Adria

Last updated
Adria
Città di Adria
Casefiumeadria.JPG
Canal Bianco
Adria-Stemma.png
Coat of arms
Location of Adria
Italy provincial location map 2016.svg
Red pog.svg
Adria
Location of Adria in Italy
Italy Veneto location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Adria
Adria (Veneto)
Coordinates: 45°03′N12°03′E / 45.050°N 12.050°E / 45.050; 12.050
Country Italy
Region Veneto
Province Rovigo (RO)
Frazioni Baricetta, Bellombra, Bottrighe, Ca' Emo, Campelli, Canareggio, Canton, Canton Basso, Capitello, Case Beviacqua, Case Matte, Ca'Tron, Cavanella Po, Cavedon, Chiavica Pignatta, Corcrevà, Curicchi, Fasana Polesine, Fienile Santissimo, Forcarigoli, Isolella, Mazzorno Sinistro, Montefalche, Palazzon, Passetto, Piantamelon, Sabbioni, San Pietro Basso, Tiro A Segno, Valliera, Voltascirocco
Government
  MayorOmar Barbierato
Area
[1]
  Total113.5 km2 (43.8 sq mi)
Elevation
4 m (13 ft)
Population
 (30 April 2017) [2]
  Total19,543
  Density170/km2 (450/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Adriesi
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
45011
Dialing code 0426
Patron saintSaints Peter and Paul
Saint day29 June
Website Official website

Adria is a town and comune in the province of Rovigo in the Veneto region of northern Italy, situated between the mouths of the rivers Adige and Po. The remains of the Etruscan [3] city of Atria or Hatria are to be found below the modern city, three to four metres below the current level. Adria and Spina were the Etruscan ports and depots for Felsina (now Bologna). Adria may have given its name during an early period to the Adriatic Sea, to which it was connected by channels. [4]

Contents

History

Ancient era

The first settlements built in the area are of Venetic origin, during the twelfth to ninth centuries BC, consisting of stilt houses in the wetlands, that were then still close to the sea. At that time the main stream of the Po, the Adria channel, flowed into the sea in this area. The Villanovan culture, named for an archaeological site at the village of Villanova, near Bologna (Etruscan Felsina), flourished in this area from the tenth until as late as the sixth century BC. The foundations of classical Atria are dated from 530 to 520 BC. [5]

The Etruscans built the port and settlement of Adria after the channel gradually started to run dry. During the later period of the sixth century BC the port continued to flourish. The Etruscan-controlled area of the Po Valley was generally known as Padanian Etruria, [6] as opposed to their main concentration along the Tyrrhenian coast south of the Arno.

Greeks from Aegina [7] and later from Syracuse by Dionysius I colonised the city making it into an emporion. Greeks had been trading with the Veneti from the sixth century BC at least, [8] especially the amber, originally coming from the Baltic sea.

Mass Celtic incursions into the Po valley resulted in friction between the Gauls and Etruscans and intermarriage, attested by epigraphic inscriptions on which Etruscan and Celtic names appear together. The city was populated [9] by Etruscans, Veneti, Greeks and Celts.

Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and fleet commander, wrote about a system of channels in Atria that was, “first made by the Tuscans [i.e. Etruscans], thus discharging the flow of the river across the marshes of the Atriani called the Seven Seas, with the famous harbor of the Tuscan town of Atria which formerly gave the name of Atriatic to the sea now called the Adriatic.” Those “Seven Seas” were interlinked coastal lagoons, separated from the open sea by sand pits and barrier islands. [10] The Etruscans extended this natural inland waterway with new canals to extend the navigation possibilities of the tidal reaches of the Po all the way north to Atria. As late as the time of the emperor Vespasian, shallow draft galleys could still be rowed from Ravenna into the heart of Etruria. Under Roman occupation the town ceded importance to the former Greek colony Ravenna as the continued siltation of the Po delta carried the seafront further to the east. The sea is now about 22 kilometres (14 miles) from Adria.

The former cathedral Santa Maria Assunta della Tomba Chiesa di S. Maria Assunta (detta la Tomba), Adria.jpg
The former cathedral Santa Maria Assunta della Tomba

The first exploration of ancient Atria was carried out by Carlo Bocchi and published as Importanza di Adria la Veneta. The collections of the Bocchi family were given to the public at the beginning of the 20th century and comprise a major part of the city museum collection of antiquities.

