different things in the same language, rather than meaning the same thing in two different languages. Thus bria could have been used for urbanized settlements, similar in scale and design to those of the "civilised" peoples like Greeks and Romans, whereas '-dava' could mean a settlement which is rural, being situated in the steppe-like part of the Thracian lands.
Stuart Jones noted the Dacian - sounding place - name ' Thermidava ' on the Lissus Naissus road : but see Miller col . 557, for the evidence on this. The place was most probably called ' Theranda ' and there is no evidence for any settlement there of pro-Roman Dacians now, nor is it very likely. (..) Most scholars, however, have supposed, as did Cichorius, that we are now north of the Danube, somewhere in the Banat area where the local inhabitants are frightened that they may lose their recently acquired 'liberty'.
Seuthopolis was an ancient hellenistic-type city founded by the Thracian king Seuthes III between 325–315 BC and the capital of the Odrysian kingdom.
Pistyrus or Pistyros, or Pistirus or Pistiros (Πίστιρος), or Bistirus or Bistiros (Βίστιρος), also known as Pisteira (Πίστειρα), was an ancient Greek polis on the coast of Edonis, in ancient Thrace. It was founded as a colony of Thasos and itself may have founded Pistiros in inland Thrace. The army of Xerxes I passed by Pistyrus after crossing the Nestus River. The name Pistyrus was also applied to the adjoining lake, which was described by Herodotus as 30 stadia in circumference, full of fish, and exceedingly salty.
Odomanti or Odomantes were an ancient Thracian tribe. Some regard it as Paeonian, while others claim, that the tribe was with certainty Thracian. The Odomanti are noted by Herodotus, Thucydides, Stephanus of Byzantium and Pliny the Elder.
Same was a Greek city in ancient Cephalonia.
Datus or Datos, also Datum or Daton, was an ancient Greek city located in ancient Macedonia, specifically in the region between the river Strymon and the river Nestos. It was founded by colonists from Thasos at 360 BCE. Datos was founded with the help and support of the Athenian exiled orator, Callistratus of Aphidnae. Datos was a seaport, close to Mount Pangaion with its rich gold veins and to another Thasian colony, Crenides. The two colonies provoked the Thracians but at the same time gave Phillip II of Macedon the justification for penetrating the area and founding Philippi in 356 BCE. The name was also applied to a wide region. There was some conjecture that Datus was the same as the later Neapolis, A proverb current in antiquity celebrated Datus for its "good things."
Crenides or Krenides was an ancient Greek city located in Thrace, and later in ancient Macedonia located in the region between the river Strymon and the river Nestos. It was founded by colonists from Thasos in 360 BCE. Crenides was close to Mount Pangaion with its rich gold veins and to another Thasian colony, Datos. The two colonies provoked the Thracians but at the same time gave Philip II of Macedon the justification for penetrating the area and founding Philippi in 356 BCE. Philip intervened to protect the city when it was threatened by Thracians under Kersobleptes.
Myrcinus or Myrkinos was an ancient Greek city located in Macedonian Thrace, in the region of Edonis between the Strymon and the Nestos Rivers, on the left bank of the Strymon. It was within the territory of the Edonians, a Thracian tribe, and was founded as a polis by colonists from Miletus in 497 BCE. The colonists were led by Histiaios, whom Darius had allowed to build a city in reward for his help. Its site offered great advantages to settlers, as it contained an abundant supply of timber for shipbuilding, as well as silver mines. Aristagoras retired to this place, and, soon after landing, perished before some Thracian town which he was besieging. Afterwards, it had fallen into the hands of the Edoni; but on the murder of Pittacus, chief of that people, it surrendered to Brasidas after he captured Amphipolis, Oesyme and Galepsus in 422 BCE. During the Byzantine empire it was known as Doxompos (Δοξόμπος) or Doxompus (Δοξόμπους).
Neapolis was an ancient Greek city, located in Edonis, a region of ancient Thrace and later of Macedon. The site is located near modern Kavala.
Sirra or was an ancient Greek polis located in Thrace, in the region between the river Strymon and the river Nestos. The city ethnic name was or and its territory was called. Sirra was located in the territory of the Odomantes.
Larissa was an ancient Greek city located in Thrace, located in the region between the river Nestos to the river Hebros. Larissa was located in the borderland between Elis and Achaian Dyme. It remains unlocated and unidentified.
Stryme was an ancient Greek city on the south coast of ancient Thrace, a little to the west of Mesembria, between which and Stryme flowed the small river Lissus, which the army of Xerxes I is said to have drunk dry. It was founded by colonists from Thasos; but disputes seem to have arisen respecting it between the Thasii and the people of the neighbouring city of Maroneia. In some sources, Stryme is called a Thasian polis bordering on Mesambria, but the account Herodotos provides is contradictory. Stryme was located in the Briantike, a region belonging to the Thracian Kikones.
Dicaea or Dikaia, also called Dikaiopolis was a Greek port town on the coast of ancient Thrace on Lake Bistonis, in the country of the Bistones. Stephanus of Byzantium wrote that it took its name from the Dicaeus who was son of Poseidon.
Cypsela or Kypsela, was an ancient Greek town on the river Hebrus in ancient Thrace, which was once an important place on the Via Egnatia. Antiochus besieged Cypsela and its citizens surrendered and became allies with Antiochus.
Alopeconnesus or Alopekonnesos was an ancient Greek city located on the western coast of ancient Thrace, located in the region of the Thracian Chersonesus. It was an Aeolian colony, and was believed to have derived its name from the fact that the settlers were directed by an oracle to establish the colony, where they should first meet a fox with its cub. In the time of the Macedonian ascendancy, it was allied with, and under the protection of Athens. Coinage of Alopeconnesus have survived.
Chersonesos was an ancient Greek city located in Thrace, also known as the Thracian Chersonesos. It is known for its series of tyrants in antiquity.
Madytus or Madytos was a Greek city and port of ancient Thrace, located in the region of the Thracian Chersonesos, nearly opposite to Abydos.
Tynteni, or Tyntenoi was the name of an Illyrian tribe, living in villages, or of a town named Tynte, that may be the same as Daton, a Greek colony in Thrace. The Tynteni and Tynte are only attested in coins. If an actual tribe, the Tynteni were located north of lake Ohrid. Their coins, whose minting stops in the early 5th century BC, have similarities of those of Ichnae, that was in the archaic age Paeonian but later became Greek. The coin legend is Greek: ΤΥΝΤΕΝΟΝ.
The shores of the Danube were well monitored from the Dacian fortresses Acidava, Buricodava, Dausadava (the shrine of the wolves), Diacum, Drobeta (Turnu Severin), Nentivava (Oltenia), Suvidava (Corabia), Tsirista, Tierna/Dierna (Orsova) and what is today Zimnicea. Downstream were also other fortresses: Axiopolis (Cernadova), Barbosi, Buteridava, Capidava(Topalu), Carsium(Harsova), Durostorum(Silistra), Sacidava/Sagadava (Dunareni) along with still others...[ better source needed ]
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