There are several ideas concerning the etymology of the ancient toponym Adria/Atria. One theory is that it derives from the Illyrian (Venetic language) word adur “water, sea”. [11]

Medieval and modern age

At the time of the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the port of Adria had lost most of its importance. It finally declined after the total change of the local hydrography in 589, following the catastrophic flood documented by Paul the Deacon, [12] and Adria became a fief of the archdiocese of Ravenna.

After a period as an independent commune, it was a possession of the Este of Ferrara and, in the 16th century, of the Republic of Venice. At that time Adria was a small village surrounded by malaria-plagued marshes. It recovered its importance when Polesine was reclaimed in the same century.

During the Napoleonic Wars it was first under France, then under Austria, to which it was assigned in 1815 after the Congress of Vienna, as part of Lombardy-Venetia.

The New Cathedral Duomoadria.jpg
The New Cathedral

Main sights

Twin towns

Adria is twinned with the following towns:

See also

Related Research Articles

Etruscan civilization Pre-Roman civilization of ancient Italy

The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria, northern Lazio, with offshoots also to the north in the Po Valley, in the current Emilia-Romagna, south-eastern Lombardy and southern Veneto, and to the south, in some areas of Campania.

Etruria region of Central Italy

Etruria was a region of Central Italy, located in an area that covered part of what are now Tuscany, Lazio, and Umbria.

Iapydes

The Iapydes were an ancient people who dwelt north of and inland from the Liburnians, off the Adriatic coast and eastwards of the Istrian peninsula. They occupied the interior of the country between the Colapis (Kupa) and Oeneus (Una) rivers, and the Velebit mountain range which separated them from the coastal Liburnians. Their territory covered the central inlands of modern Croatia and Una River Valley in today's Bosnia and Herzegovina. Archaeological documentation confirms their presence in these countries at least from 9th century BC, and they persisted in their area longer than a millennium. The ancient written documentation on inland Iapydes is scarcer than on the adjacent coastal peoples that had more frequent maritime contacts with ancient Greeks and Romans.

Adriatic Veneti ancient people

The Veneti were an Indo-European people who inhabited northeastern Italy, in an area corresponding to the modern-day region of Veneto.

Venetic language language

Venetic is an extinct Indo-European language, usually classified into the Italic subgroup, that was spoken by the Veneti people in ancient times in the North East of Italy and part of modern Slovenia, between the Po River delta and the southern fringe of the Alps.

Spina ancient Etruscan city

Spina was an Etruscan port city, established by the end of the 6th century BCE, on the Adriatic at the ancient mouth of the Po, south of the lagoon which would become the site of Venice.

Province of Rovigo Province of Italy

The Province of Rovigo is a province in the Veneto region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Rovigo. It borders on the north with the provinces of Verona, Padua and Venice, on the south with the province of Ferrara, on the west with the province of Mantua, and on the east with the Adriatic Sea.

Roman Umbria

Roman Umbria is a modern name for one of the 11 administrative regions into which the emperor Augustus divided Italy. The main source for the regions is the Historia Naturalis of Pliny the Elder, who informs his readers he is basing the geography of Italy on the discriptio Italiae, "division of Italy," made by Augustus. The Sexta Regio is called Umbria complexa agrumque Gallicam citra Ariminium, "Umbria including the Gallic country this side of Rimini."

Villanovan culture archaeological culture

The Villanovan culture, regarded as the oldest phase of Etruscan civilization, was the earliest Iron Age culture of Central Italy and Northern Italy. It directly followed the Bronze Age Proto-Villanovan culture which branched off from the Urnfield culture of Central Europe. This gave way in the 7th century BC to an increasingly orientalizing culture influenced by Greek traders and colonists who settled in South Italy.

Caere ancient etruscan city, today Cerveteri

Caere is the Latin name given by the Romans to one of the larger cities of southern Etruria, the modern Cerveteri, approximately 50-60 kilometres north-northwest of Rome. To the Etruscans it was known as Cisra, to the Greeks as Agylla and to the Phoenicians as Kyšryʼ.

Polesine geographical object

Polesine is a geographic and historic area in the north-east of Italy whose limits varied through centuries; it had also been known as Polesine of Rovigo for some time.

The Liburnian language is an extinct language which was spoken by the ancient Liburnians, who occupied Liburnia in classical times. Classification of the Liburnian language is not clearly established; it is reckoned as an Indo-European language with a significant proportion of the Pre-Indo-European elements from the wider area of the ancient Mediterranean.

Atri, Abruzzo Comune in Abruzzo, Italy

Atri is a comune in the Province of Teramo in the Abruzzo region of Italy. Atri is the setting of the poem The Bell of Atri by American writer Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. Its name is the origin of the name of the Emperor Hadrian.

Etruscan history

Etruscan history is the written record of Etruscan civilization compiled mainly by Greek and Roman authors. Apart from their inscriptions, from which information mainly of a sociological character can be extracted, the Etruscans left no surviving history of their own, nor is there any mention in the Roman authors that any was ever written. Remnants of Etruscan writings are almost exclusively concerned with religion.

Adria was a former channel of the Po river delta, passing by the town of Adria, that ceased in the 1st century BC.

The Carni were a tribe of the Eastern Alps in classical antiquity, settling in the mountains separating Noricum and Venetia.

Este culture archaeological culture

The Este culture or Atestine culture was an Iron Age culture existing from the late Italian Bronze Age to the Roman period. It was located in the present territory of Veneto in Italy and derived from the earlier and more extensive Proto-Villanovan culture. It is also called "civilization of situlas", or paleo-venetic.

Rhaetian people historical ethnical group

The Raeti were a confederation of Alpine tribes, whose language and culture may have been related to those of Etruscans. From not later than ca. 500 BC, they inhabited the central parts of present-day Switzerland, Tyrol in Austria, the Alpine regions of northeastern Italy and Germany south of the Danube.

Greeks in pre-Roman Gaul

The Greeks in pre-Roman Gaul have a significant history of settlement, trade, cultural influence, and armed conflict in the Celtic territory of Gaul, starting from the 6th century BC during the Greek Archaic period. Following the founding of the major trading post of Massalia in 600 BC by the Phocaeans at present day Marseille, Massalians had a complex history of interaction with peoples of the region.

In the 8th century BC, the Etruscans expanded their power to Northern and Southern Italy, specifically towards Emilia and Campania, there they founded Etruscan dominions who are modernly known under the names of Padanian Etruria and Campanian Etruria. Moving from the northern city-states of the Etruscan Dodecapolis they swept into the Po valley through the Apennine passes.

References

  1. "Superficie di Comuni Province e Regioni italiane al 9 ottobre 2011". Istat. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  2. "Popolazione Residente al 1° Gennaio 2018". Istat. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  3. The Archaeology of Etruscan Society by Vedia Izzet, 2008, p. 13: “the Latin atrium is derived from the Etruscan town of Atria (modern Adria), ascribing the form to the houses of the town”.
  4. The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites quoting Strabo (5.1.8) considers that Adria derived its name from the Adriatic Sea; Hecataeus asserts that both Adria and the Adriatic sea derived their names from the Adria river.
  5. The Oxford Illustrated History of Prehistoric Europe by Barry Cunliffe, 2001, table 4.
  6. The adjective Padanian refers to the Po River; cf. Celtic *dānu ‘river’.
  7. An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation by Mogens Herman, 2004 ( ISBN   0-19-814099-1): “As a long-distance trading community, Aigina was not an active coloniser, but colonised Kydonia (no. 968) in 519, Adria (no. 75) c. 661, and Damastion in Illyria after 431 (Strabo 8.6.16).”
  8. The Ancient Mediterranean by Michael Grant, 1988, p. 171: “On the north side of the Delta, sixth century objects have been found at Adria where Greeks traded with the Eneti who inhabited the present Venezia.”
  9. A Companion to the Classical Greek World by Konrad H. Kinzl, 2007, p. 178: “Adria appears to have been a Greek (possibly Aiginetan) emporion, but it also had a substantial Etruscan population, and possibly also Venetic and Celtic elements (Fogolari and Scarfi 1970).”
  10. Two bands of sand dunes east of the city mark the former sea front in Etruscan-Greek times, and in Roman times. (Princeton Encyclopedia).
  11. Adrian Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, p. 7. ( ISBN   1-85986-323-X)
  12. Paolo Mozzi et al., "Long-term drivers and impacts of abrupt river changes in managed lowlands of the Adige river and northern Po delta (Northern Italy)", Quaternary International , October 2018.

Sources